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  • 1. Indian Railways IT Interface A Report Presented to Prof G Raghuram Prof Rekha Jain Prof Sebastian Morris In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirements of theInfrastructure Development and Financing Course On August 24, 2001 By Abhishek Kumar Amit Gadgil Ananta Satapathy Rajesh Upadhyayula Sandeep Prabhudesai Group 3 Section B
  • 2. Executive SummaryThis report focuses on various aspects of Indian Railways and InformationTechnology (IT) interface. Our project has three objectives viz. to examine theRailway and IT interface from the perspective of Railways, to identify uses of IT forimproving effectiveness and efficiency of Railways and to evaluate issues pertainingto railways developing and offering IT infrastructure for public use.We have covered in this report the history of IT interface, various developments inRailway IT interface till date. We have studied the various uses of IT in railways likePRS, IMPRESS, CONCERT, FOIS and CRIS. We have also covered the RailNet, it’sobjectives, various phases of implementation, utility of RailNet and various issues inRailNet.In the next part of the report, we have studied the RailTel, the corporation formed forimplementation of OFC network for railways. We have focused on issues like needfor Railtel, demand potential, estimated market share, investment required, debtequity options available, revenue model on the basis of one of these options, SWOTanalysis for RailTel and competitor analysis.In the final part of this report, we have looked at the Railway IT interface across theglobe that may be useful to identify the various uses of IT in Indian Railways.
  • 3. Table of ContentsObjectives Of The Project ________________________________________________ 1History Of IT Interface __________________________________________________ 1Need For IT In Railways _________________________________________________ 2Background Of IT In Railways ____________________________________________ 2Earlier Developments____________________________________________________ 3Computerized Passenger Reservation System (PRS) ___________________________ 4Freight Operations Information System (FOIS) ______________________________ 7Center for Railway Information Systems (CRIS) ______________________________ 9 Need For CRIS _____________________________________________________ 10RAILNET ____________________________________________________________ 10 Tools Provided By Railnet ____________________________________________ 11 Objectives__________________________________________________________ 11 Architecture________________________________________________________ 12 Problems With Transfer Of Messages & Files____________________________ 12 Phases Of Railnet ___________________________________________________ 12 Phase - I (Completed) _______________________________________________ 12 Phase - II (Tender to be finalized shortly) _______________________________ 13 Phase – III (Sanctioned) _____________________________________________ 14 Utility Of Railnet____________________________________________________ 15 Hardware Components (Phase-I) ______________________________________ 16 Software Components (Phase-I) _______________________________________ 17 Internet Access _____________________________________________________ 17 Strengths __________________________________________________________ 17 Limitations_________________________________________________________ 17 Remedies_________________________________________________________ 18 Future Scope ______________________________________________________ 18 Issues In Railnet ____________________________________________________ 18Introduction __________________________________________________________ 21Communication Requirements for Railways ________________________________ 21Current Status of Railways’ communication network _________________________ 22Potential _____________________________________________________________ 22Creation of Railtel _____________________________________________________ 23
  • 4. Objectives of Railtel ____________________________________________________ 23Demand Potential______________________________________________________ 23 Estimated Sector Sizes ______________________________________________ 24 Bandwidth Demand ________________________________________________ 25Technical Plan for Network Deployment ___________________________________ 25 Introduction________________________________________________________ 25 ISP/NLDO Business _________________________________________________ 26 Estimated Market Share _____________________________________________ 26Railways’ Asset Contribution ____________________________________________ 26 Asset Contribution Breakup __________________________________________ 27Investment ___________________________________________________________ 27Business Financials and Revenue Model for Railtel __________________________ 28Implementation Plan ___________________________________________________ 29Synergy with Railways __________________________________________________ 30Possible Synergies with PSUs of the Department of Telecommunication__________ 30Competitor Analysis ____________________________________________________ 30 Facilities Assessment_________________________________________________ 31 Existing OFC Infrastructure __________________________________________ 31 Planned Facilities ___________________________________________________ 31 Right of Way (RoW) _________________________________________________ 32 Main Competitors ___________________________________________________ 32 Department of Telecommunications____________________________________ 32 Power Grid Corporation of India Limited _______________________________ 33 Gas Authority of India Limited________________________________________ 36 Cellular Operators__________________________________________________ 38 Private Basic Services Operators ______________________________________ 39 Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) ________________________________ 40SWOT Analysis of RailTel_______________________________________________ 40Railway-IT Interface around the Globe ____________________________________ 42 South and East Africa________________________________________________ 42 East Japan Railway Company (JR East) ________________________________ 43 European Train Control System (ETCS) ________________________________ 48Appendix 1 ___________________________________________________________ 53Appendix 2 ___________________________________________________________ 54Appendix 3 ___________________________________________________________ 55
  • 5. Appendix 4 ___________________________________________________________ 56Bibliography __________________________________________________________ 62
  • 6. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiObjectives Of The Project ?? To examine the Railway and IT interface from the perspective of Railways ?? Identifying uses of IT for improving effectiveness and efficiency of Railways ?? To evaluate issues pertaining to railways developing and offering IT infrastructure for public useHistory Of IT Interface60’s ?? A dedicated skeletal communication network was developed by IR, as a basic requirement for train operation ?? Plan to progressively computerize railways working was accepted in principle by Management and Labor Unions70’s ?? Pay-rolls, Inventory control and Operating statistics ?? Deployment of Computers for productivity improvement through building up operational data bases80’s ?? Computerization of Passenger Reservation Arrangement ?? Developing a Freight Operations Information System ?? Replacing the existing Computers at the Zonal Railways ?? Production Units with the State-of-the-art Computer systems ?? Provision of Computers at Divisions, New Production units, Work-shops, Sheds and Depots and Training Institutes ?? Quantum improvement in the use of Computers in the offices90’s ?? Enterprise wide Computer system ?? IT Applications for Passenger Business Area -1-
  • 7. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiNeed For IT In RailwaysTransportation Industries such as Railways operate in a dynamic and constantly changingenvironment. This requires a continuous update of information about current status andlocation of these assets. The optimum utilization of material resources, which theydeploy, would require collection and collation of accurate data on their current utilizationand an inventive analysis of the information collected.Information Resource is a critical managerial tool for confronting and tackling thebusiness challenges on a real time basis. Transportation industries are also serviceindustries and they thrive and flourish on Information - rich soil that provides them thevitally needed link to their customers and other major stakeholders. Railways beingmulti-locational, multi-functional and multi-divisional organization provide an idealbackdrop for Computer Networks, which can allow sharing of resources across theCorporation and information with their customers.Railway Industry, being an age-old industry, finds many of its existing business andoperational practices inadequate for adjusting in the current fast changing businessenvironment. Unless, Railways also develop capabilities to harness information resourcesthrough the use of exploding information technology, as other industries are doing, itscontinued presence as a viable industry in future may become a question mark. On thecontrary, if the railway system can exploit Information Technology to modernize theiroperations and practices to suit the needs of their customers, they can gain tremendouscompetitive advantage in the present and future business environment.Background Of IT In RailwaysIndian Railways (IR) is the principal mode of transport in the country. IR today has62,660 route km of rail track. The total investment on IR has been Rs. 356.2 billion. Lastyear, IR moved 390.5 million tonnes of freight, generating a traffic output of 272 billiontonne kms. At the same time the system carried 4,068 million passengers generating atraffic output of 339 billion passenger kms. This output was produced with the help ofover 7,000 locomotives and 300,000 wagons. The efficiency index of Wagon utilizationmeasured in terms of net tonne kms per wagon per day stood at 1,780, which is one of the -2-
  • 8. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesaihighest in the World. IRs network has 7,050 Railway Stations and its employees numbera little over 1.6 million - making it the largest single employer in India.Over the last four and half decades, the freight transport has increased by about 5.75times and passenger output by about 4.2 times. The growth in traffic output has not beenevenly matched by the growth in inputs in the form of track and rolling stock. The highdensity has been further accentuated by the imbalance of the traffic flows. The BG routesthough forming 63.2% of the route, carry 95% of freight traffic and 89% of passengertraffic of IR. Among the BG routes, the six corridors connecting the four majormetropolises of Mumbai, Calcutta, Delhi and Chennai and the two diagonals comprising15.8% of total network carry in excess of 56% of the total freight transport output and47% of passenger traffic, thereby causing serious congestion on the golden quadrilateral.The perennial constraint of resources has adversely affected Railways developmentresulting in diversion of traffic from rail to road at an overall higher cost to the economy.Currently, Railways carry only 40% and 15% of the overall freight and passenger trafficrespectively. Rapid growth in the demand for bulk transport has compelled the railwaysto evolve operating strategies and technology for running unit trains to match thisdemand. The emphasis of the railways on running of unit trains is denying the use of costeffective rail transport to a large number of smaller volume customers and this has beenhastening the decline of market share on the part of Railways.Indian Railways have reached today a significant phase and are at a threshold of anuncertain future. IR will be required to make necessary competitive adjustments to dealwith the pressures of market forces in a liberalized economic environment, not only toremain financially viable, but to be able to satisfy the growth in demand for rail transport.As Railways stare into the dark-tunnels, the only source that can probably shed the lightto carry it - blazing into the future is the Information Technology tool, which manysuccessful organizations are using to their profit.Earlier DevelopmentsRealizing the important role that information plays in Railways operations, IR hadembarked on its Computerization Program, earlier than many other organizations in thecountry. Towards the end of 60s, two positive developments took place in Indian -3-
  • 9. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiRailways. Firstly, even though, computerization was perceived by many as a labor savingmeasure, IR could realize its potential advantage and the plan to progressivelycomputerize Railways was accepted in principle by Management and the Labor Unions.Secondly, a dedicated skeletal communication network was developed by IR, as a basicrequirement for train operation, even though the future development of the merger ofcomputers and communication to give birth to Information Technology was not actuallyvisualized at that time. After the early introduction of regular flavor computerapplications such as Pay rolls, Inventory control and Operating statistics, Railways werepoised in the mid 70s for deployment of computers for productivity improvementthrough building up operational databases. However, certain administrative issues andpolitical development came in the way of bringing about any further developments in thefield of computerization. The period between mid 70s to early 80s were however utilizedby IR to develop a blue print for further computerization. During the beginning of the80s IR decided on ?? Computerization of the Passenger Reservation Arrangement. ?? Developing a Freight Operations Information System. ?? Replacing the existing Computers at the Zonal Railways and Production Units with the State-of-the-art Computer systems enabling the organization to computerize more applications and increasing the volume of users. ?? Provision of Computers at Divisions, New Production units, Workshops, Sheds and Depots and Training Institutes. ?? Quantum improvement in the use of Computers in the offices.In the last 10 years, IR has made significant progress in Computerization. Out of thesedevelopments, we shall examine some of the systems that are currently beingused/developed on IR.Computerized Passenger Reservation System (PRS)Out of the total passengers carried by IR, inter-city passengers constitute a mere 9% ofthe total volume. But, this small proportion, out of the total, generated 176 billionpassenger-km out of a total of 341 billion passenger-km, about 52% of the total. Theyalso bring in a revenue of Rs. 42.9 billion in a total passenger revenue of Rs. 60 billion, -4-
  • 10. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesaiconstituting roughly 72% of the total. It is a matter of comfort for IR that this marketsegment is a well-patronized one and in order to meet the situation of demand overrunning supply, the customers have been provided with the facility of making theirreservation on these trains, 30 days in advance.The seats/berths reservation system on trains is a fairly complex activity, not onlybecause of volume involving more than 600,000 seats/berths reservations per day, butalso because of seven different categories of trains operating, using 72 types of coacheswith seven classes of reservation, more than 40 types of quotas and more than 80 kinds ofconcessional tickets. The method of calculation of fare is also quite complex as chargesare based on the distance, comfort level provided and the transit time. Because of thiscomplexity and sheer volume involved, IR undertook management of Reservation workthrough computers.A pilot project consisting of a few popular trains implemented at New Delhi in November1985 came out successful and was well received by the customers. By May 1987, theentire New Delhi Reservation Load was computerized. The stand-alone VAX ComputerSystems were further implemented at remaining three metropolitan cities, namely,Mumbai (June 87), Calcutta (July 87) and Chennai (October 87) and they account forover 40% of reservation volume. The last stand-alone Cyber Computer System wasimplemented at Secunderabad (July 89), which was subsequently replaced by VAXcomputer system (Jan 95).Many other stations having advance reservation arrangements were connected as remoteterminals to the existing five computer systems for accessing the entire database of thehost computer. In the computerized system, IR decided that technical and serviceconsiderations would be used to determine the host to which a station would be linked up.To improve the service levels further, by providing better access to customers, remoteterminals from the host computers are also being provided at satellite locations in theMetropolitan cities. In some major cities, satellite terminals from five host computersystems were also provided, thus allowing customers access to reservation databasesresiding there. A teleprinter interface to PRS called AUTOMEX, is also in place toenable those stations which are not connected by remote terminals, to access thereservation database. -5-
  • 11. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiThe Passenger Reservation System Software is given the name Integrated Multi-trainPassenger REServation System (IMPRESS) and consists of roughly 2,700 Sub routines.Developed through 30 man years of programming effort in the language of FORTRAN,the software functions as an integrated system of four main modules, which handle thefunctional requirements of Reservation, Enquiry, Accounting and Charting. The systemhas full scale back up and recovery facilities.The entire computerized PRS system, thus, functions as five stand-alone systems. Thestand-alone architecture does not allow reservation at a terminal from databases in twodifferent host computers. The provision of remote terminals at major stations from morethan one host computer partially takes care of this, though the customer has to stand intwo or more queues. IR now plans to inter-link the five host computers using networkingsoftware and distributed transaction processing. This will provide access to databases inall the five host computers at any terminal in the country. The entire system can thencover almost all reservation quotas on IR, with the databases distributed over fivecomputer locations, providing reservation access all over the country.As a first major step towards the goal of single image passenger reservation system, thefirst prototype of PRS Networking Software, CONCERT (COuntrywide Network ofComputerized Enhanced ReservaTion) using FORTRAN (30%) and C (70%)languages was implemented at Secunderabad in January 95. CONCERT is written,keeping in mind the Client-Server architecture of Computer System to achieve easyhardware expansionability in future. Its message routing feature for WAN (Wide AreaNetwork) implementation is achieved through RTR software and Router hardware,connected directly to an ethernet backbone. As a first phase of CONCERTimplementation, the IMPRESS software version at the two stand-alone PRS systems atSecunderabad and New Delhi has been replaced with CONCERT and work is in progressfor networking these two systems, using 64 kbps channels. The network applicationmodules, once successfully completed, are expected to get extended to PRS at Calcutta,Chennai and Mumbai. After the full-scale implementation, the requirement ofcommunication channels will come down, as there will be no need for extending circuitsfor connecting remote terminals to particular PRS location only, in view of every terminal -6-
  • 12. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesaibecoming universal. CONCERT will also add multiple lap functionality resulting inbetter customer service.Freight Operations Information System (FOIS)The market share of IR in the total freight traffic carried in the country has been decliningin the last 20 years mainly due to the inability of IR to carry all the traffic offered to it.This inability arises from the fact that the railways have been consistently facing severeshortage of Rolling Stock for carrying all traffic and serious constraints in line capacityfor moving the traffic.While considerable inputs are needed for augmenting the capacity of rolling stock as wellas line capacity, the optimum utilization of existing resources is considered moreimperative for carrying additional volume of traffic. It is of common knowledge thatrailway systems all over the world have profitably used computerization for improvingthe utilization of rolling stock assets of their systems.Realizing the significant contribution that computerization can make in improving theutilization of rolling stock assets, Indian Railways have been planning from the earlystages for the introduction of use of computers in the freight operations. In the early 70sthe advance transmission of CONSIST from marshalling yard to marshalling yard wasattempted but the inherent limitations of the hardware available at that time and the non-availability of reliable communication lines thwarted the early attempts.The administrative issues and political developments which were responsible forstagnancy in the area of computerization during late 70s also played a major part indelaying further introduction of computers in freight operations. Ultimately, IndianRailways decided in 1986 to go in for an integrated computer communication systemcalled Freight Operation Information System (FOIS) with an objective to computerize theinformation relating to all operational activities and monitor the performance of allactivity centers connected with freight traffic management.FOIS will maintain data banks of all fixed and rolling stock assets of the IR with theircharacteristic features, to help proper evaluation and optimization of their use. All thedata will be captured dynamically, as an event is happening. Such data banks will be usedto improve the quality of decision making and for producing management information -7-
  • 13. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesaireports on all aspects of freight operations, without the need to collect past data, everytime. For this, FOIS will have many sub-systems for handling individual activities. It wasanticipated that the introduction of FOIS would bring about a minimum of 10%improvement in Wagon utilization and 5% improvement in Locomotive utilization.The FOIS architecture is two tier, with a central system at Railway Board level,processing all identified core functions relating to moving assets and Zonal Systems at 5locations processing all local functions carried out at Activity Reporting Centers such asGoods Sheds and Sidings, Transhipment Points, Yards, Stations, Interchange Points,Wagon Repair Depots, Locomotive Sheds, Fuelling Points, Crew Changing Points,Carriage & Wagon Workshops, Locomotive Workshops etc. While the central computersystem is located in New Delhi, the five Zonal Computer Systems are located at NewDelhi, Mumbai, Calcutta, Chennai and Secunderabad.For implementing FOIS, after surveying the similar technologies available in worldrailways, it was decided to import software from Canadian National Railroad for the dataprocessing at the central computer. This software called TRACS (Traffic Reporting andControl System) ran on IBM compatible machines and had been implemented earlier inSouthern Pacific Railroad, Canadian National Railroad and British Rail.The Central System handles the core functions like control of wagon movement, controlof train movement, locomotive movement, scheduling and routing of traffic, emptywagon distribution, container traffic, safety management, marketing applications, totalsystem performance statistics, corporate planning etc. The Zonal Systems handledistributed field functions like yard management, local area management (inclusive ofGoods sheds, Transhipment sheds, Invoice preparation and invoicing), maintenance andrepairs of wagons and locomotives, crew management, fuel management, safetymanagement, statistical (query based, scheduled, off-line and message) reports,accounting, billing, costing and apportioning of revenue among the Zonal Railways etc.The assessment of the cost of FOIS Project has ranged from Rs.2.1 billion (1979) to Rs.5billion (1982), to Rs.17 billion (1986). The cost has since been revised down to Rs.11billion in 1988, at 1986 prices. The major reason for cost fluctuations were theuncertainty over creation of supporting communication infrastructure to cater the need of -8-
  • 14. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesaireliable and speedy computer communication across the length and breadth of IR,spanning all over India.Presently, a pilot project is under implementation on Northern Railway using Central andZonal Computer Systems installed at New Delhi. On the basis of the experience gainedfrom the field trial, FOIS network will be expanded in future. This, however, will need astrong organizational will at all levels to accept the project, quicker decision making atevery stage of project implementation and availability of adequate funds, in time.The traditional method of "Repetitive and periodic reporting" being followed at presentby Indian Railways for train operation is unable now to cope up with the ever increasingdemand of public transport coupled together with increase in speed and safety standards.To reap the benefit of explosion in IT worldwide and also to take the advantage ofliberalized policy of Government of India towards Information Technology, IndianRailways have establish a ‘Corporate Wide Information System’ (CWIS) betweenRailway Board, Zonal Railways Head Quarters, Production Units and CentralizedTraining Institutes, etc. called as ""RAILNET". It will be able to provide smooth flow ofInformation on demand for administrative purposes from the important operationallocations up to top level and vice-versa, which will help in taking quicker and betterdecisions.Center for Railway Information Systems (CRIS)In 1986, the Ministry of Railways established CRIS to be an umbrella for all computeractivities on Indian Railways. They also entrusted it with the task of design, developmentand implementation of FOIS, along with its associated communications infrastructure.The Center started functioning from July 1987. It is an autonomous organization headedby the Managing Director. CRIS is mainly a project-oriented organization engaged indevelopment of major computer systems on the Railways. CRIS has acquired specialknowledge and expertise in the field of informatics. With such a rich practicalexperience, a dedicated team of professionals and its own R&D effort, CRIS aims to be aleader in this fast developing field. -9-
  • 15. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiNeed For CRISA separate organization was considered better suited to take up all computer activities onIR mainly for the following reasons: ?? To avoid duplication of efforts by individual Railways. ?? To ensure standardization of computer hardware and software on the Railways. ?? To undertake design and development of major applications on Railways requiring higher levels of expertise, faster decision making and system wide applicability. ?? To insulate the organization from day to day working of the Railways so that its objectives are not lost sight of. ?? Need for a combined effort of Railways and Computer Specialists, considered best suited for the development of the computer applications on Railways. ?? Need for development of expertise in highly specialized fields like Operation Research, Simulation, Expert System, CAD/CAM, Process Control etc. ?? Need for greater flexibility to keep pace with the fast changing technology.RAILNETRAILNET has the potential for transfer of messages, files, e-mails between the importantlocations on Indian Railways. In addition, the internal web site in Railway Board andZonal Railways Headquarters supports codes, manual procedure orders, policy directivesand other important information for day-do-day use by various officials. Detailedestimate amounting to Rs.7.81 crore for the work of RAILNET was sanctioned inNov.’ by the Railway Board. The structure of RAILNET is as under: 98 - 10 -
  • 16. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiRAILNET will provide computer connectivity between Railway Board and ZonalRailways, Production Units, Centralized Training Institutes, RDSO, CORE,MTP/Calcutta & 46 Major Training Institutes.Tools Provided By Railnet ?? Email ?? EDI ?? WWW ?? Telnet ?? FTPObjectives ?? Eliminate the need to move paper documents between different offices ?? Change from ‘Periodic Reporting’to ‘Information on Demand’ - 11 -
  • 17. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai ?? Expedite & facilitate quick & efficient automatic status update between Railway Board & Zonal RailwaysArchitecture ?? To have internet access at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai & Kolkata. ?? Capability to monitor & control usage of RAILNET & Internet. ?? Expedite & facilitate quick & efficient automatic status updates between Railway Board Zonal Railways.Problems With Transfer Of Messages & Files ?? Manual system of transfer of messages & files are time consuming & unbelievably slow. ?? Sometime the messages are illegible (due to poor photocopy quality or poor hand writing) ?? The messages sometimes do not reach the concerned person. ?? Sender is not sure whether the message has reached the correct person.Phases Of RailnetPhase - I (Completed)This consisted of interconnecting LANS at the following locations: ?? Railway Board ?? Existing Zonal Railway Headquarters ?? Production Units ?? Clw / Chittaranjan ?? Dcw / Patiala ?? Dlw / Varanasi ?? Icf / Perambur ?? Rcf / Kapurthala ?? W & Ap/ Bangalore - 12 -
  • 18. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiThe contract for Phase-I was awarded to M/s Tata Infotech Limited. The scope of workincluded Supply,Installation,Testing and Commissioning of Servers, Routers, CentralizedSwitches, Modems etc. including Internet/Intranet software. The work has beencompleted except for NFR, DLW and DCW because of non-availability ofsite/connectivity.Phase - II (Tender to be finalized shortly)This consists of interconnecting LANS at the following locations: ?? New zones (6 nos.) ?? Rdso / Lucknow ?? Core, Allahabad ?? Mtp , Calcutta ?? Centralized training institutes ?? Rsc/ Vadodara ?? Irieen / Nasik ?? Irimee / Jamalpur ?? Iriset / Secunderabad ?? Iricen / Pune - 13 -
  • 19. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiThis phase will also consist of the following centers to facilitate interconnections: ?? Major training centres (46) ?? Zonal training centres (9) ?? Supervisor training centres(9) ?? S&T training centres (9) ?? Electrical training centres (9) ?? Civil training centres (9) ?? RPF training centre (1) ?? All divisional HQs (yet to be sanctioned)Phase – III (Sanctioned)This phase will interconnecting LANS at the following locations: ?? All Sub Division Hqs(Aen/Hq Etc.) ?? Workshops ?? Mechnical ?? Loco ?? C&W - 14 -
  • 20. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai ?? S&T ?? Engg/Bridge ?? Stores Depots ?? Major Stations (I.E. Cat ‘ stations) A’ ?? Passenger Complaint CentresUtility Of Railnet ?? Railnet users can exchange mail ?? Commercial Deptt. is extensively using Railnet for their ‘Complaint Centres’ applications ?? Railways have launched their web pages ?? Authorised users can access the internet through Railnet either in LAN or through Remote Dial-up on Rly. Telephone. ?? Defined users in the LAN can share their resources. - 15 -
  • 21. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiHardware Components (Phase-I) ?? Compaq Servers ?? CISCO Routers, Switches & Hubs ?? Structured cabling using ‘AMP Net Connect’Components o UTP-Cat 5 cabling (10 Mbps) o Maximum distance permissible 100 meters between ?? Nodes and Hubs ?? Hubs & switches ?? Switches & Server/Router - 16 -
  • 22. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiSoftware Components (Phase-I) ?? MS Windows NT Server ?? MS Windows NT Workstation 4.0 ?? Internet Information Server 3.0 ?? Front Page Express 98 ?? Lotus Nodes Clients 4.6 ?? Cisco Works with SNMPC ?? Cisco Pix Firewall ?? NMSInternet AccessInternet Access (128 Kbps) has been provided in Delhi & Mumbai, which will enable theauthorised Railnet users to ?? Exchange E-mail. The Railnet user will have the same E-Mail address for Internet also. ?? Browse the World Wide WebStrengths ?? Uses Internet Technology, hence scaleable from PC-LAN-WAN-Internet. ?? Universal browser Interface gives ‘Single’Viewing Window. ?? Freedom of Choice enables it to be implemented on dissimilar systems. ?? Saving Money. ?? Reduced Development Time. ?? Performance ?? Improved Business Processes.Limitations ?? Security, End-user Acceptance ?? Network Security - Major Concern - 17 -
  • 23. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai ?? Possible Hazards Downloading classified information Disable network Corrupt data Introduce virus etc.Remedies ?? User authentication- Password ?? Virus scanner ?? Internet access at Delhi & Mumbai provided through Firewall ?? Use of licensed and authentic softwareFuture ScopeRailnet can also be used for ?? Voice Communication ?? Video Communication ?? Video ConferencingVoice over Railnet was sucessfully demonstrated during a General Managers’ conferencein Rail Bhawan. Video conferencing over Railnet was successfully demonstrated betweenthe Minister for Railways, Chairman & members of the Railway Board and GeneralManage, Mumbai on 01.02.99Issues In Railnet ?? Accessibility of Contents of Web Pages ?? Internet users ?? Railnet users: Unrestricted; Restricted ?? Development, Design & Maintenance ?? Inhouse ?? Through External agency ?? Coordinated efforts o Similarity - 18 -
  • 24. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai o Compatibility o Compilation?? Various Applications?? Quasi Static o Codes o Manuals o Gazettes o Various Status o Seniority List?? Dynamic?? Punctuality?? Logging of Trains?? Progress of works?? Training Schedules/Nominations etc?? Work Flow?? Internet Access?? Uniform Policy?? Level of Eligibility?? Time Limit?? Security - Firewall?? Bandwidth Constraint o 128 K - Rs. 8.7 Lacs o 256 K - Rs. 11.9 Lacs o 2MB - Rs. 47.0 Lacs?? Maintenance?? Proper Strategy for O&M?? Data Links - Including timely payment of DOT leased circuits?? Man power - Redeployment and Training?? Computer Hardware?? System and Application Software?? General - 19 -
  • 25. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai?? PC’ Ethernet Card, Modem s,?? Sufficient no. of Dial-Up Ports?? Railnet Connectivity - On Demand?? Training of Maximum S&T Personnel?? Increase usage by putting more & more applications - 20 -
  • 26. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiRailtel Corporation of India LimitedIntroductionRailways have various communication needs. It is very important for railways to have areliable communication system since it is essential for efficient and safe operations oftrains. As such, formation of Broadband Telecom and Multimedia Corporation wasconsidered by Ministry of Railways. The Corporation registered as Railtel Corporation ofIndia Limited was incorporated in September 2000.Communication Requirements for RailwaysRailways have various communication requirements as follows: 1. The primary requirement is for control and block communication. Control communication is required for monitoring from central control office; the running of trains on a section of 200 to 300 Km. The central control office is connected to all the stations. Block communication is necessary for safe movement of trains from one station to the next. 2. Administrative communication requirements that include: ?? Connecting divisional headquarters with important stations ?? Connecting Zonal headquarters with the divisions ?? Connecting Railway Board with Zones ?? Emergency communication for crew of disabled train to talk to section controllers 3. Use of communication channels for data transmission for: ?? Passenger Reservation System ?? Freight Operation Information System ?? Management Information System ?? Passenger Information System ?? Railnet - 21 -
  • 27. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiThus, as can be seen from above, it is very essential for Railways to have an efficientcommunication system. Since DOT was unable to meet the stringent requirements ofRailways’ communication, Railways have started developing their own communicationnetwork.Current Status of Railways’communication networkAt present Railways have obsolete and over aged communication systems like overheadalignment, analog microwave, and underground copper cables. Now, these systems arebeing replaced by Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) and digital microwave. Further, OFCs areto be provided in lieu of overhead alignment on sections that are being electrified (asOFC is not affected by the electro – static and electro – magnetic interference caused by25 KV electrified lines).Railways are now providing for Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) transmissionequipment. This system creates a minimum bandwidth of 155 mbps whereas; railwaysare using only 2 mbps at wayside stations. Further, analog microwave links of 120channels are being replaced by digital microwave links that have 34 mbps system (480channels).Thus, it can be seen that OFC and digital microwave links have resulted in generation ofsurplus telecom capacity at railway stations as well as at major junctions. However, thisexcess capacity is being unutilized at present.PotentialRailways have uninterrupted Right of Way (ROW) along 62,800 Route Km of railwaytrack passing through 7000 stations. Further, the stations at major cities are located in thecentral business districts (CBDs). OFC is a preferred transmission media for data andvoice over long distance. Right of Way is critical for laying OFC and hence railways areideally suitable for laying of OFC for creating nationwide network. Considering thesefactors and the resource crunch that Railways is facing, it has been decided by Railwaysto use surplus telecom capacity and ROW to build nationwide OFC based broadbandtelecom and multimedia network. - 22 -
  • 28. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiCreation of RailtelRailway Budget 2000 - 2001 provided for implementation of this plan through a separateprofessionally managed corporation viz. Railtel Corporation of India Limited (RCIL).RCIL is set up as a 100% PSU and is registered with the Registrar of Companies underthe Companies Act, 1956.Objectives of RailtelFollowing are the main objectives of Railtel Corporation 1. To modernize railways train control, operational and safety systems and networks. 2. To create a nationwide broadband telecom and multimedia network to supplement national telecom infrastructure to spur growth of telecom internet and IT enabled value services in all parts of the country specially rural, remote and backward areas. 3. To generate the revenues needed for implementing Railway’ developmental s projects, safety enhancement and asset replacement programs. 4. To significantly contribute to realization of goals and objectives of National Telecom Policy, 1999.Demand PotentialNature of demand: Demand in long distance telecom market is geographically dispersed.Demand for long distance voice and data traffic is expected to grow on account of thefollowing reasons: ?? Increase in number of telephone subscribers - both fixed and mobile ?? Additional facilities like internet, WAP being provided to mobile users will lead to an increase in the demand for bandwidth ?? Opening of domestic long distance traffic for competition and reduction in long distance tariffs ?? Increase in data traffic due to rise in internet subscribers and due to value added services like video conferencing etc. - 23 -
  • 29. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiTRAI and CRIS INFAC studyCumulative annual growth rate of 11% in 5 years from 1993-98 was observed with totallong distance communication traffic estimated at Rs.12,000 Crores.As per independent rating agency CRIS INFAC: CAGR of 14% for voice traffic forDomestic Long Distance (DLD) market. Market size for voice and fax traffic is estimatedto be Rs.20,400 Crores by 2004-05. Following tables show the estimated growth invarious sectors:Estimated Sector Sizes Estimated Size (Rs. CAGR Crores)TRAI Study:Long distance voice 11% in last 5 years 12,000Communication trafficCRIS INFAC: 14% 20,400 (by 2004-05)DLD market for voice trafficISP/data services market1 67% in next 5 years 5,891 (by 2005)- Internet access market 75% with no. of Internet 5,392 users to increase from 1.7 to 18 million- Virtual Private Network 37% in next 5 years 282- Corporate leased lines 27% in next 5 years 216National inter circle long 12% 5,508 (by 2005)distance voice market1 Consultant’ estimates s - 24 -
  • 30. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiBandwidth Demand 2000 2005 2000 (Rs. 2005 (Rs. CAGR2 (Gbps) (Gbps) Crores) Crores)Total Market 59% 18 186 801 3,145ISP 116% 3 142 286 2,284NLDO 28% 4 13Basic intra circle 17% 10 23 472 680DemandCellular 52% 1 8 43 181Technical Plan for Network DeploymentIntroductionOut of the 155 MBPS bandwidth available, Railways will require 2 –8 MBPS and theremaining capacity will be utilized for providing Internet, STD/ISD services or otherpurposes at rural and remote areas.Under this plan, RCIL will initially provide bandwidth to the service providers asfollowing: ?? Phase 1: A network connecting the four metros and four other important cities, viz. Ahmedabad, Pune, Hyderabad and Bangalore will be implemented (10,020 Route Km) ?? Phase 2 – 4: 25,323 Route Km will be covered in the space of seven years3 ?? Out of the above, 4,899 Route Km OFC has been laid, 15,163 Route Km is Work In Progress2 For the period 2000 - 20053 Refer Appendix 2 - 25 -
  • 31. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiISP/NLDO Business ?? To fulfill the roll – out obligation of National Long Distance Operations (NLDO), RCIL has to establish Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) network on 38,000 Route Km – 35,000 Route Km along the railway tracks (covering 287 out of the 325 Long Distance Charging Areas (LDCAs)) and the remaining 3,000 Route Km on those Right of Way (ROW) where it is currently not available with the railways ?? Presently, RCIL plans to lay OFC along 33,000 Route Km only. The remaining LDCAs will be covered by providing wireless/leasing bandwidth ?? If the communication is extremely poor in certain sections, RCIL will provide the OFC. However, this will be provided by the corporation and the rentals will be provided by the Railways on cost plus basisEstimated Market ShareSegment Market Share Revenue (Rs. Crores)Backbone Bandwidth Sale 19% 606- ISP 20% 471- Basic/ NLDO operators 7.8% 52- Cellular Services 30% 54- Corporate Leased Line 13% 29ISP/Data Services 9.1% (by 2005) 538Long Distance Voice 9.4% (by 2005) 516ServicesInternet Access Market 7.68% 417Corporate Virtual Private 24% 67NetworkLeased Lines 25% 54Railways’Asset Contribution ?? Leasing of ROW will be done. Microwave stations, land and building use will also be leased to the corporation - 26 -
  • 32. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai ?? The valuation of this lease/transfer of assets by the Railways, the Konkan Railway Corporation and IRCON International Limited (which has OFC network along the Ahmedabad – Vadodara – Surat section) is at Rs. 606 Crores. The decision on whether this contribution by the two corporations will be a part of their equity in RCIL or it will be the Railway’ equity alone with compensation to KRCL and s IRCON is to be takenAsset Contribution Breakup Rs. (Crores)Right of Way 375Optical Fiber Cable 108Work In Progress 60Land/ Building 47Microwave Capacity and Infrastructure 16InvestmentThe total investment required for the proposed 33,000 Route Km of OFC is Rs. 3,461Crores. However, RCIL intends to adopt the Smart Build Approach wherein anothercompany will be laying the OFC along the railway track using Railway’ ROW in return sfor the dark fibers to RCIL and thus reducing the cost of building of the network. Thoughthis introduces another competitor, RCIL hoped to market its telecom products better dueto its reduced network creation cost. With this, RCIL hopes to reduced its investment toRs. 2561 Crores and the required year wise investment is as follows:Year 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007Investment 410 146 892 146 547 61 359RCIL will lay 15,000 Route Km OFC initially on its own and then employ the ‘SmartBuild’Approach. This may put in an additional expenditure of Rs. 182 Crores, whichshould be partially offset by a reduction in the cost of electronic equipment. - 27 -
  • 33. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiInitially, Railways will hold 100% equity, which will be reduced to 51% in the shortterm. As Railways are transferring their rights and assets worth Rs. 606 Crores, part ofthis value of assets will form Railway’ equity and the remaining will be debt. sFollowing are the three options of the debt equity ratio that have been considered byRailways: ? ? Option 1: Out of assets worth Rs. 606 crores transferred to Railtel, Rs. 350 Crores is kept as debt and the remaining Rs. 256 Crores is equity. Further the equity to the JV partner is issued at a premium of 1:2. Thus for issue of equity of Rs.150 Crores, Rs. 300 Crores will be the premium on equity. The requirement of bridge financing for paying back the debt to the Railways will be Rs. 350 Crores. The JV will be 62 – 38 in favor of the Railways. ? ? Option 2: Rs. 150 Crores is kept as debt and the remaining Rs. 456 Crores is equity. Conservatively estimating the JV equity to be at par at Rs. 150 Crores, the need for bridge financing will be Rs. 150 Crores. The JV will be 67 – 33 in favor of the Railways. ? ? Option 3: Entire Rs. 606 Crores is kept as equity. The bridge financing requirements will be zero no debt is being repaid to the Railways. JV partner(s) is expected to bring Rs. 150 Crores equity at par. The JV will be 67 – 33 in favor of the Railways.After due deliberation and the following considerations, option 2 is considered as the bestsuitable: 1. In the initial stages, the expectation that the JV partner will be subscribing to the equity at a premium of 1:2 may not be achievable. As such, option 1 is not achievable. 2. If the promoters have less equity, the business proposition will not be considered attractive by the lenders.Business Financials and Revenue Model for Railtel - 28 -
  • 34. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAs seen above, the Option 2 is considered as the most suitable option. As such, thefinancial statements have been developed for Railtel considering this option. Followingare the main features of the revenue model developed for Railtel4. ?? Revenues: Revenues to Railtel comprise of Wholesale Bandwidth sale revenues and Services Revenues. Wholesale Bandwidth sale revenues constitute revenues from sale of capacity for long distance voice, sale of capacity to ISPs, sale of capacity to Cellular operators and sale of capacity for corporate leased lines. Services revenues include revenues derived from services to NLDO, Corporate leased lines, Corporate VPN and revenue from retail ISP to corporates. Total Revenues for Railtel are expected to be 61.66 crores in 2001 and are expected to grow to Rs. 1660 crores in 2005 and to Rs.2372 crores in 2007. ? ? Profits: Railtel is expected to have negative EBITDA i.e. cash loss to the extent of Rs.39 crores in 2001. However, it is expected to have cash profit from 2002 onwards. EBITDA is expected to rise from Rs.298 crores in 2002 to Rs.1137 crores in 2005 and to Rs.1680 crores in 2007. Railtel is expected to suffer total loss to the extent of Rs.201 crores in 2001. It is expected to have Earnings after tax of Rs.53 crores in 2002 that are expected to increase to Rs.389 crores in 2005 and to Rs.779 crores in 2007. ? ? Net Present Value (NPV): The potential of RCIL in terms of NPV has been assessed at Rs. 2,775 Crores ? ? Return on equity: On the basis of revenue plan developed on the basis of option 2 as mentioned earlier, return on equity is expected to be 24% by Year 2005.Implementation Plan 1. The telecom assets and the ROW will be immediately transferred/leased to the Corporation 2. The Corporation will start completing the missing links for connecting the four metros viz. Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata as well as the four important cities viz. Ahmedabad, Hyderabad, Pune and Bangalore.4 For projected income statement of RailTel, refer Appendix 3 - 29 -
  • 35. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai 3. The Corporation will take IP – II Licence immediately so as to sell the surplus capacity available on the existing OFC links, which will be transferred, to the Corporation. The surplus bandwidth on the microwave links will also be leased/rented to the service providers. This will be transferred to OFC in due course of time as and when commissioning takes place. 4. The Corporation will apply for NLDO licence as soon as Phase I is completedSynergy with RailwaysRCIL will be serving the communication needs of the Railways by modernizingRailways’ communication infrastructure. The availability of bandwidth on the railwaystations will facilitate Railways in providing passenger amenities like informationsystem, reservation through Internet, Internet and STD/ISD kiosks on stations, etc.Possible Synergies with PSUs of the Department ofTelecommunicationRCIL will have the right of way for creating nationwide optical fiber cable backbone forbecoming a long distance operator. In case of a JV with Mahanagar Telephone NigamLimited or with Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited there will be synergies between theinfrastructure, technical know – how and customer base of MTNL for basic services,VSNL for internet services and OFC based backbone of RCIL. Such a venture may alsoutilize the NLDO licence available with VSNL for providing long distance services.Competitor AnalysisThe following parameters will be utilized to evaluate the competition that RCIL may facein the future. - 30 -
  • 36. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiFacilities AssessmentThe facilities for long distance communication are switches, transmission media andtransmission systems. Optical Fiber Cable (OFC) offers advantages over othertransmission media for DLD carriage. Technological developments are making itpossible to create higher capacities over a single pair of fibers, resulting in connectivityacquiring greater significance than system capacities. Further, an entity requires Rightsof Way (RoW), if it has to deploy OFC along a route. RoW is a critical asset since itentails costs and time spent on obtaining approvals from various authorities.Existing OFC InfrastructureAt present, most of the DLD infrastructure in the country is with DoT, which has76,000 Rkm of OFC in comparison to 3,000 Rkm with other agencies. The Railwayshave approximately 1,500 Rkm of OFC. Basic and cellular licensees have alsoestablished limited infrastructure in their circles, since they are allowed to carry longdistance calls of their subscribers within their service areas. Further, there are certainorganizations that use captive telecommunication networks, mainly for their internaloperational purposes. Railways, Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd. (PGCIL) andGAIL are principal among these.In comparison, the state-level infrastructure of private operators is tuned to telecomtraffic requirements. Bharti Telenet Ltd (BTL), the basic operator in Madhya Pradesh,has around 1,700 Rkm within the state.Planned FacilitiesIf plans of all the private network owners (including utilities and operators) fructify by2003, alternative OFC network in the country will be around 70,000 Rkm. Meanwhile,as per its perspective plan, DoT plans to add 1,36,000 Rkm of OFC by 2003.NTP ’ permits usage of existing backbone networks of public and private power 99transmission companies, Railways, GAIL, ONGC and others immediately for national - 31 -
  • 37. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesailong distance data communication and from January 1, 2000 for national long distancevoice communications.Right of Way (RoW)Deployment of OFC requires access to space along the routes, since it is a terrestrialmedium. OFC can be laid underground or strung along poles and either option requiresaccess to ways along routes.DoT has the RoW due to the statutory authority granted to it by the Indian Telegraph Act.There are several other organizations with transmission and distribution networks such asIndian Railways (Railways), State Electricity Boards (SEBs) and, Ministry of SurfaceTransport (MOST), which have the RoWs by virtue of their existing networks.RoW represents an important asset, which the owner could either sell for a price orleverage to enter the telecom business. MOST charges private operators for deployingtheir cables along the National Highways. With organizations such as MOST chargingRs. 50,000 per km, access to RoW offer considerable cost advantages. Power GridCorporation of India Limited (PGCIL) is entering into an arrangement with SEBs toutilise their RoW for creating telecom transmission infrastructure.A few organizations have access to RoW and therefore are better placed to buildfacilities. Also the technological developments are leading to availability of much highercapacities on a single fiber.Main CompetitorsDepartment of TelecommunicationsDoT’ long distance infrastructure is presented in the following table. s DoT Infrastructure 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 Transmission Systems Coaxial (Rkm) 28,439 29,287 30,526 30,957 30,957 - 32 -
  • 38. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai Microwave 40,347 43,730 48,697 51,753 54,597 72,592 (Rkm) UHF (Rkm) 28,716 33,808 39,177 49,301 62,670 Optical Fibre 9,960 16,891 23,333 36,639 52,439 76,261 (Rkm) Long distance 247.1 294.5 297.2 309.4 365.5 417.2 Circuits (000s)DoT has stopped using coaxial in its LD infrastructure, and only OFC and DigitalMicrowave (DMW) is being used. The standard configuration of OFC deployed by DoTis 12 and 24 fibres.As per DoT Perspective Plan, the OFC deployment in the country is envisaged to doubleover the next five years. Capacities planned in long distance infrastructure during the planperiod are indicated in the following table. Planned LD Capacities of DoT Facility 2000 2002 2005 Microwave (Rkms) 170,054 203,054 241,054 Optical Fibre (Rkm) 123,632 188,632 238,632Power Grid Corporation of India LimitedPGCIL operates over 31,000 Circuit kms of electricity transmission systems across thecountry, which offers 15,500 Rkm of RoW. Currently, the corporation does not have anyoptical fibre links, except the Itarsi- Jabalpur link. It has a low capacity (4 kHz) dedicatedPower Line Carrier Communication (PLCC) system for operational use. It also has a - 33 -
  • 39. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiVSAT based closed user group (CUG) network covering 14 sites in the northern regionalgrid for voice transmission and MIS.PGCIL is implementing a communication network to operate the proposed nation-wideSupervisory Control and Data Acqusition (SCADA) system under a Unified LoadDespatch Scheme (ULDS). The scheme has been drawn up after consolidating therequirements of all the SEBs. Around 6,700 km of optical fibre and 7,800 km of digitalmicrowave is planned for the SCADA requirements of PGCIL. The proposed networkwill utilise both PGCIL and SEBs’ RoW. PGCIL will manage the network for 15 years,during which period the SEBs will pay PGCIL a tariff for using the network. After 15years, the infrastructure will be transferred to the respective SEBs. Details of theproposed facilities along with the system and spare capacities are given in the followingtables. Planned Optical Fibre Infrastructure of PGCIL (for SCADA) Transmission Spare Capital Length No. of Spare System ExpectedRegion Capacity Cost (in (Km) fibres Fibres Capacity Date Rs. Cr.) MbpsNorth 1,830 24 18 STM 1; 60 85.62 June 2000 155 MbpsSouth 2,436 12/24 6/18 STM 1; 60 92.50 June 2000 155 MbpsNorth 895 12 6 STM 1; 60 51.91 Dec 2001East 155 MbpsEast 1,143 12/24 6/18 16*2 Mbps 10 46.17 June 2003West 383 24 18 16*2 Mbps 10 13.94 June 2003TOTAL 6,687 289 - 34 -
  • 40. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai Planned Digital Microwave Infrastructure of PGCIL (for SCADA) Transmission Spare Capital LengthRegion System Capacity Capacity Cost (Rs. Expected date (Km) Cr.)North 2,590 4*2 Mbps NIL 82.52 June 2000South 944 4*2 Mbps NIL 56.00 June 2000North East 668 4*2 Mbps 2 28.29 Dec 2001East 1,975 4*2 Mbps NIL 54.69 June 2003West 1,643 4*2 Mbps NIL 22.20 June 2003TOTAL 7,820 244The key features of the proposed plan, relevant for commercial utilisation include: ?? PGCIL is planning a mix of DMW and OFC technology in its network. DMW is being used to complement the network and not as a supplement with 8 Mbps capacity. This implies that no spare capacity will be available for commercial utilization over DMW. OFC is only being planned for short distances of 200 to 400 km and will offer spare capacity. ?? The stations and power plants are scattered over the country away from urbanized areas and potential users of the network. The proposed Railways’ network, on the other hand, passes through most of the major cities and towns making it more suitable for servicing the long distance user segment. ?? The total length of OFC network planned by PGCIL in the North and South is likely to be in place by the end of Year 2000, in north-east by 2001 and in East and West by 2003. - 35 -
  • 41. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiGas Authority of India LimitedGAIL has an existing 2,000-km HBJ pipeline from Hazira in Gujarat to Jagdishpur inUttar Pradesh (UP). This pipeline also passes through Vijaypur in Madhya Pradesh (MP)and Dadri in UP. Apart from this, GAIL is planning pipelines along the following routes: ?? Loni (Delhi) – Jamnagar via Jaipur, Ajmer ?? Mangalore – Bangalore – Mysore – Erode – Madurai ?? Hyderabad – Vijaywada – VishakhapatnamHBJ pipeline services the industrial belt in the North and hence passes through locationswhere gas-based power and fertiliser plants are located. Since these plants are normallylocated away from major population concentrations, the GAIL spare telecom capacitydoes not cover major cities except Delhi. GAIL telecom network is well suited, however,to cater to the communication needs of major industries lying en route.Digital Microwave System links the HBJ route with existing capacity of 8 Mbps that canbe enhanced to 16 Mbps. However, the existing HBJ pipeline has SDH-based OFCsystem only between Vijaypur and Delhi with a capacity of 8 Mbps, which can beenhanced to 34 Mbps. The OFC network of GAIL has 12 fibres of which six are requiredfor the SCADA communication needs of GAIL. Besides the requirement for SCADA,GAIL has voice communication channels for administrative requirements that utilise themicrowave network.GAIL’ planned gas pipeline from Jamnagar to Loni covers major towns in Rajasthan sand Gujarat. It will run parallel to the Railways route as well as the HBJ pipeline route,and will have a spare capacity of 14 STM-1 streams, much higher than the spare capacityin HBJ pipeline. Besides catering to the communication needs of the industries locatedenroute, it can carry long distance calls from major cities like Ajmer, Jaipur, Kandla andJamnagar, which are along the pipeline. The planned network will have surplus capacitythat can be leased out to other prospective users. The details of existing and plannedinfrastructure are presented in the following tables. - 36 -
  • 42. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai Existing Telecommunications Infrastructure of GAIL Spare Existing Length EnhancedSystem Description Capacity Capacity (Km) CapacityDigital Microwave System; 8 Mbps 2,000 16 Mbps 41.5 GHz band;From Hazira – DelhiOFC-based PDH Network 8 Mbps 550 34 Mbps 12From Vijaipur (MP) to Dadri(UP) near DelhiOFC-based Communication 2 Mbps 30 34 Mbps 15System Planned OFC Network of GAIL Length Equipped Enhanced SpareSystem Description (Km) Capacity Capacity CapacityOFC-based STM-16 1,280 2.5 Gbps 16 Nos. STM-1 14 STM-1Network backbone; 3 tributaries. streams;From Jamnagar (Gujarat) STM-1 1008 E1 circuits; 6 fibresto Loni (near Delhi) tributaries; 189 E1 circuits;OFC-based network 550 8 Mbps 155 Mbps; 63 E1 60 E1Vizag to Secunderabad circuitsOFC-based network 710 8 Mbps 155 Mbps; 63 E1 60 E1Mangalore to Madurai circuits - 37 -
  • 43. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiCellular OperatorsCellular operators have around 9,788 Rkm of digital microwave network. They haveindicated individual plans to lay OFC network in their service areas, which collectivelytotals 12,000 Rkm.Based on information provided by Cellular Operators Association of India (COAI), onlyRPG, Tata Cellular and Fascel have indicated 50 percent of their existing capacity asspare. Further, states like Maharashtra, Gujarat, Haryana and Kerala have two licensedoperators while others have only one. All the operators have plans for installing OFCnetworks within their circles. The planned OFC infrastructure is given in the followingtable. Planned OFC Infrastructure of Cellular Operators Proposed S. No. Circle Operator (Rkm) 1 Maharashtra BPL US West 3,000 2 Gujarat Fascel 1,500 3 Andhra Pradesh Tata Cellular 880 4 Kerala BPL US West 1,300 5 Madhya Pradesh RPG 1,000 6 Uttar Pradesh (E) Aircell Digilink 1,015 7 Haryana Aircell Digilink 385 8 Tamil Nadu BPL US West 1,600 9 Rajasthan Aircell Digilink 1,295 Total 11,975 - 38 -
  • 44. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiPrivate Basic Services OperatorsAt present, there are six licensed basic operators, of which only Bharti Telenet Ltd.(BTL) has a sizeable OFC network, with 1,717 km in the state of Madhya Pradesh. Theother licensees have not as yet deployed DLD telecommunication networks. BTL’snetwork has a spare capacity of two STM-4 streams.Planned capacity of these six operators is presented in the following table. Thesecapacities are likely to materialise within two to three years. Private Basic Services Operators’LD InfrastructureOrganization Circle Future plans Spare BandwidthReliance Telecom Ltd. Gujarat 3,300 km OFC NA backboneEssar Comvision Ltd. Punjab 3,000 km of OFC Large but unable to backbone quantifyHughes Ispat Ltd. Maharashtra Mix of OFC and 4-16 E1 channels can microwave between be spared Mumbai-Pune, Mumbai-Nasik, Pune- Kolhapur-PanjimShyam Telelink Ltd. Rajasthan 2,900 km of backbone Not CommentedTata Teleservices Ltd. Andhra Not firmed up yet Not Commented PradeshBharti Telenet Ltd. Madhya 1,700 Rkm existing 2 STM-4 streams Pradesh 1,355 Rkm under implementation - 39 -
  • 45. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiVidesh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL)The network resources of Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited (VSNL) within India includesix international gateways at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Calcutta, Jalandhar andErnakulam. These gateways are connected through systems leased from DoT. OFC Infrastructure of VSNL Sector Type Capacity Mumbai – Pune – Arvi OFC 2, 140 Mbps system; expandable New Delhi – Dehradun DMW NASWOT Analysis of RailTelStrengths: 1. RailTel’ main strength is the Right of Way that railways have. This RoW covers s a very wide area and connects all the major cities in India. As such, Railways has advantage over its competitors like PGCIL, GAIL, basic cellular services operators in terms of the coverage. 2. Railways have considerable experience in handling the communication networks since it has been handling the communication and signal equipment for internal use. 3. RailTel has been established as a separate corporation under the Companies Act. As such, it has advantage of operating as a corporation separate from Railways.Weaknesses: Though railways have the experience of handling communication network,it does not have the prior experience of commercial handling of telecommunicationsnetwork.Opportunities: RailTel has a good opportunity in terms of the projected growth in themarket. - 40 -
  • 46. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiThreats: 1. Technological obsolescence due to newer technologies evolving in OFC 2. Government Policies may not remain favorable - 41 -
  • 47. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiRailway-IT Interface around the GlobeThe study of railway-IT interface in developed and undeveloped countries has greatimplications for the Indian railway industry. The knowledge about use of informationtechnology in railway operations around the globe would help us improve our railtransportation and would enhance prompt commodity movements. Thus there is a greatneed to enhance and put into effect such information technology, adding that cooperationin unifying different national railway systems would be a valuable advance for theglobalisation and liberalization processes. Three different systems have been studied hereand they have very interesting applications that could be used in the Indian context.South and East AfricaAbout the use of information technology in railway operations in South and East Africa,the Deputy Managing Director of TRANSNET, says the national railway operator ofSouth Africa, SPOORNET, has developed a rail computer network from which all thecountries of the region were benefiting. The southern railways operate a common railsystem based on the "Cape gauge". About eleven southern and eastern African countrieswere linked and long-term strategies for those railways are in major flux, due to plans forrestructuring, commercialisation, and privatisation. The boom in mining in Tanzania andCongo, economic growth in Kenya, Uganda and Mozambique, and increased global tradethrough the Indian Ocean have resulted in large volumes of rail-friendly traffic to andfrom inland destinations where road transport was often not viable.There are rail strategies aimed at providing reliable, cost-effective means of gaining ashare of that traffic. Intermodal operation through alliances with road carriers to providedoor-to-door service is also being pursued. Of late, there has been consensus thatrailways would not survive if they continued to take for granted their previous privilegedstatus as national carriers. Diagnosis of the long-term future of the transport industryworldwide had indicated a slow but steady decline in the types of commodities, whichhad traditionally sustained railways. Effective responses to this included aggressive costreduction, extending reach to value-added services beyond the railhead, and penetration - 42 -
  • 48. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesaiof growing markets for intermodal higher-value finished goods, with alliances playing akey role.Thus was proposed the introduction of a computer-network rail tracking technologysystem, in which an expeditor could trace the destination and full information on anymerchandise until delivery. Such hour-by-hour inspection of commercial containerswould enable exporters to assure the security of their merchandise and guarantee itsprompt arrival. Likewise, the network was beneficial for goods transported by ships andtransferred to rail or road carriers.The necessity of creating intermodal systems and the cost pressure behind the trendwould require more rational rail transportation and transhipment. Intermodal systemsneed electronic media, globalisation of economic rules and information, and the removalof customs barriers. Rail transportation had been improved thanks to high technologyintroduced by such companies as Siemens and TSS. Such firms had built integratedsystems providing solutions for locomotive transport and satellite guiding systems. Newregulations by States had also promoted the creation and adoption of new technology.East Japan Railway Company (JR East)The utilization of information technology for innovations in railway operations andimprovements in customer service has been one of the main driving forces behind theestablishment of computer systems at JR East. In July 1987, under the direction of thecompanys first president, Mr. Yamashita, the "Office Automation Promotion projectwas launched and work for the establishment of a "Integrated Management InformationSystem was begun. Operation of the three main systems, "Station based Point of SalesSystem, "Expense Management System, and "Integrated Railway Operation Systemstarted in 1989 - 90.The scale of JR East computer systems has increased by leaps and bounds ever since.During the 10 years since its establishment, the company has rapidly developed computersystems for business management. With the computer system supporting theadministration of the company topping the list, computers at present are utilized invarious sections, including general affairs and accounting, business operations,transportation and facilities related areas and related businesses. The large scale of the - 43 -
  • 49. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesaicompanys overall computer system becomes apparent when expressed numerically. Thetotal system comprises 29 host computers, 16,000 terminals, approximately 70 megastepsof software, and approximately 2 terabytes of files.To give a brief overall outline of computer systems at JR East, the computers in operationat JR East can be categorized by system into the following three groups: 1. Train operation related systems: Systems in this category are employed for the daily operation of trains, and for the operation and maintenance of facilities along railway routes. In these systems the train operation transmitting operation schedules to the respective sites, as well as for the daily management of transport operations, the operation of trains, the supervision of operation staff and for other transportation service related tasks. In other words, the overall system is constructed with the railway operation schedule database at the center of all transportation-planning operations. In addition, all data pertaining to the tracks and the facilities along the railway routes, including electric power facilities, signals and communication facilities, are compiled into a database and used by maintenance personnel for management of facilities during daily inspections and repair work. A command system capable of such functions as sending out alarms during emergencies and supporting recovery work in case of accidents has also been set up, to be used by the facilities supervisory personnel who control facilities management operations from the centre. 2. Customer related systems: The second category comprises computer systems employed in areas within the railway business and related businesses, which involve dealing with customers. These systems, in which customer related information is compiled into databases, are utilized in carrying out business related operations such as the introduction and sale of travel related products and services, introduction of the various projects connected with the "View card, business credit card issued by the company, the sale of commuting tickets to business customers, and so on. - 44 -
  • 50. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai The system also makes possible the management and calculation of revenues, on a per day basis, by adding the total amount of sales proceeds from all the stations in JR East area as put together by the Station based POS (Point of Sales) System and the total amount of income from the sales of various types of reserved tickets, compiled by MARS (Multiple Access Reservation System). It also enables the enterprise to settle accounts with other companies on a daily basis and calculate the companys net earnings. It is expected that marketing tactics, using the above mentioned customer information database, will play an important role in the future, as the company pursues its various strategic business policies.3. Business operation related systems: The last of the three categories comprises systems, which support the planning of management strategies and decision-making processes, directly tied to the administration of the company. The overall system comprises a management related database containing information considered necessary for the management of the company, extracted from the two above databases. In addition to providing company executives with the information necessary to run the company, the system also provides each of the departments in the headquarters and the branch offices with the various data necessary for carrying out office business. Systems in this category include the executive data management system which stores data pertaining to executive meetings, a system for tracking expenditures by the various sections of the company, a database capable of constantly providing information in areas such as the companys current status of earnings, the number of passengers getting on and off trains, and so on. In addition, there is also an office based computer network providing offices with e-mail services, bulletin boards, as well as the means to reserve meeting rooms and carry out other daily tasks. To outline a few examples of Systems in Operation, we have the following (i) COSMOS (Computerized Safety, Maintenance and Operation Systems of Shinkansen) In this system computers are employed to assist in a series of Shinkansen related tasks, such as Shinkansen operation planning, operation, supervision, management of facilities, and control of electric power systems. - 45 -
  • 51. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai The system is used daily to ensure the safety and reliability of Shinkansen services.(ii) Green Information System The system compiles a database from information pertaining to needs and opinions expressed by customers, obtained from such sources as stations and newspapers. The information is made available at all times, through computer terminals at the company headquarters and other locations, and is utilized and reflected in improvements made to station facilities, train accommodations, and in the way the staff deal with customers, as well as in making improvements in the planning of transportation and other services and operations.(iii) Travel Operations Related System The System enables JR East to carry out its travel related business operations in the same manner as large travel agencies. The system is utilized for the registration and sale of travel related products and services, for making reservations and automatically providing related facilities with reservation information as well as for supervising the selection of products and services offered, retrieving various types of information and so on. Currently a database containing customer related information is being compiled, and the system is undergoing downsizing and other improvements, which include fitting the system with the latest model terminals.(iv) Card System The system supports operations related to "View Card, the credit card offered by JR East. It is used for issuing the cards, settling accounts, analysing the status of card related business operations and managing customer information, as well as for the retrieval of various kinds of data.(v) Facilities Management System By compiling data related to facilities along the railway into a database and enabling the use of the information during daily inspections and repair work, the system helps make facilities maintenance work more efficient.5. Future Plans for the Systems - 46 -
  • 52. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAs a first step, timed to coincide with the scheduled renovation of the system, themanagement is planning the downsizing of the hardware and restructuring of the systemsfunctions. These changes are expected to reduce system related costs and improveperformance. Next, they would like to reorient their priorities, in order to build a systemthat not only seeks to achieve reductions of labor and increase efficiency, but also canalso contribute to the strengthening of the enterprise and help the company plan businessstrategies. This would mean a shift from a criterion that stresses speed to one that stressesthe information and functional qualities of the system, one that can support the companyin its efforts to reform its operations. This would entail changing the present verticalstructure of the system, which stresses individual functions, and promoting theintegration of the systems database resources, so as to build a horizontally structured andmore integrated system, enabling the creation of strategic management policies and thecreative pursuit of business operations.One concrete step in this regard is the plan to introduce a new office computer systememploying the latest technologies in groupware, etc., to coincide with the companysmove to its new headquarters next autumn, with the aim of achieving even greaterefficiency in the way office business is carried out.Furthermore, in order to establish a new channel between them and their customers, theyare also pursuing plans to set up a customer related information database and a businessoriented system capable of employing the database to set forth more effective businessstrategies.By pursuing the reconstruction of the companys computer resources, East Japan RailwayCompany will be in a better position to realize its aim of becoming an integrated providerof services, which aim to improve the quality of life as they enter the 21st century. Theyhope that their efforts will lead to the greater satisfaction of their customers and thegreater happiness of their employees. - 47 -
  • 53. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiEuropean Train Control System (ETCS)The system, together with the European Integrated Radio Enhanced Network (EIRENE)and the European Rail Traffic management System (ERTMS) essentially deals with newstrategies for development of rail transport information technology applications.For more than five years, the European Union has been pressing forward with the projectrelating to the provision of a high-speed railway network. The major technical operatingproblem has been to overcome the present multiplicity of signalling and train controlsystems. This issue thus has a major bearing on the new directive for the interoperabilityof railway traffic. A further objective of the EU is the opening up of markets forprocurement in the public sector, which would include railway signalling. The railwaysare particularly interested in the use of modern technologies with a view to improving theproductivity, reliability and attractiveness of railway transport. This includes the use ofradio links for the continuous transmission of information between the ground and thetrain.The new interoperability directive stipulates that in future all parameters for installationsand vehicles that constitute a precondition for unrestricted movement within the networksare to be technically harmonized. It further determines future acceptance procedures forthe different components of a railway system together with test methods to establish theability to operate any critical parts of the systems. These new regulations pave the wayfor the opening up of procurement markets: Approval certificates once granted in aEuropean country have to be recognized by all the remaining member states.The new directive is accompanied by the Technical Specifications for Interoperability(TSI) and general European specifications and standards. The elaboration of a TSI for theareas infrastructure, energy, signalling/train control, rolling stock and maintenance is infull progress. There is a draft document available on signalling and train control, whichstipulates that infrastructure systems used to date, can continue to be used by newvehicles. However, for future renewal measures or new network extensions, it will beobligatory to apply new technologies. - 48 -
  • 54. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiWith regards to the specification work for ETCS, a new train control system, a vastvolume of work on the first phase of the ETCS specifications was completed by the endof 1998. The UIC financed most of the project through its European member railwaysand had the complex undertaking supervised by a select committee. In the course of theproject duration of more than five years, the EU Commission developed an increasinginterest in the resulting comprehensive set of specifications and secured its own rights ofuse by contributing financially. Today the following specifications are available: ? ? Functional Requirements Specification (FRS) with summary; ? ? System Requirements Specification (SRS) with summary; ? ? Sub-System Requirements Specification (SSRS) for Eurobalise, ETCS radio interface and ETCS CAB; ? ? Requirements for Safety, Environment, Reliability, etc.Particular attention was given to the work on displays and operating modes. A computer-controlled simulator is available for demonstrations and modelling of the numerousfunctions. The clarifications of the railway development working party have shown notonly that ETCS is useful and necessary for high speeds, but that within the framework ofa standard system structure for train control with standard components it can also caterfor the needs of the national networks including regional lines carrying little traffic. Asregards the ETCS concept the following rough distinction may be made between threelevels. ? ? Level 1 is a train protection system for use in combination with conventional external signals. It serves essentially to improve safety and may also constitute a prerequisite for the single-manning of cabs ? ? Level 2 is a train control system which may replace external signals and which is therefore suitable for high - speed traffic. As far as the technical aspect is concerned the ETCS fixed equipment in this form is superimposed upon conventional signal box equipment ? ? Level 3 differs from level 2 in that the function of train location and train integrity detection is effected using on - board equipment, which will lead to a significant simplification of the current fixed equipment - 49 -
  • 55. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiBetween these levels there is a certain degree of inter-operability in that a vehicle fittedwith level 3 equipment is capable of operating on networks equipped with level 2 andlevel 1 fixed equipment, and a vehicle with level 2 equipment is capable of operating onlevel 1 networks. The integration of ETCS into existing structures is easiest and fastestwith level 1. Conversely, level 3 will entail major design modifications to the associatedsystems, particularly as far as the fixed equipment is concerned.From a technical point of view, there are three basic requirements: ? ? Cost - effective application of ETCS to all future railway lines and stations (three levels of application); ? ? Flexible use of balises, loops and radio for data transmission between train and ground; ? ? The possibility of operating on installations with existing infrastructure systems make the ETCS system highly complexWith regard to interoperability, it is necessary not only to specify the functions of ETCS,but also a number of further aspects in a uniform manner: ? ? The definition of various operating modes; ? ? The ETCS language; ? ? Procedures in connection with data transmission over various transmission systems; ? ? The functional modularity of the system; ? ? Administrative functions for data processing.At present there is no other specification in existence anywhere that deals so extensivelyand in such depth with the subject of system integration. As far as the testing of prototypeEurobalises and development of ETCS loops is concerned, the success of Europeancooperation has been most obvious to date in furnishing EUROBALISES. In toughnegotiations, all those involved managed to agree on the concept of what is known as amagnetic balise with the following features: ? ? 27 MHz for energizing the balises; ? ? 4 MHz carrier frequency for the ground - train link; ? ? 27 MHz carrier frequency for the link with the ground; - 50 -
  • 56. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai ? ? 565 Kbytes/sec data transmission (in both directions);The companies produced details specifications accordingly. Four companies replied to acall for tenders for the supply of prototypes launched last year. They provided a variety ofproducts, which could be tested for interoperability in a laboratory and for reliability on atest track. For the first time in railway history, it is now possible to buy interoperablebalise products from at least 4 different suppliers.About the issue of specification work for a new digital train radio system EIRENE(European Integrated Radio Enhanced Network), the train radio systems based on astandard defined 25 years ago were no longer capable of meeting future requirements. In1992, therefore, the UIC embarked on feasibility studies for a future system. In 1993 theytook the fundamental decision in favour of using the GSM Standard prepared by ETSI(GSM = Global System for Mobile Communications), which has in the meantime beenincreasingly used on public networks.It may be assumed from this that in future both service and passenger-orientedcommunication requirements in the speech and data traffic area will be effected using thesame radio system; an important application will be for ETCS. Studies have shown thatin certain respects the GSM Standard needs to be adapted to specific railwayrequirements (e.g. Operating at 500 km/h, group calls, short build-up times forconnections). It was arranged for this work to be undertaken at ETSI and it was to becompleted by the end of 1995. In tough negotiations with the frequency - allocatingauthority CEPT, a satisfactory solution convening the allocation of a dedicated frequencyrange for the railways in the 900 MHz band also emerged.The ERTMS Project, which is supported financially by the EU, is to test the applicabilityof ETCS and EIRENE on the three railways that already use cab-signalling systems forhigh-speed lines. These are DB AG (Germany), SNCF (France) and FS SpA (Italy). Theinteraction of ETCS with such systems that are intended to remain in use for many yearsto come represents a major challenge and is to be tested on the basis of direct cooperationbetween the specialists from the respective railways. A joint project management teamhas been created to this end in the form of a European economic interest group, otherwiseknown as the ERTMS Users Group. This team of about fifteen people has meanwhilestarted work in a Brussels office. - 51 -
  • 57. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiA further important participant in the overall project is the MORANE consortium, whichaims to furnish a new digital radio system based on the EIRENE specification. Alsoinvolved in the project are RENFE, the Spanish railways, together with the state-runinfrastructure company CEDEX, since the aim is to test the components of the futureERTM/ETCS on-board equipment on the existing high-speed line between Madrid andSeville. The EU Commission has these activities embedded in a rigidly structured project.A comprehensive master plan was established to this end together with a timescale tocover the principal activities. With an estimated overall cost of approx. 430 million ECU,this project has become the biggest rail transport project sponsored by the EU. At themoment, the three railway companies involved launched invitations to tender by meansof which the different companies can tender for the various sub-projects. Projectcompletion with the end of testing and opening of normal services on the pilot lines wasplanned by the end of 1999.Although the requirements of high-speed and interoperability with existing sophisticatedcab signalling systems may be specific to Western Europe, the ETCS and EIRENEspecifications could be of great interest for Asian and Middle - Eastern Railways. In fact,the target systems to be developed will meet the aim of cost-effectiveness for all kinds ofapplication. UIC and ERRI are prepared to give further information and consultancy tointerested Railways in and outside Europe. - 52 -
  • 58. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAppendix 1The following are the present policies of the Government of India regarding the types oflicenses that can be acquired for selling bandwidth 1. Infrastructure Provider – I (IP – I) Licence. Enables the licensee to sell ROW and dark fibers. Does not require any licence fee or Bank Guarantee 2. Infrastructure Provider – II (IP – II) Licence. Enables the licensee to sell bandwidth to different service providers. The licensee has to share a maximum of 15% revenue with the Government, as well as a Bank Guarantee of Rs. 100 Crores 3. Internet Service Provider (ISP) License. Enables the licensee to provide internet services and also create bandwidth for their own use. There are three categories, viz. ‘ , ‘ and ‘ . This license gives the right to the licensee to build its own A’ B’ C’ network. The Bank Guarantee varies for different categories. 4. National Long Distance Operator (NLDO) License. Enables the licensee to sell bandwidth to the basic service providers and cellular service providers for inter – circle voice traffic. An NLDO licensee can also sell bandwidth to the ISPs. This license overrides the license for IP – II. The licensee has to pay a license fees of Rs. 100 Crores and a Bank Guarantee of Rs. 400 Crores in four equal installments on the completion of the network roll – out obligation. As per this obligation, the operator has to cover all the 325 LDCAs at the end of 5 – 7 years when the final installment of the Bank Guarantee will be released. - 53 -
  • 59. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAppendix 2Minimum Network Roll Out Obligations for National Long Distance Operators forEstablishing Point of Presence Cumulative Percentage of Time Cumulative Percentage of National Coverage at the LDCAPhase Period Coverage of Uneconomic level where POP has to be (Years) and Remote Areas established1 2 15 22 3 40 43 4 80 74 5-7 100 100 - 54 -
  • 60. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAppendix 3Projected Income Statement for Railtel 2001 E 2002E 2003E 2004 E 2005E 2006 E 2007ERevenues (Rs. Crores)Wholesale Band Width RevenuesSale of capacity for long 2.49 6.3 17.23 32.02 51.64 57.07 62.23distancevoiceSale of capacity to ISPs 14.68 183.69 246.28 349.93 471.7 539.11 645.09Sale of capacity to cellular 6.23 18.98 34.95 39.6 54.36 81.75 122.67operatorsSale of capacity to corporate 4.31 21.81 26.04 29.19 28.55 28.44 27.95leased linesWholesale revenues 27.71 230.78 324.5 450.74 606.25 706.37 857.94Services RevenuesNLDO 3.96 94.27 273.64 362.72 516.37 579.12 649.5Corporate leased lines 4.6 28.9 40.13 47.48 53.97 59.7 66.05Corporate VPN 3.21 23.79 38.67 51.58 67.08 71.08 74.78Retails ISP to corporates 22.19 100.15 188.46 256.86 416.75 558.51 723.76Services Revenues 33.96 247.11 540.9 718.64 1054.17 1268.41 1514.09Total Revenues 61.67 477.89 865.4 1169.38 1660.42 1974.78 2372.03CostsOperating costs 70.64 34.02 79.04 89.84 133.93 134.21 155.03Selling and General 11.59 55.74 71.68 81.5 97.94 111.89 133.63AdministrationRevenue sharing costs 9.25 71.68 129.81 175.41 249.06 296.22 355.81Retail operating costs 8.84 18.38 33.62 38.77 42.09 43.55 47.24Total costs 100.32 179.82 314.15 385.52 523.02 585.87 691.71EBITDA -38.65 298.07 551.25 783.86 1137.4 1388.91 1680.32Depreciation and amortization 127.6 154.95 330.18 358.04 463.93 423.91 469.29EBIT -166.25 143.12 221.07 425.82 673.47 965 1211.03Interest 34.84 90.44 107.75 103.55 74.15 38.13 12.6EBT -201.09 52.68 113.32 322.27 599.32 926.87 1198.43*Tax @ 35% 0 0 0 100.56 209.81 324.44 419.51EAT -201.09 52.68 113.32 221.71 389.51 602.43 778.92Dividend 125 225 495 675Retained Earnings -201.09 52.68 113.32 96.71 164.51 107.43 103.92* Income tax in year 2002 and 2003 is expected to be nil because of the adjustment of accumulatedlosses for 2001against the income for these two years.Source: Project Report of Railtel Corporation of India Limited by Ministry of Railways - 55 -
  • 61. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAppendix 4 Existing and planned OFC capacities No. of SpareRoute Status State Owner Rkm Fibres FibresItarsi – Bhusawal E MP-Mah IR 301 8 2Itarsi-Nagpur E MP-Mah IR 298 8 2Manmad – Bhusawal E Mah IR 184 24 18Delhi Area E Delhi IR 80 8 2Ambala – Saharanpur E Punjab-UP IR 81 18 12Tori – Gumia E WB-Bih. IR 120 8 2Jhajha – Madhupur E WB IR 90 18 12Durg – Nagpur E MP-Mah IR 265 8 2Tata – Chakradharpur E Bih. IR 60 8 2Churchgate-Virar E Mah IR 63 10 4Itarsi-Jabalpur E MP PGCILVijaypur-Dadri E MP-UP GAIL 550 34 12*2 Mbps MbpsAgra – Bhopal E UP-MP DoT 7 E1Agra – Jaipur E UP-Raj. DoT 12 E1Agra – Mumbai E UP-Mah. DoT 2 E1 - 56 -
  • 62. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAgra – Varanasi E UP DoT 1 E1 No. of SpareRoute Status State Owner Rkm Fibres FibresAmbala – Chandigarh E Haryana DoT 9 E1Ambala – Delhi E Har.-Delhi DoT 14 E1Chandigarh – Jallandhar E Punjab DoT 1 E1Chandigarh – Shimla E Pun.-HP DoT 24 E1Delhi – Ahmedabad E Delhi-Guj. DoT 5 E1Delhi – Bhopal E Delhi-MP DoT 26 E1Delhi – Calcutta E Delhi-WB DoT 4 E1Delhi – Ghaziabad E Delhi-UP DoT 67 E1Delhi – Hyderabad E Delhi-AP DoT 11 E1Delhi – Mumbai E Delhi- DoT 43 E1 Mah.Jaipur – Ahmedabad E Raj.-Guj. DoT 16 E1Jaipur – Indore E Raj.-MP DoT 16 e1Jaipur – Mumbai E Raj.-Mah. DoT 16 E1Kanpur – Lucknow E UP DoT 5 E1Lucknow – Patna E Up-Bih. DoT 1 E1Varanasi – Calcutta E UP-WB DoT 6 E1 - 57 -
  • 63. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiVaranasi – Lucknow E UP DoT 2 E1 No. of SpareRoute Status State Owner Rkm Fibres FibresVaranasi – Patna E UP-Bih. DoT 2 E1Loni- Jaipur- Ajmer – 2001 Delhi-Raj- GAIL 1,280 12 6Jamnagar Guj STM 1 60 E1Mysore – Erode- 2001 Kar- TN GAIL 12 6Dindugal- Madurai STM 1 60 E1Vizag – Vijaywada- 2001 AP GAIL 550 12 6Secunderabad STM 1 60 E1Mangalore – Mysore 2001 Karnatka GAIL 550 12 6 STM 1 60 E1Mysore – Bangalore 2001 Karnatka GAIL 550 12 6 STM 1 60 E1Mangalore – Mysore 2001 Karnatka GAIL 550 12 6 STM 1 60 E1Jutogh (Shimla) – 2000 HP-Punjab PGCIL 106ChandigarhChandigarh – Panipat 2000 Punjab- PGCIL 167 HarPanipat – Delhi via 2000 Haryana – PGCIL 215Dadri, Ballabhgarh DelhiBallabhgarh – Jaipur 2000 Har – Raj PGCIL 279 - 58 -
  • 64. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiAzamgarh – Varanasi 2000 UP PGCIL 103 No. of SpareRoute Status State Owner Rkm Fibres FibresKanpur – Unnao 2000 UP PGCIL 55Delhi – Moradabad 2000 Delhi – UP PGCIL 269Gladni (Jammu) – Moga 2000 J&K-Pun PGCILDadri-Meerut 2000 UP PGCILHamirpur – Jutogh 2000 HP PGCIL 103(Shimla)Neyveli – Taramani 2000 TN PGCIL 198(Near Madras)Kanoor – Kozhikode 2000 Kerala PGCIL 111Kozhikode – Chalakudi 2000 Kerala PGCIL 153via ThrichurVijaywada – 2000 AP PGCILVishakhapatnamTrichy – Erode 2000 TN PGCILErode – Salem 2000 TN PGCILSalem – Gooty 2000 TN-AP PGCILGooty – Hyderabad 2000 AP PGCILHyderabad – Vijaywada 2000 AP PGCILThrichur North – 2000 Ker-TN PGCIL - 59 -
  • 65. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiUdumalpet No. of SpareRoute Status State Owner Rkm Fibres FibresGooty – Chinakampally 2000 AP-TN PGCIL(Cuddapah)Chinakampally 2000 AP PGCIL(Cuddapah) – ReniguntaAll important routes-MP 2000 MP BhartiMumbai – Kalyan WIP Mah. IR 60 24Itarsi – Bina P MP IR 230 24Jabalpur – Itarsi P MP IR 245 24Bina – Jhansi P MP-UP IR 152 24Jhansi – Agra P UP IR 215 24Mughalsarai – Allahabad P UP IR 164 24Manauri – Panki P UP IR 192 24Delhi – Ghaziabad – P Delhi-UP IR 424 24PankiLumding – Furketting P East IR 139 24Sealdah North P WB IR 205 24Tori – Barwadih P East IR 71 24Manmad – Igatpuri WIP Mah. IR 124 24 - 60 -
  • 66. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R PrabhudesaiChennai – Villupuram WIP TN IR 163 24 No. of SpareRoute Status State Owner Rkm Fibres FibresVillupuram – P TN IR 180 24TiruchirapalliBangalore – Guntakal P Kar. IR 360 24Renigunta – Guntakal – WIP AP-Kar. IR 408 24HospetHospet – Hubli P Kar. IR 144 24Howrah – Kharagpur- P WB IR 130 24Kharagpur – Tatanagar P Bihar IR 134 24Chakradharpur – P Bihar IR 203 24JharsugudaRaipur – Raigada P Kar. IR 342 24Chandil – Gamharia P IR 25 24Ahmedabad – Vatva- WIP Gujarat IR 238 24Gandhigram - 61 -
  • 67. Indian Railways IT Interface Abhishek Kumar, Amit A Gadgil, Ananta N Satapathy, Rajesh U, Sandeep R Prabhudesai BibliographyArticles “IT Applications On Indian Rail Network”, M.R. Ramakrishnan & Ajaykumar A. Bhatt “Perspectives in improving the management of railways”, J.T. Verghese, Eurointas Pvt. Ltd.Reports Project Report of Railtel Corporation of India Limited by Ministry of RailwaysWebsites ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? - 62 -