Aquarium fish breeding
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Aquarium fish breeding Presentation Transcript

  • 1. FreshwaterFreshwater Aquarium fishAquarium fish BreedingBreedingSameer G ChebbiSameer G Chebbi Dept. of ZoologyDept. of Zoology Industrial fish and fisheriesIndustrial fish and fisheries Karnatak Science College, DharwadKarnatak Science College, Dharwad
  • 2.  Breeding aquarium fishes requires a goodBreeding aquarium fishes requires a good amount of care and patience.amount of care and patience.  There is a remarkable difference in theThere is a remarkable difference in the techniques involved in breeding the eggtechniques involved in breeding the egg layers and live bearers.layers and live bearers.
  • 3.  Breeding fish in the aquarium comprisesBreeding fish in the aquarium comprises of the following stepsof the following steps 1.1. Setting up of spawning tankSetting up of spawning tank 2.2. Selection of spawnersSelection of spawners 3.3. Conditioning the brood fishesConditioning the brood fishes 4.4. SpawningSpawning 5.5. Rearing the fryRearing the fry
  • 4. 1.1. Setting up of spawning tankSetting up of spawning tank  Each fish has its own specificationsEach fish has its own specifications regarding physio-chemical andregarding physio-chemical and environmental factors related toenvironmental factors related to spawning.spawning.  In the spawning tank always try toIn the spawning tank always try to provide an environment similar to one inprovide an environment similar to one in its natural habitat.its natural habitat.
  • 5.  Care must be taken to control theCare must be taken to control the followingfollowing 1.1. TemperatureTemperature 2.2. pHpH 3.3. HardnessHardness 4.4. Water column levelsWater column levels  According to the requirement ofAccording to the requirement of individual fish.individual fish.  Unless proper care is taken, the eggs orUnless proper care is taken, the eggs or the fry have very little chance ofthe fry have very little chance of surviving.surviving.
  • 6.  Spawning grids or traps may be used inSpawning grids or traps may be used in the breeding tank in order to save thethe breeding tank in order to save the eggs from being eaten by the parents.eggs from being eaten by the parents.  The place where the aquarium is kept isThe place where the aquarium is kept is also important since some fishes like thealso important since some fishes like the Dwarf Gourami need sunlight, while otherDwarf Gourami need sunlight, while other like the Neon or Cardinal Tetras prefers alike the Neon or Cardinal Tetras prefers a dark aquarium.dark aquarium.  Even the development of the embroys ofEven the development of the embroys of Neon and Cardinal tetras are affected byNeon and Cardinal tetras are affected by harsh sunlight.harsh sunlight.
  • 7.  But, the general rule is to cut down theBut, the general rule is to cut down the illumination to its minimum in case theillumination to its minimum in case the breeding fish is an egg eater.breeding fish is an egg eater.  Temperature also plays a very importantTemperature also plays a very important role in spawning.role in spawning.  A few degrees rise or fall in temp. mayA few degrees rise or fall in temp. may change a listless (lethargic) fish into achange a listless (lethargic) fish into a glowing one anxious (nervous) to breed.glowing one anxious (nervous) to breed.  Most of the Tetras prefer soft acidic waterMost of the Tetras prefer soft acidic water while the live bearers are totally thewhile the live bearers are totally the opposite, preferring hard alkaline water.opposite, preferring hard alkaline water.
  • 8.  The choice of the breeding tank is alsoThe choice of the breeding tank is also very important.very important.  Even if the fish is small and requires veryEven if the fish is small and requires very little space, the rule is to use as large anlittle space, the rule is to use as large an aquarium as possible for the breedingaquarium as possible for the breeding purposes.purposes.  In a large tank, fluctuation or variation inIn a large tank, fluctuation or variation in temp. caused by the heater is lesstemp. caused by the heater is less affected than in a small tankaffected than in a small tank  The aquarium may be thickly planted inThe aquarium may be thickly planted in order to prevent the fish from exploring fororder to prevent the fish from exploring for eggs after spawning is over.eggs after spawning is over.
  • 9.  Selection of spawnersSelection of spawners  The next step regarding spawning ofThe next step regarding spawning of aquarium fishes is the selection ofaquarium fishes is the selection of spawners.spawners.  Always select fishes that are healthy,Always select fishes that are healthy, having the required/desired qualities orhaving the required/desired qualities or those equalling standards.those equalling standards.  Similar eliminate diseased fishes andSimilar eliminate diseased fishes and those with visible anatomical or geneticthose with visible anatomical or genetic deformities like tumours, deformed spinaldeformities like tumours, deformed spinal cord etc.,cord etc.,  To get best results, employ selectiveTo get best results, employ selective breeding.breeding.
  • 10.  Select spawners from different sources toSelect spawners from different sources to minimise in breeding.minimise in breeding.  In the case of live-bearers, the only way toIn the case of live-bearers, the only way to avoid inbreeding is to separate the malesavoid inbreeding is to separate the males from females, once the sex could befrom females, once the sex could be distinguished.distinguished.
  • 11.  Conditioning the brood fishesConditioning the brood fishes  Most of the spawners have to beMost of the spawners have to be conditioned before spawning.conditioned before spawning.  The male and female fishes are rearedThe male and female fishes are reared separately for one or two weeks.separately for one or two weeks.  During this period, the fish are fed on liveDuring this period, the fish are fed on live food available in its natural environment.food available in its natural environment.  Fishes like the barbs and tetras areFishes like the barbs and tetras are usually conditioned on a diet of live foodusually conditioned on a diet of live food like mosquito larvae, tubifex worms etc.like mosquito larvae, tubifex worms etc.
  • 12.  Some aquarists often provide a menu withSome aquarists often provide a menu with varying diets of live food each day.varying diets of live food each day.  Not all egg layers are to be conditionedNot all egg layers are to be conditioned separately.separately.  Some fishes like the Angel and OscarSome fishes like the Angel and Oscar need to be kept together in a shoal or pairneed to be kept together in a shoal or pair for a long time before breeding takesfor a long time before breeding takes place.place.  In such cases the school may be fed on aIn such cases the school may be fed on a varying diet of live foodvarying diet of live food
  • 13.  They are not to be separated once theyThey are not to be separated once they pair up for spawning.pair up for spawning.  Considering live-bearers, conditioning isConsidering live-bearers, conditioning is not always necessary.not always necessary.  Hence before breeding fishes should beHence before breeding fishes should be conditioning is required for better result.conditioning is required for better result.  Conditioning of fishes helps in success inConditioning of fishes helps in success in breeding activity.breeding activity.  Different fishes having differentDifferent fishes having different conditioning factor which is based on theirconditioning factor which is based on their breeding behaviour.breeding behaviour.
  • 14.  SpawningSpawning  The conditioned fishes are usuallyThe conditioned fishes are usually released into the breeding tank at duskreleased into the breeding tank at dusk (evening).(evening).  In some cases, the females are releasedIn some cases, the females are released atleast a day or two prior to the release ofatleast a day or two prior to the release of the male.the male.  This is to familiarise the female with theThis is to familiarise the female with the aquarium conditions and to minimise fear.aquarium conditions and to minimise fear.
  • 15.  Fishes are to be released in a school or inFishes are to be released in a school or in pairs, depending on their spawningpairs, depending on their spawning behaviour.behaviour.  Fishes like the Danios are to be releasedFishes like the Danios are to be released in schools with larger number of males.in schools with larger number of males.
  • 16.  Rearing of fryRearing of fry  Rearing the fry is the most difficult part.Rearing the fry is the most difficult part.  If the eggs and fry are not given properIf the eggs and fry are not given proper care, all your effort will be in vain.care, all your effort will be in vain.  The eggs are to be tendered properlyThe eggs are to be tendered properly preventing them from fungal attack.preventing them from fungal attack.  A few drops of methylene blue into theA few drops of methylene blue into the tank will minimise the fungal attack.tank will minimise the fungal attack.
  • 17.  The eggs infected further fungal attack.The eggs infected further fungal attack.  There is nothing more difficult than findingThere is nothing more difficult than finding the right food for the new born fishes.the right food for the new born fishes.  The dietary requirement of the fries ofThe dietary requirement of the fries of different aquarium fishes are given withdifferent aquarium fishes are given with different live food and artificial food.different live food and artificial food.
  • 18.  Breeding techniques and devices involvedBreeding techniques and devices involved in breeding differ according to spawningin breeding differ according to spawning behaviour of the fish.behaviour of the fish.  The spawning behaviour differ with eachThe spawning behaviour differ with each family.family.  Variation also present among members ofVariation also present among members of the same family.the same family.  The egg layers can be classified intoThe egg layers can be classified into different categories depending upon theirdifferent categories depending upon their breeding habits.breeding habits.
  • 19. 1.1. Egg scattersEgg scatters 2.2. Egg depositorsEgg depositors 3.3. Mouth broodersMouth brooders 4.4. Bubble net buildersBubble net builders 5.5. Live bearsLive bears  Egg scattersEgg scatters  Examples: Danios, gold fish, hatchetExamples: Danios, gold fish, hatchet fish,fish, Glass fish, kissing gourami, tetras, flyingGlass fish, kissing gourami, tetras, flying barb, barb etc.,barb, barb etc.,
  • 20.  The egg scatters release eggs in aThe egg scatters release eggs in a haphazard manner, scattering the eggs inhaphazard manner, scattering the eggs in all directions.all directions.  Once the spawning is over, they oftenOnce the spawning is over, they often consume the eggs.consume the eggs.  The eggs scatterers show no parentalThe eggs scatterers show no parental care.care.  Hence it is the job of the aquarist toHence it is the job of the aquarist to protect the eggs from being eaten by theprotect the eggs from being eaten by the parents.parents.
  • 21.  A thickly planted aquarium with lessA thickly planted aquarium with less swimming space may e used for eggsswimming space may e used for eggs which are adhesive in nature. (eg. Eggs ofwhich are adhesive in nature. (eg. Eggs of gold fish).gold fish).  This often helps the eggs from beingThis often helps the eggs from being eaten.eaten.  In the case of non-adhesive eggs (eg.In the case of non-adhesive eggs (eg. Eggs of danios), an aquarium with lowEggs of danios), an aquarium with low water column and a bottom laid withwater column and a bottom laid with ebbles or marbles may be used.ebbles or marbles may be used.
  • 22.  The eggs scatters usually show lessThe eggs scatters usually show less interest in the eggs while the spawning isinterest in the eggs while the spawning is in progress.in progress.  They start feeding on eggs only afterThey start feeding on eggs only after spawning is over.spawning is over.  Breeding traps and grids may be installedBreeding traps and grids may be installed for better survival rate of the eggs.for better survival rate of the eggs.  For eggs scatters, spawning grids are toFor eggs scatters, spawning grids are to be placed with mesh size relative to thebe placed with mesh size relative to the size of the eggs.size of the eggs.
  • 23.  Usually mesh size of 3x3 mm to 6x6 mmUsually mesh size of 3x3 mm to 6x6 mm are used.are used.  The grids can be constructed in two ways.The grids can be constructed in two ways.  A net with required mesh size may beA net with required mesh size may be attached to the upper side of a 5 cm thickattached to the upper side of a 5 cm thick plastic frame with frame sizeplastic frame with frame size corresponding to the inner dimensions ofcorresponding to the inner dimensions of the aquarium.the aquarium.  The frame should be lowered to theThe frame should be lowered to the bottom of the tank so that a water columnbottom of the tank so that a water column of 5 cm exists between the net and theof 5 cm exists between the net and the bottom of the tank.bottom of the tank.
  • 24.  Precaution must be taken not to leavePrecaution must be taken not to leave space between the sides of the tank andspace between the sides of the tank and the plastic frame, for the fish to enter.the plastic frame, for the fish to enter.  Another method is to place a piece of netAnother method is to place a piece of net with required mesh size across thewith required mesh size across the aquarium with the central portionaquarium with the central portion immersed below the surface providingimmersed below the surface providing sufficient swimming space.sufficient swimming space.  Care must taken not to provide escapeCare must taken not to provide escape routes while placing the net.routes while placing the net.  In both cases, the eggs fall through the netIn both cases, the eggs fall through the net and are collected at the bottom of theand are collected at the bottom of the
  • 25.  Egg DepositorsEgg Depositors  Ex: Cichlids like Discus and Angle fish,Ex: Cichlids like Discus and Angle fish, Firemouth cichlid, Oscar cichlid etc.,Firemouth cichlid, Oscar cichlid etc.,  The egg depositor are more for theirThe egg depositor are more for their young than egg-hangers or scatters.young than egg-hangers or scatters.  These are mostly cichlids when showThese are mostly cichlids when show parental care.parental care.  They need substratum like leaves, rocks,They need substratum like leaves, rocks, flower pots, tiles or slates to deposti theflower pots, tiles or slates to deposti the eggs.eggs.
  • 26.  Hence the spawning tank should containHence the spawning tank should contain hard substratum like rocks, slanting slatehard substratum like rocks, slanting slate or tiles etc., which can be easily removed.or tiles etc., which can be easily removed.  Most of the depositors select their ownMost of the depositors select their own pair/ mate.pair/ mate.  It is be to remove the fry once theyIt is be to remove the fry once they become free swimming, even though thebecome free swimming, even though the fish show parental care.fish show parental care.  The tank should be similar waterThe tank should be similar water conditions and the water column very lowconditions and the water column very low (5-10 cm).(5-10 cm).
  • 27.  If the fish fail to show parental care,If the fish fail to show parental care, remove the eggs along with substratum toremove the eggs along with substratum to another tank.another tank.  If the eggs are attached to the sides of theIf the eggs are attached to the sides of the tank, remove they by scarping the sidetank, remove they by scarping the side panes or by means a fine brush andpanes or by means a fine brush and transferring the eggs to tank treated withtransferring the eggs to tank treated with methylene blue.methylene blue.  The eggs are to be give profuse aeration.The eggs are to be give profuse aeration.
  • 28.  Mouth BroodersMouth Brooders  Ex:Ex: TilapiaTilapia  Some of the egg depositor take theSome of the egg depositor take the fertilized eggs into their mouth andfertilized eggs into their mouth and incubate them.incubate them.  These mouth brooders usually prepareThese mouth brooders usually prepare breeding pits on the bottom sand on whichbreeding pits on the bottom sand on which spawning take place.spawning take place.  Hence the aquarium bottom should beHence the aquarium bottom should be made of sand or fine gravel.made of sand or fine gravel.
  • 29.  In the case of tilapias, the female carriesIn the case of tilapias, the female carries eggs in her mouth.eggs in her mouth.  The eggs hatch inside the mouth and theThe eggs hatch inside the mouth and the parent carry the fry also for some time.parent carry the fry also for some time.  Some of the mouth brooders tend to gulpSome of the mouth brooders tend to gulp the eggs.the eggs.  This may be due to numerous factor likeThis may be due to numerous factor like young and inexperienced spawners,young and inexperienced spawners, insufficient space or unfavorableinsufficient space or unfavorable conditions.conditions.
  • 30.  This can be prevented by trapping theThis can be prevented by trapping the female in a fine net without disturbing thefemale in a fine net without disturbing the fish much.fish much.  Then the fish is to be held in hand with theThen the fish is to be held in hand with the head immersed in a small bowl.head immersed in a small bowl.  Slowly open the mouth by applyingSlowly open the mouth by applying pressure on to the lower jaw with indexpressure on to the lower jaw with index finger.finger.  Then shake the fish gently in water, soonThen shake the fish gently in water, soon egg/ fry are released into the water.egg/ fry are released into the water.  Then these eggs/fry transferred to newThen these eggs/fry transferred to new rearing aquarium and given profuserearing aquarium and given profuse aeration.aeration.