Instituto Pedagógico de Caracas Departamento de Idiomas Modernos Cátedra de Lingüística Didáctica del Inglés Prof. Mirna QuinteroThe Natural Approach Bach. Irania Salmerón Vanessa Contreras
Background Tracy Terrell (1977)"a proposal for a new philosophy of language teaching” It grew out of Terrells experiences teaching Spanish classes
Tracy Terrell & Stephen Krashen Joined forcesin elaborating a theoretical rationale for the Natural Approach Based on… Second Language Acquisition Theory
Natural Approach: A Traditional Approach It is…based on the use of language in communicative situations without recourse to the native language (Krashen and Terrel 1983).
Main Developers: Tracy Terrel & Stephen Krashen
Thre are differences The Natural Method = Direct MethodThe method consisted of series of monologues by the teacher interspersed with exchanges of question andanswer between the instructor and the pupil -all in the foreign language-... A great deal of pantomime accompanied the talk. (Cole 1931)
The Natural Approach:…places less emphasis on teacher monologues, direct repetition, and formal questions andanswers, and less focus on accurate production of target language sentences… There is an emphasis on exposure, or input, rather than practice… (Richards & Rogers 1999)
Naturalistic Language learning. Emphasis on EXPOSURE, INPUT, rather than on practice. Central role of Comprehension. Communication as the primary function of language. Primacy of meaning. Importance of Vocabulary.
Stages of learners (Krashen’s view) The re-production stage where the learners are not forced to respond orally and are allowed to decide their own when to start to speak. The early-production stage, promotes short answers and the student have to respond to simple questions and to use fixed conversational patterns. The speech-emergent stage the use of complex utterances emerges, for example in role plays or games.
1) The Acquisition Language Hypothesis Acquisition: is the natural way Subconscious process. Meaningful communication. Learning: conscious process in which conscious rules about the language are developed. Requires language teaching.
2) The Monitor Hypothesis Conscious Learning can function as monitor that checks and repairs the output of the acquired system.
3) The Natural Order Hypothesis Based on SLA forYL. (Brown) Certain grammatical structures or morphemes are acquired before others. Erors are signs of naturalistic developmental processes.
4) The Input Hypothesis People acquire language best by being exposed to Input that slightly above their current level of competence. i+1 formula Clues based on situation, context extralinguistic information to make comprehension possible. Caretaker speech, slower rate, repetition use Yes/No more than WH questioms to help to be comprehensible.
5) The Affective Filter Hypothesis Krashen considers the learner’s emotional state as a Filter that passes, impedes or blocks the Input necessary to acquisition. Affective Variables: Motivation Self-confidence Anxiety
The Teacher’s role is: To generate a lot of Input. To create an interesting and friendly atmosphere. To select the most appropriate classroom activities based on students’ needs.
Krashen supports… The direct method The TPR method Suggestopedia …as a tool to make INPUT
Progression of Commandsa. Simple actions (“walk”, “jump”)b. Simple actions involving objects and locations (“walk to the door”)c. Recombinations of actions and objects (“walk to the chair”, “touch the chair”)d. Recombinations of actions and objects involving transferring meaning to a new situation (“shake your head”, “shake my hand”)e. Chains of actions leading into an activity sequence (“Take the can”, “Open the can”, “Pour the water” .... “Drink the lemonade”).
Teaching Techniques. S/A. [Dumento en linea] Disponible: http://www.oneonta.edu/faculty/thomasrl/YaTeachTech.pdf Consulta: [Octubre, 30, 2011] Richars & Rodgers (1991). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. NewYork: Cambridge Press.