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Methods and Approaches (Introduction to the course)
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Methods and Approaches (Introduction to the course)


Must-see introductory Power Point presentation to the course featuring a number of language teaching methods and approaches

Must-see introductory Power Point presentation to the course featuring a number of language teaching methods and approaches

Published in Education
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  • 2. Are they the same?
  • 3. Are they the same? Language teaching philosophies that can be interpreted and applied in a variety of different ways in the classroom. (Rodgers, 2001) Fixed teaching systems with prescribed techniques and practices. (Rodgers, 2001) A technique is implementational. That trick, stratagem or contrivance which actually takes place in the classroom to accomplish an immediate objective. (Anthony, 1963)
  • 4.  
  • 5.
    • L2 is learned to read and translate literary texts
    • Speaking and listening skills are neglected
    • Vocabulary: based on the texts used
    • Sentence: basic unit of teaching and language practice
    • Grammar: taught deductively
    • L1: basic medium of instruction
    • Johann Seidenstücker,
    • Karl Plötz,
    • H.S Ollendorf,
    • Johann Meidinger
  • 6.
    • Classes conducted exclusively in the target language.
    • Only everyday vocabulary and sentences are taught.
    • Grammar taught inductively.
    • Correct pronunciation and grammar emphasized.
    • New teaching points are introduced orally.
    • Listening and speaking skills are developed.
    • Oral skills practiced by question-answer
    • exchanges between teachers and learners.
    • Maximilian Berlitz
  • 7.
    • L2 learning process = habit
    • Teaching L2 =teaching aspects of its cultural system
    • Grammar is taught inductively
    • Speech precedes written form
    Theory of language Structural Linguistics Language is a system of elements linearly arranged
    • Reinforcement
    • No reinforcement
    Theory of learning Behaviorism Stimulus (Input) Organism (Learner) Response Behavior (Verbal behavior)
  • 8.
    • U.S Army
    • Charles Fries
    “ Language is what a speaker needs to know to be communicatively competent in speech community” (Hymes, D) Theory of language “ Language = Communication” Theory of learning Cognitivism
    • Aquisition vs. Learning
    • Meaningful learning
    • Linguistic competence Fuctional performance
    • Language learning = learning to communicate
    • Effective communication is sought
    • Contextualization is basic
    • Learner-centered
    • The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses
    • Language is a system for the expression of meaning
  • 9.
    • Learner contributes as much as he/she gains (Breen and Candlin)
    • Text-based
    • Facilitator
    • Researcher
    • Mediator
    • Learner
    • Counselor
    • Needs analyst
    • Group process manager
    • Varied
    • Tak-based
    • Realia
    • Presentation of a brief dialogue(discussion of setting and situation, function)
    • Oral practice (asking questions)
    • Use of different resources (visual aids) to exemplify and explain language
    • Learner discovery of grammar rules (oral and written form)
    • Oral and written production
    • Informal assesment
    • Homework (Finocchiaro and Brumfit)
  • 10.
    • Focuses on meaning interpreted through movement rather than on language forms
    • L1 and L2 are parallel processes
    • Listening precedes speaking
    • TPR directed to right-brain learning
    • Learner acquires language through motor movement (a right hemisphere activity) and then the left hemisphere will produce more abstract language procesess.
    Stress Reduction The BIO Program Brain Lateralization Theory of language Structuralism
    • Chunks instead of single lexical items
    Theory of learning Behaviorism Sv (Verbal stimulus) R (Physical Movement)
  • 11.
    • Listener and performer
    • Learners monitor and evaluate their own progress
    Chooses, models and presents the materials to be used in class Controls the input given
    • Printed materials are optional
    • Realia
    • Visual aids may be used to complement teacher’s explanation
    • Review on commands taught in previous sessions
    • Introduction of new commands
    • Asking questions
    • Role reversal (students give commands to classmates)
    • Reading and Writing activities are done (teacher writes vocabulary on the board)
    • James Asher
  • 12.
    • Learning to learn
    • Inner criteria
    • Near-native fluency
    • Language is separated from its social context and taught through artificial situations
    • Lessons follow a sequence of lexical complexity
    • Grammar taught inductively
    • Caleb Gattegno
    Theory of language Structuralism
    • Sentence is considered the basic unit of teaching
    • Use of Cuisenaire words
    • Words in color
    Theory of learning Cognitivism Awareness
  • 13.
    • Learners are expected to be independent, autonomous, responsible in their own learning
    • As silent as possible
    • Neutral-observer
    • Assistant
    • Sets the mood
    • Models the actions
    • Performance critic
    • Colorful visual aids are crucial
    • Color-coded charts divided in rods.
    • Prononciation charts are called “Fidels”
    • The 1st part of the lesson focuses on pronunciation
    • The teacher models, then students repeat.
    • Sentence patterns, structure, and vocabulary are practiced
  • 14.
    • Focuses on near-native language mastery
    • Language with communicative purposes
    • Syllabus negotiated between teacher and learner
    • Promotes students interaction
    • Learning is a “whole-person process”
    Theory of learning Constructivism Whole-person learning S = security A = agression R = retention/ reflection D =discrimination Theory of language Holistic (cognitive and affective)
  • 15.
    • Learners are members of a community
    • Learning is achieved collaborately
    • Teacher=counselor
    • Provides a pleasant, relaxed learning environment
    • Assists learners instead of judging them
    • Materials developed by the teacher (if needed)
    • Informal greetings made
    • Teacher states the purpose of the session
    • a volunteer records a message in L1
    • Teacher translates and then everybody repeats and creates a similar message.
    • Reflection period
    • From the material recorded the teacher writes some sentences on a board
    • Clarifying stage
  • 16.
    • Specific objectives depend on the learners’ needs
    • Focuses on receptive skills (listening and reading), productive skills (speaking and writing) should be allowed to “emerge”
    • Tracy Terrel
    • Stephen Krashen
    Theory of language
    • Language for communicative purposes
    Theory of learning
    • The acquisition/learning hypothesis
    • The monitor hipothesis
    • The natural order hipothesis
    • The input hypothesis
    • The affective filter hypothesis
  • 17.
    • Pre-production stage: participates (not necessarily in L2)
    • Early-production stage: Students answer questions in L2
    • Speech-emergent phase: students get involved in role-plays, games, give opinions
    • Primary source of comprehensible input in L2
    • Creates a friendly atmosphere
    • Varies classroom activities to promote meaningful learning
    • Use of realia rather than textbook
    • Visual aids are essential
    • Games
    • Adopts techniques and activities from various methods. E.g: TPR
  • 18.
    • Aims to develop speaking quickly
    • Mastering of wide variety of vocabulary in L2
    • Presentation and performance
    • Unconscious learning
    • Learner’s mental state is considered important
    • Georgi Lozanov
    Theory of language Structuralism Lexis centered/memorization Theory of learning Cognitivism
    • Hypnotism
  • 19.
    • Smoking and drinking are prohibited during the course
    • Sucess depend on learner’s mental state
    • Pseudo-passive state
    • They are given a new name and personal history within the target culture
    • Situation-designer
    • Maintains a formal attitude during the lesson
    • Encourages participation
    • Text and tapes
    • Music as a meas of relaxation
    • Comfortable furniture
    • Oral review section
    • Presentation of new content after a few minutes of silence and relaxation
    • Music session
  • 20. Anthony, E. (1963) ELT Journal. XVII (2): 63-67. Approach ,Method, and Technique . Richards, J ; Rodgers, T. “Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching” 5th ed.1989. Melbourne. Cambridge University Press Rodgers, T. (2001) Language Teaching Methodology. Online Resources. Issue Paper. Consulted on-line: Stern, H. “Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching” 2nd ed. 1984. London Oxford University Press
  • 21.