Inadequate port facilities and a lack of warehousing and cold storage installations impede both domestic and international agricultural trade.
The U.S. trade deficit with China rose to $273.1 billion in 2010. This represents almost 55% of the total U.S. trade deficit. While U.S. exports to China grew by a third in 2010 to an all-time high of $91.9 billion, U.S. imports from China increased 23.1% to $364.9 billion.
A recent trend has shifted low-end assembly industries to China from the newly industrialized economies in Asia.
Chinese value-added gets over-counted. China's restrictive trade practices, which include an array of barriers to foreign goods and services, are often aimed at protecting state-owned enterprises. Under its WTO accession agreement, China is reducing tariffs, eliminating import licensing requirements, and addressing other trade barriers.
China can impose anti-dumping duties on foreign goods if there is evidence showing that they are sold at dumping prices.
The steel industry, one of China’s largest industries, subsidizes domestic producers.
China uses both tariff and non-tariff measures to regulate imports. Tariffs imposed include import duty (applied on the import CIF value and a few specific and compound duties on the volume imported), value added tax (VAT) and consumption tax; non-tariff measures include import licenses, quota control, restricted import list, etc.
Value added tax (VAT) is imposed on all commodities in addition to import tariffs. The basic rate is 17% and 13% on the following commodities: food and edible vegetable oil; drinking water, heating, natural gas, coal gas, liquefied petroleum gas; books, newspapers and magazines; feedstuffs, chemical fertilizer, pesticides, agricultural machinery and agricultural plastic sheeting.
11 categories of goods are also subject to consumption tax when entering China. These include: cigarettes, liquor, cosmetics, skin- and hair-care products, jewellery, firecrackers and fireworks, petroleum, diesel, motor vehicle tyres, motorcycles and small motor vehicles. The tax rates range between 3% and 45%.
Imports of 35 product categories (374 items) are subject to import licensing control.
- Importers are required to obtain in prior the approval and licence from the different government departments, namely the State Development Planning Commission, the Ministry of Commerce (MOFCOM)--formerly the MOFTEC--and the Mechanic and Electronic Products Import and Export Department.
- Certain imports into China are subject to both licensing and quota control. Imports into China are classified into two major categories: 1. 15 machinery and electronic products; and 2. 13 general commodities.
Many companies shy away from franchising in China due to issues in the country’s laws on trademark infringement and patent protection, underdeveloped infrastructure, uncertainties relating to the enforcement of contracts and the weak dispute- settlement mechanism.
With the entry of China to the World Trade Organization, more and more foreign franchisors will be allowed to do franchising in the marketplace of China with less and less restrictions in the coming years.
Utility Patents: which cover any new and useful process, machine, article of manufacture, or composition of matter
Design Patents: which cover any new, original, and ornamental design for an article of manufacture
Plant Patents: which cover distinct and new plant varieties
Three types in the China:
An invention patent in China is closest to the utility patent in the United States and protects "any new technical solution relating to a product, a process or improvement" for a period of 20 years from the date of filing the patent application.
A utility model patent in China lies somewhere between a United States utility patent and a design patent in that it protects "any new technical solution relating to the shape, the structure, or their combination, of a product which is fit for practical use."
A design patent in China is much like a design patent in the United States in that it protects "any new design of the shape, pattern, color, or their combination, of a product, which creates an aesthetic feeling and is fit for industrial application."
After 1949, all business entities in China were created and owned by the government.
Then, in the late 1980s, the government began to reform the state-owned enterprise, and during the 1990s and 2000s, many mid-sized and small sized state-owned enterprises were privatized and went public.
State-owned enterprises are governed by both local governments and, in the central government, the national State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission.
The private sector, concentrated on the country's southeastern coast, remains a small slice of an economy that is still dominated by government-owned enterprises.
Chinese employees are paid monthly, not bi-weekly. A typical Chinese employee gets between 12-13 paychecks a year. The 13th is usually a yearend bonus. Bonuses vary depending on status with the company. Laborers will usually get up to two weeks, while upper level managers can get up to two months.
An average Chinese wage of $0.57 per hour -- or $104 per month -- is about 3 percent of the average U.S. manufacturing worker's wage
The average hourly wage for a worker in a rural setting was $0.41 per hour, and migrant workers are making even less than that. The average annual earnings for manufacturing workers in cities were $1,347 (11,152 yuan at the official exchange rate) for the year 2002.
• As in the US, a normal work week is eight hours a day, five days a week. If overtime is approved, typically up to five hours is allotted and only four hours on Saturday. More than four or five hours for a given week is uncommon. The maximum days per week an employee is allowed to work is six.
• The following is how overtime is calculated for hourly workers:
In addition to two weeks off per year, Chinese employees also receive ten paid holidays.
If a laborer works for a foreign company, he/she will typically get a few extra holidays that the foreign company celebrates in their home country. Chinese New Year is the biggest holiday celebrated in China. It is not uncommon for companies to shut down for up to three days during this time.
Chinese employees are usually provided with:
shuttle buses in larger cities
access to shower facilities is limited for laborers and is greatly appreciated as a benefit of working for foreign companies.
As far as the workplace is concerned, a MOH report revealed that only 36.89 per cent of sampled points in 2,593 TVEs cleared the national exposure limits of occupational health hazards such as benzene, asbestos, chromium, lead, dust and noise.
China experiences one of the worst cases of pollution in the world in its large cities like Hong Kong & Bejing. This is why our product would be really beneficial for the Chinese public.
China sees green as the future engine of its economy. Although currently the world leading greenhouse gas emitter, China is serious about slowing greenhouse gas emissions and using renewable energy.
Age is 16, but China is known for it’s sweat shops that employ young children.
In recent years there have also been kidnapping child slave labor rings, involving mostly children between 13-15.
The All-China Federation of Trade Unions is the sole national trade union federation of the People's Republic of China. It is the largest trade union in the world with 134 million members in 1,713,000 primary trade union organizations
The ACFTU is divided into 31 regional federations and 10 national industrial unions.
263 million landlines in a population of 1.3 billion people.
China is the world’s largest mobile telephone market
Within China, mobile communication is the most profitable sub-sector of the telecommunications market. This is dominated by two domestic companies, China Mobile, and China Unicom cutting into fixed line services of China Telecom, amongst others.
Retailers & Wholesalers For years, China has been known as the country that you can produce a lot of products for a low price, but in some places that’s changing. Production is cheaper in rural areas. Still, China is the world leader in production of retail and wholesale products. Especially because many car companies base their production in China, we feel that production in China would be the most economical choice for maximum profitability. Often times, companies coming to China hire middlemen, who help with the company’s transition to new culture, laws, and environment.
China had 457 million netizens by the end of 2010, up 73 million from a year earlier. The number of broadband users increased by 104 million to 450 million in 2010.
The value of China's e-commerce transactions grew 22% to
･ 4 .5 trillion in 2010, where the value of B2B transactions was up 15.8% to
･ 3 .8 trillion, and online retail sales were up 97.3% to
･ 5 13.1 billion, which accounted for 3% of total retail sales.
Dominant players in China's Internet space:
Baidu.com, China's most used search engine, controls over 70% of search market
Alibaba,com is the operator of China's top C2C site Taobao.com that recorded
4 00 billion of transactions in 2010
Alipay, China's most used third party payment service that had 550 million
Media in China Output of China's media industry expanded 17.7% to 5 80.8 billion in 2010 and is expected to be 6 88.24 billion in 2011. Ads revenue growth from the Internet, film and broadcast segment markets was up 54.9%, 47.4% and 34% respectively from the year before. Newspapers:- China had 1,937 newspapers that printed 43.91 billion copies in 2009;- Newspaper ad revenues were ･ 9 1.1 billion in 2009;- Revenue from real estate, retail and auto ads in newspapers (top three advertisers) was up 1.6%, 21.9% and 35.7% year on year respectively in 1H 2010. Periodicals:- China had 9,851 periodicals that printed 3.15 billion copies valued at ･ 2 0.24 billion in 2009;- Periodical ads revenue was down 2.1% to ･ 3 .04 billion in 2009, accounting for less than 4% of total revenue of the publications industry;- Over 2/3 of the periodicals such as scientific findings or industry reports were not commercially available in 2009.
Media in China Cont’d Radio & TV:- China's radio revenue was up 12.8% to ･ 8 .15 billion in 2009;- Radio revenue accounted for 3.52% of total ads revenue in 2009, down from 3.6% in the year before;- Increased number of private cars is an impetus to radio ads- Total radio and TV revenues were expected to exceed ･ 2 00 billion in 2009;- The number of cable TV users was up 6.9% to 175 million in 2009;- The number of digital TV users was up 39.7% to 63.22 million in 2009;- 7.13 million households paid ･ 1 .82 billion for premium digital TV programs in 2009, up 58.6% and 27.8% respectively from the year before. Movies:- China's box offices grossed ･ 1 0 billion in 2010, up 64% from the year before;- Ticket revenue from domestic movies accounted for 56% of total grossing in 2010;- Close to 300 million tickets were sold in 2010;- Over 1,500 screens were launched in 2010, taking the total number to over 6,000. TV dramas:- 402 TV dramas with 12,910 episodes were given licenses to be aired in 2009, compared to 502 dramas and 14,498 episodes respectively in the year before;- 60% of the episodes were aired between prime time (7:20pm- 10:20pm);- 20% of the episodes were never aired.