Instituto Pedagógico de CaracasDepartamento de Idiomas Modernos Cátedra de Lingüística Didáctica del Inglés Prof. Mirna Quintero Bach. Irania Salmerón Vanessa Contreras
Background Before CLT Situational Language Teaching (SLT) Practice of basic structures in meaningful situation-based activities. It was based on structuralism. Developers: Hornby, J.R. Firth, M. A. Halliday. Late 60s: there was a need to focus language teaching on communicative proficiency.
It was necessary to teach adults the major language of… The European Common Market The Council of Europe It was considered a high priority to articulate and develop alternative methods of language teaching. Mid 70s: the scope of Communicative Language Teaching had expanded.
Background Developers: D.A. Wilkins Henry Widdowson Christopher Cadlin Christopher Keith Johnson Aims of CLT:A) “Make a communicative competence the goal of language teaching, and…B) Develop procedures for the teaching of the four language skills that acknowledge the interdependence of language and communication” (Richards J. & Rogers T. 1999)
CLT Characteristics according to Finocchiaro and Brumfit (1983) Meaning is paramount. Dialogs, if used, center around communicative functions and are not normally memorized. Contextualization is a basic premise. Language learning is learning to communicate. Comprehensible pronunciation is sought. Any technique which helps the learners is accepted - varying according to their age, interest, etc. Communicative competence is the desired goal. Fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal. Quoted in (Richards J. & Rogers T.( 1999)
“There is no single text or authority on it, nor any single model that is universally accepted as authoritative.” (Richards J. & Rogers T. 1999)
Based on: Hymes’ Theory (communicative competence) Halliday’s Theory (functions) Widowson’s view (Purposes of Lg.)
How well does the student combine the language’s elements to speak or write in English?How well the person uses bothverbal forms and non-verbalcommunication to compensatefor lack of knowledge in the other Ability to use the languagethree competencies correctly, how well a person has learned features and rules of the language Ability to use language correctly in specific social situations Brown, 2009
The primary function of language is for interaction and communication. The structure of language reflects its functional and communicative uses. The primary units of language are not merely its grammatical and structural features, but categories of functional and communicative meaning.
Learner centered and experience based. Skill-syllabus & functional-syllabus based. Meaningful tasks. Functional activities. Social interaction activities. Accuracy and fluency are sought. Students induce or discover grammar rules. The teacher facilitates and monitors the process.
link grammatical development to the ability to communicate. create the need for communication and interaction. allow students to apply what they have learned to their own lives. make use of authentic texts to create interest and to provide valid models of language.
“According to CLT, the acquisition ofcommunicative competence in a language is an example of skill development. Thisinvolves both a cognitive and a behavioral aspect” (Johnson & Littlewood, quoted in Richards & Rodgers, 1999)
Krashen’s Theory (Language Acquisition)“Acquisition refers to the unconscious development of the target language system as a result of using the language for real communication” “Learning is the conscious representation of grammatical knowledge that has resulted from instruction, and it cannot lead to acquisition”
1. Activities that involve real communication promote learning.2. Activities in which language is used for carrying out meaningful tasks promote learning.3. Language that is meaningful to the learner supports the learning process.
Brown, P. (2009). What’s CTL? [Blog en linea] Language Matters. Disponible: http://language instinct.blogspot.com/2006/09/what-is-clt-language- competencies.html [Consulta: 2011, Octubre 25]Richards, J. (2006). Communicative Language Teaching Today. NewYork: Cambridge Press.Richars & Rodgers (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. NewYork: Cambridge Press.