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Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
Testing vocabulary
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Testing vocabulary

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By watching this Power Point presentation, you'll acquire the necessary tools as well as basic information that is needed whenever you want to evaluate Vocabulary.

By watching this Power Point presentation, you'll acquire the necessary tools as well as basic information that is needed whenever you want to evaluate Vocabulary.

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  • 1. TestingTesting VocabularyVocabulary Jonathan MagdalenaJonathan Magdalena
  • 2. ““AA wordword isis aa microcosmmicrocosm ofof humanhuman consciousnessconsciousness”” (Vygotsky)(Vygotsky)
  • 3. WhatWhat isis vocabularyvocabulary?? Vocabulary refers not only to the words in aVocabulary refers not only to the words in a language and their meanings, but also tolanguage and their meanings, but also to words grouped in phrases and expressions.words grouped in phrases and expressions. LanguageLanguage emerges first asemerges first as wordswords and though itand though it gets more and more complex, the coining ofgets more and more complex, the coining of new words and the emergence of newnew words and the emergence of new expressionsexpressions never stop. Even in L1, we arenever stop. Even in L1, we are continually learning new words, and learningcontinually learning new words, and learning new meanings for old words.new meanings for old words. Can you think of examples?Can you think of examples? 
  • 4. How manyHow many wordswords can you findcan you find?? I like looking for bits and pieces like old second-I like looking for bits and pieces like old second- hand record players and doing them up to lookhand record players and doing them up to look like new.like new.  andand is repeated once;is repeated once; likelike three timesthree times  The firstThe first likelike is a verb; the other two are prepositionsis a verb; the other two are prepositions  lookinglooking andand looklook: do they count as two different words: do they count as two different words or different forms of the same word?or different forms of the same word?  second-handsecond-hand:: two words or just one?two words or just one?  What aboutWhat about record playerrecord player??  AndAnd bits and piecesbits and pieces?? Is this a self-contained unit orIs this a self-contained unit or three separate words?three separate words?  AreAre lookinglooking andand looking forlooking for the samethe same??  Doing upDoing up meansmeans renovaterenovate, but it is separated by the, but it is separated by the wordword themthem; is it one or two words then?; is it one or two words then?
  • 5. WhatWhat isis aa wordword thenthen?? Defining the termDefining the term wordword is a highly complex taskis a highly complex task  Words have different functions.Words have different functions.  The same word can have a variety of forms.The same word can have a variety of forms.  Words can be added to, or combined, to form newWords can be added to, or combined, to form new words.words.  Words can group together to form units that behave asWords can group together to form units that behave as if they were single words.if they were single words.  Many words commonly co-occur with other words.Many words commonly co-occur with other words.  Words may look and/or sound the same but have quiteWords may look and/or sound the same but have quite different meanings.different meanings.  One word may have a variety of overlapping meanings.One word may have a variety of overlapping meanings.  Different words may share similar meanings, or mayDifferent words may share similar meanings, or may have opposite meanings.have opposite meanings.  Words can have the same or similar meanings but beWords can have the same or similar meanings but be used in different situations or for different effectsused in different situations or for different effects
  • 6. WhatWhat doesdoes know aknow a wordword meanmean?? Knowing a word means:Knowing a word means:  having the ability to recognize it in its spokenhaving the ability to recognize it in its spoken and written formsand written forms  knowing its different meanings.knowing its different meanings.  knowing its part of speech [eg. a noun, aknowing its part of speech [eg. a noun, a verb]verb]  being able to pronounce it properlybeing able to pronounce it properly  being able to use it correctly within a contextbeing able to use it correctly within a context  being able to recognize different varieties ofbeing able to recognize different varieties of English; e.g boot/trunk, lift/elevatorEnglish; e.g boot/trunk, lift/elevator [British/American].[British/American].
  • 7. HowHow areare wordswords learned?learned? “Without grammar very little can be conveyed. Without vocabulary“Without grammar very little can be conveyed. Without vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.”nothing can be conveyed.”  What makes youWhat makes you swerveswerve your car?your car?  The limo surges forward and starts toThe limo surges forward and starts to swerveswerve wildly overwildly over the road.the road.  The bus driverThe bus driver swervedswerved to avoid hitting the cycliststo avoid hitting the cyclists  She is one of those rare politicians whom one can trust notShe is one of those rare politicians whom one can trust not toto swerveswerve fromfrom policy and principle.policy and principle.  Hitting the brakes would make the bikesHitting the brakes would make the bikes swerveswerve more.more.  The driver made no attempt toThe driver made no attempt to swerveswerve out of their pathout of their path  Nothing couldNothing could swerveswerve himhim  Last and surprisingly, for such a small town you can stillLast and surprisingly, for such a small town you can still get yourget your swerveswerve on with the nightlife.on with the nightlife.  He managed to pass the ball with a perfect bodyHe managed to pass the ball with a perfect body swerve.swerve. 
  • 8. HowHow areare wordswords organized?organized? The mind seems to store words neither randomly nor in the form of aThe mind seems to store words neither randomly nor in the form of a list, but in a highly organized and interconnected fashion — in what islist, but in a highly organized and interconnected fashion — in what is often called theoften called the mental lexicon.mental lexicon.
  • 9. WhyWhy should we testshould we test vocabularyvocabulary??  FeedbackFeedback  BackwashBackwash effecteffect  MotivationMotivation  RecyclingRecycling
  • 10. HowHow should we testshould we test vocabularyvocabulary??  SeparatedSeparated from skills?from skills?  DiscreteDiscrete pointpoint or integrative items?or integrative items?  Focus onFocus on lexislexis or contextualized meaning?or contextualized meaning?
  • 11. What are the most commonWhat are the most common test formatstest formats forfor testing vocabulary?testing vocabulary? RecognitionRecognition  Multiple choice items (Liu, 121)Multiple choice items (Liu, 121)  Error-recognition items (Liu, 129)Error-recognition items (Liu, 129)  Pairing and matching itemsPairing and matching items  Gap-filling itemsGap-filling items  Cloze/Modified Cloze (Hughes, 144)Cloze/Modified Cloze (Hughes, 144)  Guessing meaning from contextGuessing meaning from context
  • 12. WhenWhen should we go forshould we go for vocabularyvocabulary recognitionrecognition?? When…When…  More material needs to be covered.More material needs to be covered.  You want to test different levels ofYou want to test different levels of learning.learning.  You have little time for scoring.You have little time for scoring.  You are not interested in evaluatingYou are not interested in evaluating how well a test taker can formulate ahow well a test taker can formulate a correct answer.correct answer.  You have a large number of test takers.You have a large number of test takers.
  • 13. What are the most commonWhat are the most common test formatstest formats forfor testing vocabulary?testing vocabulary? ProductionProduction  Completion items (Hughes, 143)Completion items (Hughes, 143)  Transformation items (Liu, 131)Transformation items (Liu, 131)  Paraphrase (Hughes, 143)Paraphrase (Hughes, 143)  Table completionTable completion  Combination and addition itemsCombination and addition items  Items involving the changing of wordsItems involving the changing of words
  • 14. WhenWhen should we go forshould we go for vocabularyvocabulary productionproduction?? When…When…  You want to evaluate a person’s abilityYou want to evaluate a person’s ability to formulate a correct answer.to formulate a correct answer.  You have more time to score the itemsYou have more time to score the items  You want to test a persons ability toYou want to test a persons ability to apply concepts and information to aapply concepts and information to a new situation.new situation.  You have a clear idea of the aspectsYou have a clear idea of the aspects and concepts that should be tested.and concepts that should be tested.
  • 15. TestTest FormatsFormats
  • 16. Multiple ChoiceMultiple Choice The flight attendant asked the passengers toThe flight attendant asked the passengers to ______ attention to the safety demonstration.______ attention to the safety demonstration. a. give b. devote c. pay d. lenda. give b. devote c. pay d. lend  They can be tricky or too pickyThey can be tricky or too picky  Difficult to test attitudes towards learningDifficult to test attitudes towards learning  Knowledge is limited to options providedKnowledge is limited to options provided  Difficult to construct at higher levelsDifficult to construct at higher levels  Encourages guessing (25% chance)Encourages guessing (25% chance)  More than one option may be possibleMore than one option may be possible  All options must be grammatically possibleAll options must be grammatically possible
  • 17. Matching Word-DefinitionMatching Word-Definition Tangle means…Tangle means… a.a. A type of danceA type of dance b.b. A tropical forestA tropical forest c.c. A confused massA confused mass d.d. A kind of fruitA kind of fruit  They are not communicativeThey are not communicative  Difficult to test attitudes towards learningDifficult to test attitudes towards learning  Words have diverse connotationsWords have diverse connotations  Encourages guessing (25% chance)Encourages guessing (25% chance)  One word class at a timeOne word class at a time
  • 18. Single SelectionSingle Selection Someone was (playing/singing) the tune and forSomeone was (playing/singing) the tune and for a moment you were happy to go (along/away)a moment you were happy to go (along/away) with what seemed a reasonable idea.with what seemed a reasonable idea.  They are authentic and communicativeThey are authentic and communicative  Words are part of a broader contextWords are part of a broader context  Knowledge is limited to options providedKnowledge is limited to options provided  Encourages guessing (50%)Encourages guessing (50%)  Difficult to design but easy to markDifficult to design but easy to mark
  • 19. Correction/EditingCorrection/Editing Maria bought a skarf for the winterMaria bought a skarf for the winter  Tests recognition of mistakesTests recognition of mistakes  Is focused on word spelling onlyIs focused on word spelling only  Mistakes are ungrammaticalMistakes are ungrammatical  Negative backwashNegative backwash  Context is important but not essentialContext is important but not essential
  • 20. Guessing Meaning from ContextGuessing Meaning from Context Unlike the guitar, theUnlike the guitar, the fiddlefiddle has four strings on ahas four strings on a fingerboard without frets.fingerboard without frets.  Tests contextualized knowledgeTests contextualized knowledge  Context is crucialContext is crucial  Communicative and authenticCommunicative and authentic  Positive backwashPositive backwash  Difficult for some students (bias)Difficult for some students (bias)  Tests various types of word relationshipsTests various types of word relationships
  • 21. Gap-FillingGap-Filling The flight attendant asked the passengers toThe flight attendant asked the passengers to ______ attention to the safety demonstration.______ attention to the safety demonstration.  They must have a broader contextThey must have a broader context  More than one option may be possibleMore than one option may be possible (unless tester provides limited options or(unless tester provides limited options or first letter)first letter)  Tests can focus on content wordsTests can focus on content words  Production is tested unless options areProduction is tested unless options are providedprovided  Focus should be on the aspect assessedFocus should be on the aspect assessed
  • 22. ClozeCloze John ______ works ______Monday ______FridayJohn ______ works ______Monday ______Friday  Tests student’s understanding of the wholeTests student’s understanding of the whole languagelanguage  Many word types can be testedMany word types can be tested  Understanding of context is crucialUnderstanding of context is crucial  Difficult to test attitudes towards learningDifficult to test attitudes towards learning  Some words may be impossible to guessSome words may be impossible to guess  Can test student’s IQ rather than languageCan test student’s IQ rather than language proficiencyproficiency  Difficult for some students (bias)Difficult for some students (bias)
  • 23. Table CompletionTable Completion Complete the table with positive, negative andComplete the table with positive, negative and neutral adjectivesneutral adjectives  Tests language structureTests language structure  Tests word-buildingTests word-building  Many word types can be testedMany word types can be tested  Not communicative at allNot communicative at all  Tests use but not language usageTests use but not language usage  Difficult to test attitudes towards learningDifficult to test attitudes towards learning
  • 24. Word TransformationWord Transformation Turn verbs into nouns:Turn verbs into nouns: 1.1. The opera was conducted by the (compose)____The opera was conducted by the (compose)____  Not very communicative (without context)Not very communicative (without context)  Clues will limit the answersClues will limit the answers  Difficult to test attitudes towards learningDifficult to test attitudes towards learning  Some context may be addedSome context may be added  Instructions are essentialInstructions are essential  Few aspects might be assessed (wordFew aspects might be assessed (word classes, synonyms, antonyms…)classes, synonyms, antonyms…)
  • 25. Five characteristics to measureFive characteristics to measure communicativecommunicative vocabularyvocabulary 1.1. Provide enough context to elicit meaning.Provide enough context to elicit meaning. 2.2. Asess lexis within a limited number ofAsess lexis within a limited number of semantic fields.semantic fields. 3.3. Give a communicative purpose to theGive a communicative purpose to the assessment task. Make it meaningful.assessment task. Make it meaningful. 4.4. Give clues to identify the audience.Give clues to identify the audience. 5.5. S/He must have to focus on meaning andS/He must have to focus on meaning and not just form to answer correctly.not just form to answer correctly. 6.6. Recognition is not sufficient. The testRecognition is not sufficient. The test taker must give evidence that s/he knowstaker must give evidence that s/he knows how to use the unit of vocabularyhow to use the unit of vocabulary
  • 26. Evidence showsEvidence shows that semantically relatedthat semantically related items are 'stored together’items are 'stored together’ in a series ofin a series of associative networks. A large 'master file', andassociative networks. A large 'master file', and 'peripheral access files‘ contain information about'peripheral access files‘ contain information about spelling, phonology, syntax and meaning.spelling, phonology, syntax and meaning.  Knowing a word, then, is the sum total of allKnowing a word, then, is the sum total of all these connections — semantic, syntactic,these connections — semantic, syntactic, phonological, orthographic, morphological,phonological, orthographic, morphological, cognitive, cultural and autobiographical. It iscognitive, cultural and autobiographical. It is unlikely, therefore, that any two speakers willunlikely, therefore, that any two speakers will 'know' a word in exactly the same way.'know' a word in exactly the same way.  Knowing vocabulary also involves knowing how toKnowing vocabulary also involves knowing how to use it in context.use it in context. In ConclusionIn Conclusion

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