Marine resource of india

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Marine resource of india

  1. 1. Marine fisheriesMarine fisheries resource of Indiaresource of India Sameer G ChebbiSameer G Chebbi Dept. of ZoologyDept. of Zoology Industrial Fish and FisheriesIndustrial Fish and Fisheries Karnatak Science College, DharwadKarnatak Science College, Dharwad
  2. 2. With the long coast line along theWith the long coast line along the mainlandmainland Itself besides the rich areas surroundingItself besides the rich areas surrounding the Andaman Nicobar Islands and thethe Andaman Nicobar Islands and the Laccadive islands.Laccadive islands. with the fairly wide continental shelf andwith the fairly wide continental shelf and slope and with the expansive high seasslope and with the expansive high seas extending beyond, India has rich marineextending beyond, India has rich marine fishery resources, chiefly constituted byfishery resources, chiefly constituted by varied species of fishes and crustaceans.varied species of fishes and crustaceans.
  3. 3. There are also ample ancillary resourcesThere are also ample ancillary resources like the utilizable molluscs, corals,like the utilizable molluscs, corals, sponges, echinoderms and seaweeds.sponges, echinoderms and seaweeds. The marine fish production of India isThe marine fish production of India is about 40 per cent of the total of slightlyabout 40 per cent of the total of slightly over 4 million metric tons, coming from allover 4 million metric tons, coming from all the countries bordering the Indian Ocean.the countries bordering the Indian Ocean. Marine Fisheries resources of our country,Marine Fisheries resources of our country, being dynamic and self renewing inbeing dynamic and self renewing in nature, are subject to fluctuations due tonature, are subject to fluctuations due to fishery-dependent and fishery-fishery-dependent and fishery- independent factors.independent factors.
  4. 4. Vital information on the potentialVital information on the potential resources of the country is an essentialresources of the country is an essential prerequisite for proper planning ofprerequisite for proper planning of development strategies with regard to thedevelopment strategies with regard to the marine fisheries sector.marine fisheries sector. With the declaration of the ExclusiveWith the declaration of the Exclusive Economic Zone, a vast area of 2.02 millionEconomic Zone, a vast area of 2.02 million sq km, having rich marine fisherysq km, having rich marine fishery resources, is thrown open for rationalresources, is thrown open for rational exploitation, offering scope for increasingexploitation, offering scope for increasing production.production.
  5. 5.  ResourcesResources    Coastline8129 kms Coastline8129 kms   Exclusive Economic Zone2.02 million sq. km Exclusive Economic Zone2.02 million sq. km   Continental Shelf0.506 million sq. km Continental Shelf0.506 million sq. km   Rivers and Canals1,97,024 km Rivers and Canals1,97,024 km   Reservoirs3.15 million ha Reservoirs3.15 million ha   Ponds and Tanks2.35 million haPonds and Tanks2.35 million ha  lakes and derelict waters1.3 million ha lakes and derelict waters1.3 million ha   Brackishwaters1.24 million ha Estuaries0.29Brackishwaters1.24 million ha Estuaries0.29 million hamillion ha
  6. 6. Some FactsSome Facts   Present fish Production6.4 mmtPresent fish Production6.4 mmt   Inland3.4 mmt Inland3.4 mmt  Marine3.0 mmt Marine3.0 mmt  Potential fish production8.4 mmt Potential fish production8.4 mmt  Fish seed production21,000 million fry Fish seed production21,000 million fry  Hatcheries1,070 Hatcheries1,070 
  7. 7. Indian FisheriesIndian Fisheries    Global position 3rd in FisheriesGlobal position 3rd in Fisheries  2nd in Aquaculture 2nd in Aquaculture  Contribution of Fisheries to GDPContribution of Fisheries to GDP (%)1.07 Contribution to Agril. GDP(%)1.07 Contribution to Agril. GDP (%)5.30 (%)5.30  Per capita fish availability (Kg.)9.0 Per capita fish availability (Kg.)9.0  Annual Export earnings (Rs. InAnnual Export earnings (Rs. In Crore)7,200 Crore)7,200  Employment in sector (million)14.0Employment in sector (million)14.0
  8. 8. There are a total of about 21,585 existingThere are a total of about 21,585 existing species of fishes, out of which 41.2%species of fishes, out of which 41.2% inhabit the freshwater and the remaininginhabit the freshwater and the remaining are marine water.are marine water. The fisheries sector plays an importantThe fisheries sector plays an important role in Indian economy contributing aboutrole in Indian economy contributing about 1% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP).1% to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). The marine fish production in the countryThe marine fish production in the country gradually increased from mere 5.8 lakh t ingradually increased from mere 5.8 lakh t in 1950 to 3.32 million t in 2010, registering1950 to 3.32 million t in 2010, registering about six fold increase.about six fold increase.
  9. 9. Export earnings from marine sectorExport earnings from marine sector increased from Rs. 3.92 crores in 1961-62increased from Rs. 3.92 crores in 1961-62 to Rs. 12,901.47 crores in 2010-11to Rs. 12,901.47 crores in 2010-11 registering 11.8% growth during 2009-10.registering 11.8% growth during 2009-10. The gross revenue from the marine fishThe gross revenue from the marine fish landings during 2009-10 in terms oflandings during 2009-10 in terms of landing centre price was estimated aslanding centre price was estimated as Rs.19,753 crores (CMFRI, 2011).Rs.19,753 crores (CMFRI, 2011). The total fisherfolk population of theThe total fisherfolk population of the country is 3.52 million having 0.72 millioncountry is 3.52 million having 0.72 million active fishermen (CMFRI, 2005).active fishermen (CMFRI, 2005).
  10. 10.  There are about 2,39,000 fishing crafts engagedThere are about 2,39,000 fishing crafts engaged in marine capture fisheries, of which 59,000 arein marine capture fisheries, of which 59,000 are mechanized crafts, 76,000 motorized and themechanized crafts, 76,000 motorized and the rest non-mechanized.rest non-mechanized.  In mechanized sector, there are about 29,000In mechanized sector, there are about 29,000 trawlers. Though fishing is concentrated mainlytrawlers. Though fishing is concentrated mainly in the depth zone up to 100 m, deep seain the depth zone up to 100 m, deep sea trawlers operate up to 400 m depth zone.trawlers operate up to 400 m depth zone.  The multi-gear capture fisheries of IndiaThe multi-gear capture fisheries of India estimated provisionally at 3.07 million during theestimated provisionally at 3.07 million during the year 2010 showed a decrease of about 1.31 lakhyear 2010 showed a decrease of about 1.31 lakh tonnes compared to 2009.tonnes compared to 2009.
  11. 11. The west coast accounted for 55% of theThe west coast accounted for 55% of the total landings and east coast 45%.total landings and east coast 45%. The pelagic finfishes constituted 55%,The pelagic finfishes constituted 55%, demersal 26%, crustaceans 14% anddemersal 26%, crustaceans 14% and molluscs 5% of the total landings.molluscs 5% of the total landings. The mechanized sector contributed 73%,The mechanized sector contributed 73%, motorized 25% and artisanal 2% of themotorized 25% and artisanal 2% of the catch.catch. The west coast accounted for 55% andThe west coast accounted for 55% and east coast 45% of the total landings.east coast 45% of the total landings.
  12. 12.  Oil sardine (Oil sardine (Sardinella longicepsSardinella longiceps) remained as) remained as the most important single species contributingthe most important single species contributing 13.1% to the total marine fish landings in the13.1% to the total marine fish landings in the country.country.  The estimated landings of oil sardine for 2010 isThe estimated landings of oil sardine for 2010 is 4,03,932 tonnes against 4,14,767 tonnes in4,03,932 tonnes against 4,14,767 tonnes in 2009.2009.  The second important resource in terms ofThe second important resource in terms of contribution towards total landings is Indiancontribution towards total landings is Indian mackerel (mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurtaRastrelliger kanagurta) accounting for) accounting for 7.9% of total landings, the estimate for 20107.9% of total landings, the estimate for 2010 being 2,43,154 tonnes compared to 1,85,932being 2,43,154 tonnes compared to 1,85,932 tonnes in 2009.tonnes in 2009.
  13. 13.  The estimated landings of other importantThe estimated landings of other important resources are penaeid prawns 2,17,858 tonnesresources are penaeid prawns 2,17,858 tonnes (7.1%), croakers 1,66,967 tonnes (5.4%),(7.1%), croakers 1,66,967 tonnes (5.4%), cephalopods 1,66,886 tonnes (5.4%),cephalopods 1,66,886 tonnes (5.4%), ribbonfishes 1,50,166 tonnes (4.9%), non-ribbonfishes 1,50,166 tonnes (4.9%), non- penaeid prawns 1,28,876 tonnes (4.2%),penaeid prawns 1,28,876 tonnes (4.2%), threadfin breams 1,24,248 tonnes (4.0%), lesserthreadfin breams 1,24,248 tonnes (4.0%), lesser sardines 1,03,059 tonnes (3.4%) andsardines 1,03,059 tonnes (3.4%) and Bombayduck 94,942 tonnes (3.1%).Bombayduck 94,942 tonnes (3.1%).  The other important resources were penaeidThe other important resources were penaeid prawns (2,17,858 t; 7.1%), croakers (1,66,967 t;prawns (2,17,858 t; 7.1%), croakers (1,66,967 t; 5.4%), cephalopods (1,66,886 t; 5.4%)5.4%), cephalopods (1,66,886 t; 5.4%) etcetc..
  14. 14. The estimate of region-wise productionThe estimate of region-wise production showed that the north-east region,showed that the north-east region, comprising West Bengal and Orissacomprising West Bengal and Orissa contributed 18% to the total production.contributed 18% to the total production. The south-east region consisting ofThe south-east region consisting of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu andAndhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Puducherry contributed 27%.Puducherry contributed 27%. On the west coast, the northwest regionOn the west coast, the northwest region comprising Maharashtra and Gujaratcomprising Maharashtra and Gujarat recorded 24% of the total landings, andrecorded 24% of the total landings, and The south-west region comprising Kerala,The south-west region comprising Kerala, Karnataka and Goa contributed 31%.Karnataka and Goa contributed 31%.
  15. 15.  The marine fish landings along the Kerala coastThe marine fish landings along the Kerala coast were 5,30,078 t during 2010 which was 2.39 %were 5,30,078 t during 2010 which was 2.39 % more than 2009. Tunas formed 81.3 % (7,883 t)more than 2009. Tunas formed 81.3 % (7,883 t) of the total catch in Lakshadweep thoughof the total catch in Lakshadweep though declined by 4.6% in 2009.declined by 4.6% in 2009.  Karnataka recorded an all time high of 3,32,311 tKarnataka recorded an all time high of 3,32,311 t marine fish landing during 2010. Increase in themarine fish landing during 2010. Increase in the landings of molluscs especially cephalopodslandings of molluscs especially cephalopods (118%) and pelagics (ribbonfish (73.7%),(118%) and pelagics (ribbonfish (73.7%), carangids (51.1%) and mackerel (41.8%)) ascarangids (51.1%) and mackerel (41.8%)) as compared to the previous year led to this overallcompared to the previous year led to this overall increase.increase.  The marine fish production in Goa showedThe marine fish production in Goa showed 25.3% increase (89,451 t) during 2010.25.3% increase (89,451 t) during 2010.
  16. 16. The marine fish landings in MaharashtraThe marine fish landings in Maharashtra during 2010 was estimated provisionally atduring 2010 was estimated provisionally at 2.25 lakh t, with a decline of 29% over the2.25 lakh t, with a decline of 29% over the previous year and that in Gujarat at 5.06previous year and that in Gujarat at 5.06 lakh t with a marginal reduction of 0.3%.lakh t with a marginal reduction of 0.3%. In Tamil Nadu the catch was 5.55 lakhs tIn Tamil Nadu the catch was 5.55 lakhs t and Puducherry 14,525 t. The total marineand Puducherry 14,525 t. The total marine fish production of Andhra Pradesh forfish production of Andhra Pradesh for 2010 was 2.53 lakh t with a slight2010 was 2.53 lakh t with a slight reduction of only 0.5% from that in 2009.reduction of only 0.5% from that in 2009.
  17. 17. West Bengal and Orissa contributed 18%West Bengal and Orissa contributed 18% to the total production of the north eastto the total production of the north east region.region. The landing of low value bycatch andThe landing of low value bycatch and discards from trawl fisheries wasdiscards from trawl fisheries was monitored at Veraval, Mumbai, Karwar,monitored at Veraval, Mumbai, Karwar, Mangalore, Calicut, Cochin, Tuticorin,Mangalore, Calicut, Cochin, Tuticorin, Mandapam, Chennai and Visakhapatnam.Mandapam, Chennai and Visakhapatnam. An estimated 3.83 lakh t of bycatch valuedAn estimated 3.83 lakh t of bycatch valued at Rs.192 crores was landed which formedat Rs.192 crores was landed which formed 27.8 % of the total trawl catch, an increase27.8 % of the total trawl catch, an increase of 24% over the previous year.of 24% over the previous year.
  18. 18. ClupeidsClupeids Clupeids represent an important group ofClupeids represent an important group of pelagic food fishes comprising oilsardinepelagic food fishes comprising oilsardine ((Sardinella longicepsSardinella longiceps), lesser sardines), lesser sardines ((Sardinella albellaSardinella albella,, Sardinella gibbosaSardinella gibbosa,, Sardinella fimbriataSardinella fimbriata andand Sardinella sirmSardinella sirm),), white baits (white baits (StolephorusStolephorus spp.spp.,, EnchrasicholinaEnchrasicholina spp.) and anchoviesspp.) and anchovies ((ThryssaThryssa spp.,spp., SetipinnaSetipinna spp. andspp. and CoiliaCoilia spp.).spp.).
  19. 19.  Surrounded by sea on three sides of the mainland, India has vast potentials in terms of marine living, and nonliving resources.  For ages India has been exploiting her seas, particularly by fishing, which has since been the traditional occupation of the country's coastal fishermen community Exports of marine products are not new to this country.  Exports of pearl to countries such as through the Gulf to the ancient Roman Empire are well documented in Indian history.  There has been a well-established dried- and cured-fish trade with neighbouring countries since olden days. However, fishing as an industry did progress and is enough to contribute to the national wealth.
  20. 20.  The search for cheap protein and the advent ofThe search for cheap protein and the advent of independence have paved the way for progressiveindependence have paved the way for progressive onward march of this occupation, resulting in increasedonward march of this occupation, resulting in increased marine fish landings and, subsequently, in more exportmarine fish landings and, subsequently, in more export earnings.earnings.  Land areas being limited, their yielding capacity may notLand areas being limited, their yielding capacity may not be able to be increased on a par with the growing foodbe able to be increased on a par with the growing food demands of billion over the globe. Hence all the maritimedemands of billion over the globe. Hence all the maritime countries pay more and more attention to the vast seascountries pay more and more attention to the vast seas to meet the demands, and India is no exception.to meet the demands, and India is no exception.  To make this vision a reality, it is thus evident thatTo make this vision a reality, it is thus evident that concerted efforts need to be taken by the developmentalconcerted efforts need to be taken by the developmental agencies to plan and execute crash programmes,agencies to plan and execute crash programmes, especially on the culture and offshore capture sides,especially on the culture and offshore capture sides, which only would augment fish production, meeting thewhich only would augment fish production, meeting the nutritional demand and generating employmentnutritional demand and generating employment opperiunities, and, finally contributing substantially to theopperiunities, and, finally contributing substantially to the nation's a economy.nation's a economy.
  21. 21.  Clupeids formed more than 20% of marine fishClupeids formed more than 20% of marine fish landings in India (38%). The decadal averagelandings in India (38%). The decadal average landings of clupeids increased from 1,73,299 t inlandings of clupeids increased from 1,73,299 t in 1950-60 to 7,39,135 t during 2001-10.1950-60 to 7,39,135 t during 2001-10.  The maximum landings of clupeids (9,29,404 t)The maximum landings of clupeids (9,29,404 t) was recorded in 2010 and the average landingswas recorded in 2010 and the average landings during 2008-10 was 8,77,576 t which is 94.42%during 2008-10 was 8,77,576 t which is 94.42% of the maximum landings. Hence clupeids canof the maximum landings. Hence clupeids can be included under the class ‘abundant’ withbe included under the class ‘abundant’ with respect to its status of exploitation. Percentagerespect to its status of exploitation. Percentage growth in landings of clupeids was high duringgrowth in landings of clupeids was high during 1961-70 and 2001-10.1961-70 and 2001-10.
  22. 22.  Mackerels  Fishery of mackerels is supported by three species, Rastrelliger kanagurta, Rastrelliger brachysoma and Rastrelliger faughni with major contribution by the Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta).  During 2008-10, the average annual landings of Indian mackerel in the country was 2,04,077 t which accounted for 6.3% of the total landings.  The decadal average of mackerel landings increased from 74,405 t during 1950-60 to 1,70,468 t during 1991-2000 and then reduced to 1,50,063 t during 2001-10.
  23. 23. BRACKISHWATER RESOURCESBRACKISHWATER RESOURCES IN INDIAIN INDIA Sameer G ChebbiSameer G Chebbi
  24. 24. The significance of the country's extensiveThe significance of the country's extensive brackish water ecological system,brackish water ecological system, consisting of the various swamps, inlandconsisting of the various swamps, inland bays, lagoons, lakes, backwaters andbays, lagoons, lakes, backwaters and estuaries along the entire coastline ofestuaries along the entire coastline of India.India. The brackish waters are areas ofThe brackish waters are areas of confluence of fresh water and sea waterconfluence of fresh water and sea water and the salinity ranges from 5 to 27 ppt.and the salinity ranges from 5 to 27 ppt.
  25. 25. The Brackish water aquaculture is alsoThe Brackish water aquaculture is also known as Coastal Aqua culture.known as Coastal Aqua culture. Owing to the high productivity andOwing to the high productivity and extremely favourable physical andextremely favourable physical and biological conditions for growth andbiological conditions for growth and propagation the animals associated withpropagation the animals associated with these brackish water environments arethese brackish water environments are rich and varied.rich and varied.
  26. 26. In addition to the permanent inhabitants ofIn addition to the permanent inhabitants of the area many fishes and invertebrates ofthe area many fishes and invertebrates of marine origin including the commercialmarine origin including the commercial prawns temporarily utilise this biotic nicheprawns temporarily utilise this biotic niche for completing their life-cycle.for completing their life-cycle. Thus the estuaries and backwaters play aThus the estuaries and backwaters play a dynamic role in influencing the overalldynamic role in influencing the overall marine fish and shell fish production.marine fish and shell fish production.
  27. 27. Brackishwater Aquaculture has beenBrackishwater Aquaculture has been identified as India’s one of the highidentified as India’s one of the high potential area for increasing fish and shellpotential area for increasing fish and shell fish production and also to achievefish production and also to achieve maximum economic and social benefits.maximum economic and social benefits. The growth of brackishwater aquacultureThe growth of brackishwater aquaculture is phenomenal.is phenomenal. There are about 3.9 million ha of estuariesThere are about 3.9 million ha of estuaries and 3.5 million ha of brackishwater areasand 3.5 million ha of brackishwater areas available in the country.available in the country.
  28. 28. It is estimated that about 1.2 million haIt is estimated that about 1.2 million ha coastal area suitable for development ofcoastal area suitable for development of brackishwater aquaculture is available. Inbrackishwater aquaculture is available. In addition to this, around 8.5addition to this, around 8.5 million ha saltmillion ha salt affected areas are available in the country.affected areas are available in the country. Out of this, about 2.6 million ha area whichOut of this, about 2.6 million ha area which are unsuitable or marginally suitable forare unsuitable or marginally suitable for agriculture can be utilized for,agriculture can be utilized for, brackishwater aquaculture.brackishwater aquaculture.
  29. 29. The coastal mangrove areas is estimatedThe coastal mangrove areas is estimated around 2.5 million ha. Out of 1.2 million haaround 2.5 million ha. Out of 1.2 million ha potential area available for brackishwaterpotential area available for brackishwater farming, around 1, 94,010 ha were underfarming, around 1, 94,010 ha were under culture.culture.  These brackishwater are highlyThese brackishwater are highly productive areas, but most of them areproductive areas, but most of them are unused.unused.
  30. 30. Culture fisheries resources ofCulture fisheries resources of brackishwater sector in India surpass inbrackishwater sector in India surpass in magnitude those pertaining to freshwatermagnitude those pertaining to freshwater ponds. However, in comparison toponds. However, in comparison to freshwater sector, production infreshwater sector, production in brackishwater fish ponds is comparativelybrackishwater fish ponds is comparatively low.low. Prawns have been cultured traditionally inPrawns have been cultured traditionally in different types of farms in India.different types of farms in India.
  31. 31. These are Pokkali fields, perennial fieldsThese are Pokkali fields, perennial fields of Kerala, Bheris of Sunderbans, salt panof Kerala, Bheris of Sunderbans, salt pan farms and coconut grove farms.farms and coconut grove farms. Most of the brackish water system in theMost of the brackish water system in the country are sources of fish and prawncountry are sources of fish and prawn seed, as they form nursery areas for theseed, as they form nursery areas for the commercially important species whichcommercially important species which breed in the sea.breed in the sea.
  32. 32. The brackish water fish such as Mullet andThe brackish water fish such as Mullet and other fishes were cultured off the Italianother fishes were cultured off the Italian coast by Romans long ago.coast by Romans long ago. Later culture of Mullets, Lates, Milk fishLater culture of Mullets, Lates, Milk fish and Shrimp were tried in the states ofand Shrimp were tried in the states of Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Estuaries, Back waters, Creeks andEstuaries, Back waters, Creeks and Lagoons are the main non-stagnantLagoons are the main non-stagnant Brackish waters.Brackish waters.
  33. 33. In these waters fishes and the seed of MilkIn these waters fishes and the seed of Milk fish (Chanos), Mullet (Mugil cephalus).fish (Chanos), Mullet (Mugil cephalus). Elops, Megalops Polynemus, Lates.Elops, Megalops Polynemus, Lates. Etroplus, Tilapla, Shrimp are available.Etroplus, Tilapla, Shrimp are available. These flowing waters are useful forThese flowing waters are useful for collection of fish seed or prawn larvae forcollection of fish seed or prawn larvae for growing in brackish water fish ponds.growing in brackish water fish ponds.
  34. 34. Directly the fish cultures in these watersDirectly the fish cultures in these waters are not be possible, but under favourableare not be possible, but under favourable conditions the culture in a cages or pensconditions the culture in a cages or pens may be tried.may be tried. Now the collection of Prawn larvae andNow the collection of Prawn larvae and selling is going on in these waters.selling is going on in these waters. Cultural practices can be taken up in theseCultural practices can be taken up in these ponds with controlled conditions of waterponds with controlled conditions of water management and culture methods.management and culture methods.
  35. 35. The mullet, milkfish and to some extentThe mullet, milkfish and to some extent prawns are only non-predators. The restprawns are only non-predators. The rest are predators and also cannibalistic fishes.are predators and also cannibalistic fishes. Hence the production got effected.Hence the production got effected.  At certain places the Milk fish and MulletAt certain places the Milk fish and Mullet fish seed stocking was also taken up.fish seed stocking was also taken up.  Thus, fish production from brackishwaterThus, fish production from brackishwater alone would be about equal to the totalalone would be about equal to the total fish, production of India, which at presentfish, production of India, which at present ranges between 1.90 and 2.5 millionranges between 1.90 and 2.5 million tonnes.tonnes.
  36. 36.  However in brackishwater fish culture aHowever in brackishwater fish culture a maximum to about 2.5 t/ha Yr has beenmaximum to about 2.5 t/ha Yr has been achieved against an average of 450 kg/ha. Theachieved against an average of 450 kg/ha. The brackishwater of immediate concern for fishbrackishwater of immediate concern for fish cultural purposes are estuarine basins,cultural purposes are estuarine basins, backwaters, tidal creeks, brackishwater lakes,backwaters, tidal creeks, brackishwater lakes, and, coastal lagoons.and, coastal lagoons.  Most of the brackishwater systems in ourMost of the brackishwater systems in our country are characterized by a strong monsooncountry are characterized by a strong monsoon rainfall regime that follows freshwater dischargerainfall regime that follows freshwater discharge during a limited period of the year although, theduring a limited period of the year although, the intensity of this influence tends to decrease fromintensity of this influence tends to decrease from north to south.north to south.
  37. 37. Brackishwater Resources of IndiaBrackishwater Resources of India         a. Estuariesa. Estuaries     b. Coast Line    b. Coast Line     c. Backwater    c. Backwater     d. Mangroves    d. Mangroves     e. Lagoons    e. Lagoons       
  38. 38. StatesStates Total BW area (ha)Total BW area (ha) Area under culture (ha)Area under culture (ha) Production live weight (t)Production live weight (t) Andhra PradeshAndhra Pradesh 1,50,0001,50,000 66,20066,200 34,07534,075 GoaGoa 18,50018,500 650650 500500 GujaratGujarat 3,76,0003,76,000 997997 235235 KarnatakaKarnataka 8,0008,000 3,5403,540 2,6402,640 KeralaKerala 65,00065,000 14,59514,595 7,2907,290 MaharashtraMaharashtra 80,00080,000 970970 700700 OrissaOrissa 31,60031,600 11,33211,332 5,0005,000 PondicherryPondicherry 800800 2222 2020 Tamil NaduTamil Nadu 56,00056,000 670670 1,1971,197 West BengalWest Bengal 4,05,0004,05,000 42,52542,525 15,12115,121 TotalTotal 11,90,90011,90,900 1,415011,41501 66,77866,778 State-wise details in brackishwater area availableState-wise details in brackishwater area available  under  under culture andculture and production for the yearproduction for the year 20022002 Source    :       Hand Book on Fisheries Statistics, 2002, Fisheries Division Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, Ministry of Agriculture, Govt. of India.  
  39. 39. FISH AND ITS SEED RESOURCESFISH AND ITS SEED RESOURCES Milk fish,Milk fish, Chanos chanosChanos chanos fry is availablefry is available abundantly on the east coast of India fromabundantly on the east coast of India from Northern Andhra Pradesh coast toNorthern Andhra Pradesh coast to Tanjore, Ramnad and Terunelveli inTanjore, Ramnad and Terunelveli in Tamilnadu.Tamilnadu. The seed is also obtained abundantly onThe seed is also obtained abundantly on the west coast in Malabar of Kerala andthe west coast in Malabar of Kerala and South Kanara in Karnataka.South Kanara in Karnataka. Pamban in Tamilnadu is the mostPamban in Tamilnadu is the most important milk fish fry collection centre.important milk fish fry collection centre.
  40. 40. The milk fish fry is available during April toThe milk fish fry is available during April to June in maximum amount andJune in maximum amount and occasionally during October to Decemberoccasionally during October to December in few centres.in few centres. The milk fish fry is found continuously fromThe milk fish fry is found continuously from February to October, with the peak inFebruary to October, with the peak in abundance in April and September inabundance in April and September in Pulicat lake.Pulicat lake.
  41. 41. Gray mullet,Gray mullet, Mugil cephalusMugil cephalus fry isfry is available during January, March to Mayavailable during January, March to May and December, with peak in March in theand December, with peak in March in the Mahanadi estuary.Mahanadi estuary. These are abundant during November andThese are abundant during November and December on Andhra Pradesh coast. TheDecember on Andhra Pradesh coast. The fry is available from January to March infry is available from January to March in the Markanam estuary in Tamilnadu.the Markanam estuary in Tamilnadu. These are also available during NovemberThese are also available during November and December and late Januaryand December and late January near thenear the mouth of Chilka lake, and, during Januarymouth of Chilka lake, and, during January to June and September in the Pulicat lake.to June and September in the Pulicat lake.
  42. 42.  In the Hoogly-Matlah estuary system in West Bengal, theIn the Hoogly-Matlah estuary system in West Bengal, the fry offry of Mugil parsiaMugil parsia is available from December to Juneis available from December to June and during January, and June to September on theand during January, and June to September on the Maharashtra coast.Maharashtra coast.  The fry is also reported in Andhra Pradesh coast. The fryThe fry is also reported in Andhra Pradesh coast. The fry ofof Mugil tadeMugil tade is found during June to September, with ais found during June to September, with a peak in July from Hoogly- Matlah estuary.peak in July from Hoogly- Matlah estuary. MugilMugil macrolepismacrolepis seed is found at the mouth of the Chilkaseed is found at the mouth of the Chilka during November to January.during November to January.  Mugil corsulaMugil corsula seed is collected from Hoogly- Matlah andseed is collected from Hoogly- Matlah and Mahanadi estuaries during July and August.Mahanadi estuaries during July and August.  The seed of seabassThe seed of seabass Latus calcariferLatus calcarifer is collected duringis collected during May to October from Jhankran and Hoogly-MatlahMay to October from Jhankran and Hoogly-Matlah estuaries in West Bengal. It is available during July andestuaries in West Bengal. It is available during July and August at the mouth of Chilka. This seed is alsoAugust at the mouth of Chilka. This seed is also collected in central and southern regions of the eastcollected in central and southern regions of the east coast.coast.
  43. 43. Asian Seabass/ Barramundi - Lates calcarifer •Scientific name: Lates calcarifer •Economically important food fish in tropical countries. •habitat: Euryhaline and catadromous i.e., it grows in fresh/brackish water. •It is widely distributed in the tropical areas of Indo-Pacific region. •Adult Seabass is carnivores, but juveniles are omnivores. It is protandrous hermaphrodite. •Hardy fish and suitable for farming in brackish, fresh and marine waters in ponds, cages and pens. •PONDS: Stocking density - 10,000/ha Yield -4.0 - 5.0 t/ha •Cages : Stocking density - 10 - 12 no./m2 Yield - 6 kg / m2
  44. 44. Milk fish - Chanos Chanos •Scientific name: Chanos Chanos •Herbivores fish, feeds mainly on benthic blue green algae and decayed organic matter. •Habitat: Found in coastal waters, enters estuaries and rivers. •Naturally abundant in Coromandal coast and Gulf of Mannar. •Highly compatiable hardy fish; can be farmed in atcoastal brackishwater and freshwater ecosystems in ponds and cages. •Popular food fish, suitable for polyculture and integrated farming •Monoculture: Stocking density - 5,000 - 6,000 / ha •Yield - 2.5 - 2.5 t / ha / 6-7 months
  45. 45. Grey Mullet - Mugil cephalus •Scientific name: Mugil cephalus •Herbivores fish. •Inhabits seas, estuaries and rivers extending almost into freshwater. •Distributed world wide in temperate and tropical waters; abundant in north east and south west coasts of india. •Suitable for farming in fresh, breakishwater and marine conditions; also polycultured with shrimps as integrated farming. •Highly relished in kerala and West bengal. •Monoculture: Stocking density - 10,000 - 15,000 / ha •Yield - 2.5 - 3.0 t / ha / 8 months •Polyculture : Stocking density - 5,000 - 6,000 /ha •Yield - 1.5 - 2.0 t /ha / 10 months
  46. 46. Pearl Spot - Etroplus suratensis Monoculture: Stocking density-20,000 -30,000 / ha Yield - 2.0 / ha / 8 - 9 months
  47. 47. Tiger shrimp - Penaeus monodon •Scientific name: Penaeus monodon •Largest species of shrimp in the world grows upto 32 cm. •Hapitat: Estuaries, rivers, inshore and brackishwater. •Naturally abundant in east and south-west coasts of India. •Extensively cultured in India and other Asian countries. •Stocking density : upto 1,00,000 / ha •Yield : 1.0 - 1.5 t/ha/crop
  48. 48. Indian White Shrimp - Penaeus indicus Stocking Density : UPTO 1,00,000 / ha Yield : 0.75 -1.0 t/ha/crop
  49. 49. Banana Shrimp - Penaeus merguiensis Stocking density : upto 1,00,000 / ha Yield : 0.5 - 1.0 t/ha/crop
  50. 50. White leg Shrimp - Penaeus vannamei •Scientific name: Litopenaeus vannamei •Distribution: Native of pacific coast of Mexico and central and south America •Introduced in Asian and Southeast Asian countries since 2000 •Importation of SPF broodstock permitted in India since 2009 under strict guidelines •Stocking density permitted : upto 6,00,000 / ha •Yield : upto 10 t/ ha/ 4month crop
  51. 51. Mud Crab - Scylla serrata •Scientific name: Scylla serrata •Mud Crabs are largest of the portunid crabs with carapace width of 22 cm weighing about 2.4 kg. •Habitat: Estuaries and in burrows of mangrove areas. •Naturally abundant in brackishwaters of Indian coasts. •Very active at nigt, can migrate up to 50 km offshore and can swim down to 300 m depth in water. •Well relished for its taste, texture and nutritive value hence both the species are captured and cultured in India. •Stocking density : 5,000 -30,000 / ha for grow out and1,000 - 4,000/ha for Fattenning. •Yield : 1.0 - 1.5 t/ha/year in grow-out, 60 - 100 g weight gain / crab / month in fattenning.
  52. 52. Mud Crab - Scylla tranquebarica •Scientific name: Scylla tranquebarica •Mud Crabs are largest of the portunid crabs with carapace width of 22 cm weighing about 2.4 kg. •Habitat: Estuaries and in burrows of mangrove areas. •Naturally abundant in brackishwaters of Indian coasts. •Very active at nigt, can migrate up to 50 km offshore and can swim down to 300 m depth in water. •Well relished for its taste, texture and nutritive value hence both the species are captured and cultured in India. •Stocking density : 5,000 -30,000 / ha for grow out and 1,000 - 4,000/ha for fattening. •Yield : 0.6 - 1.5 t/ha/year in grow - out, 85 - 150 weight gain / crab / month in fattening Back
  53. 53.  PRAWN AND ITS SEED RESOURCESPRAWN AND ITS SEED RESOURCES  The prawn fishery of the country is supported byThe prawn fishery of the country is supported by genera likegenera like Penaeus, Metapenaeus,Penaeus, Metapenaeus, Parapenaeopsis and SolenocraParapenaeopsis and Solenocra. All these. All these prawns are suitable for culture. The following 8prawns are suitable for culture. The following 8 species are used mostly for prawn culture.species are used mostly for prawn culture.  These areThese are Penaeus monodon, P. indicus, P.Penaeus monodon, P. indicus, P. merguiensis, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeusmerguiensis, P. semisulcatus, Metapenaeus dobsoni, M.monoceros, M. affinisdobsoni, M.monoceros, M. affinis andand M.M. brevicornisbrevicornis. This prawn seed is available in. This prawn seed is available in plenty on both east and west coasts.plenty on both east and west coasts.
  54. 54.  The seed comes along with high tides and isThe seed comes along with high tides and is trapped in mangrove areas and mud flats oftrapped in mangrove areas and mud flats of brackishwaters.brackishwaters.  P. monodonP. monodon seed is available throughout theseed is available throughout the year in the entire wast coast and during July toyear in the entire wast coast and during July to October in Goa and October to April inOctober in Goa and October to April in Karnataka coasts.Karnataka coasts. P. indicusP. indicus seed is availableseed is available from February to December on the eastfrom February to December on the east coastcoast and January to October on the west coast.and January to October on the west coast. P.P. merguiensismerguiensis seed is found from February to Mayseed is found from February to May and October to December in the west coast.and October to December in the west coast.
  55. 55. Metapenaeus dobsoniMetapenaeus dobsoni seed is foundseed is found during February to August on the westduring February to August on the west coast, whereascoast, whereas M. affinisM. affinis seed isseed is availableavailable from October to December on the westfrom October to December on the west coast.coast. M. monocerosM. monoceros seed is availableseed is available from September to April on the west coast,from September to April on the west coast, whereas on the east coast it is availablewhereas on the east coast it is available from March to September.from March to September. M. brevicornisM. brevicornis seed is found in March and April on theseed is found in March and April on the Gujarat Coast and October to DecemberGujarat Coast and October to December on the West Bengal coast.on the West Bengal coast.
  56. 56.  BRACKISH WATER FARMSBRACKISH WATER FARMS  India is estimated to possess along its coast a total area of 2 millionIndia is estimated to possess along its coast a total area of 2 million ha suitable for brackishwater fish farming. But the total area underha suitable for brackishwater fish farming. But the total area under cultivation was only 65,100 ha in 1990-91, which increased tocultivation was only 65,100 ha in 1990-91, which increased to 1,41,837 ha in 1998-99 by the construction of coastal aquafarms as1,41,837 ha in 1998-99 by the construction of coastal aquafarms as the demand for shrimps increased tremendously in the internationalthe demand for shrimps increased tremendously in the international market.market.  Presently, brackishwater aquaculture is restricted to shrimp farmingPresently, brackishwater aquaculture is restricted to shrimp farming in farm ponds owing to the high export potential of penaeid shrimpsin farm ponds owing to the high export potential of penaeid shrimps (Penaeus monodon(Penaeus monodon andand P. indicus).P. indicus).  The Sunderbans of West Bengal and the extensive backwaters ofThe Sunderbans of West Bengal and the extensive backwaters of Kerala, where certain amount of brackishwater culture alreadyKerala, where certain amount of brackishwater culture already exists, and other areas along the coasts of Bay of Bengal and theexists, and other areas along the coasts of Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea are suitable for development of coastal aquaculture.Arabian Sea are suitable for development of coastal aquaculture.  TheThe bheribheri fish culture of West Bengal, the shrimp culture in paddyfish culture of West Bengal, the shrimp culture in paddy fields of Kerala and culture of fish in lagoons are the three principalfields of Kerala and culture of fish in lagoons are the three principal types of traditional fish culture practised in India. The moderntypes of traditional fish culture practised in India. The modern brackishwater farming in coastal aquafarms assumes considerablebrackishwater farming in coastal aquafarms assumes considerable importance in recent times.importance in recent times.
  57. 57.  Bheries (Impoundments)Bheries (Impoundments)  Brackishwater fish culture in impoundments comprisesBrackishwater fish culture in impoundments comprises cultivation of fish in tidal waters admitted through sluicescultivation of fish in tidal waters admitted through sluices in suitably embanked enclosures.in suitably embanked enclosures.  These are calledThese are called bhasabadha fisheriesbhasabadha fisheries oror bheriesbheries inin Bengal. Bheries are compounded low-lying areas inBengal. Bheries are compounded low-lying areas in deltaic West Bengal adjacent to estuaries and creeksdeltaic West Bengal adjacent to estuaries and creeks where culture is carried out round the year in a traditionalwhere culture is carried out round the year in a traditional way. The size of such bheries varies from 3 to 260 ha.way. The size of such bheries varies from 3 to 260 ha. Their numbers have been estimated at 1,392 togetherTheir numbers have been estimated at 1,392 together constituting an area of 42,600 ha in three brackishwaterconstituting an area of 42,600 ha in three brackishwater zones, viz., low saline (0.15-9.5 PPT), medium salinezones, viz., low saline (0.15-9.5 PPT), medium saline (0.27- 15.8 PPT) and high saline (6.6-36.2PPT) zones.(0.27- 15.8 PPT) and high saline (6.6-36.2PPT) zones.
  58. 58.  In saline bheries, the important fishes, shrimpsIn saline bheries, the important fishes, shrimps and crabs generally cultured are: a) fishes –and crabs generally cultured are: a) fishes – Lates calcarifer, Mugil parsia, M. tade, M.Lates calcarifer, Mugil parsia, M. tade, M. speigleri, Mystus gulio, Polynemus tetradactylus,speigleri, Mystus gulio, Polynemus tetradactylus, Anguilla bengalensis, Scalophagus argus,Anguilla bengalensis, Scalophagus argus, Glossogobius giuris; b)Glossogobius giuris; b) shrimps -shrimps - PenaeusPenaeus monodon, P. indicus, Metapenaeus monoceros,monodon, P. indicus, Metapenaeus monoceros, M. brevicornis, M. rosenbergii, M. rude,M. brevicornis, M. rosenbergii, M. rude, Palaemon styliferus, Acetes sp.,Palaemon styliferus, Acetes sp., ParapenaeopsisParapenaeopsis spp. and c) crabs –spp. and c) crabs – ScyllaScylla serrata.serrata.  Around 170 bheries covering about 8000 haAround 170 bheries covering about 8000 ha area receives sewage in different concentrationsarea receives sewage in different concentrations and utilize these organic wastes for fishand utilize these organic wastes for fish production. Indian major carps, exotic carps inproduction. Indian major carps, exotic carps in addition to tilapia form the desired species inaddition to tilapia form the desired species in bheries.bheries.
  59. 59. Paddy FieldsPaddy Fields The seasonal utilization of paddy fields forThe seasonal utilization of paddy fields for culture of brackishwater shrimps andculture of brackishwater shrimps and fishes is quite common in West Bengalfishes is quite common in West Bengal and Kerala. The practice followed in Westand Kerala. The practice followed in West Bengal involves the use of irrigation canal,Bengal involves the use of irrigation canal, if any, lying in the vicinity of paddy fieldsif any, lying in the vicinity of paddy fields through which fish fry are allowed to enterthrough which fish fry are allowed to enter the fields where they grow during thethe fields where they grow during the paddy cultivation period. About 1.12paddy cultivation period. About 1.12 million ha area of paddy field in India.million ha area of paddy field in India.
  60. 60. The fish are cropped just before theThe fish are cropped just before the harvesting of paddy. The importantharvesting of paddy. The important species of fish and shrimps cultured in thespecies of fish and shrimps cultured in the paddy fields are: Fish -paddy fields are: Fish - Mugil parsia, M.Mugil parsia, M. tade, Rhinomugil corsula, Lates calcarifertade, Rhinomugil corsula, Lates calcarifer andand Mystus gulioMystus gulio and shrimps -and shrimps - PalaemonPalaemon carcinus, Macrobrachium rude,carcinus, Macrobrachium rude, Metapenaus monoceros, M. brevicornisMetapenaus monoceros, M. brevicornis and Penaeus semisulcatus.and Penaeus semisulcatus. In recentIn recent years,years, Penaeus monodonPenaeus monodon is alsois also introduced as a supplementary stock.introduced as a supplementary stock.
  61. 61.  In Kerala, the brackishwater fish culture isIn Kerala, the brackishwater fish culture is practised in the low-lying paddy fields calledpractised in the low-lying paddy fields called pokkali fields.pokkali fields.  Paddy is cultivated from July to September whenPaddy is cultivated from July to September when the surrounding back waters are low in salinitythe surrounding back waters are low in salinity and from October, shrimp culture is practised inand from October, shrimp culture is practised in these fields. In the pokkali fields, shrimpsthese fields. In the pokkali fields, shrimps constitute about 80% of the catch, the speciesconstitute about 80% of the catch, the species beingbeing Penaeus indicus, P. semisulcatusPenaeus indicus, P. semisulcatus Metapenaeus monoceros, M. dobsoni,Metapenaeus monoceros, M. dobsoni, Macrobrachium rude, Palaemon styliferus,Macrobrachium rude, Palaemon styliferus, Caridina gracilirostris and AcetesCaridina gracilirostris and Acetes sp. The rest ofsp. The rest of the crop comprises mullets, pearlspots andthe crop comprises mullets, pearlspots and chromideschromides (Etroplus maculatus).(Etroplus maculatus).
  62. 62. Important species of PenaeidImportant species of Penaeid prawns and life history ofprawns and life history of typical Prawntypical Prawn

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