ASPHYXIA<br />
Definition<br />It isany condition thatleads to:<br />   - reduction of the oxygensupply to the blood and the tissues belo...
Types of anoxia:<br />(1) Anoxicanoxia:<br />     - Ambient.<br />     - Central.<br />     - Paralytic.<br />     - Mecha...
Stages of mechanicalanoxia or violent asphyxia:<br />Three stages:<br />(1) Stage of forced respiration:<br />     - It is...
General postmortempicture of mechanicalanoxia:<br />   - Deepcyanosis.<br />   - Proptosis of the eyeballs.<br />   - Bloo...
Hanging<br />Definition:<br />It is the mechanicalanoxicdeath due to suspensionof the body from the neck by a ligature.<br...
Post-mortem picture:<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br />    - Protrusion of the tongue.<br />    - Dribbling o...
Types of hanging<br />
Strangulation<br />Definition:<br />    It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by constriction of the neck by a ligature oc...
Postmortempicture of strangulation:<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br />All are neck signs:<br />       - Ligat...
Throttling               «Manual strangulation»<br />Definition:<br />     It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by constr...
Postmortempicture:<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br />     All are neck signs<br />    - Multiple contusions a...
Smothering<br />Definition:<br />     It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by occlusion of the externalrespiratoryopening...
Traumatic asphyxia: Overlaying<br />Definition:<br />    It is the mechanicalanoxicdeath due to mechanical pressure by a h...
Postmortempicture<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br />        - Contusions and abrasions of the chest and abdom...
Choking<br />Definition:<br />     It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by occlusion of the respiratory passages frominsi...
Drowning<br />Definition:<br />    It is the mechanicalanoxicdeath due to submersion of the respiratoryopeningsunder water...
Posrmortempicture of drowning<br />- Sure externalsigns:<br />     . Froth<br />     . Cadavericspasm<br />- Probable exte...
Asphyxia presentation
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Asphyxia presentation

12,148

Published on

Published in: Health & Medicine
0 Comments
11 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
12,148
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
738
Comments
0
Likes
11
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Asphyxia presentation

  1. 1. ASPHYXIA<br />
  2. 2. Definition<br />It isany condition thatleads to:<br /> - reduction of the oxygensupply to the blood and the tissues below the the normal physiologicallevel (hypoxia).<br /> - elevation of CO2 in the blood (hypercapnia).<br />**Hypoxiameans (lowoxygen) whileanoxiameans (withoutoxygen).<br />
  3. 3. Types of anoxia:<br />(1) Anoxicanoxia:<br /> - Ambient.<br /> - Central.<br /> - Paralytic.<br /> - Mechanical (violent asphyxia).<br /> - Obstruction of the blood flow to the lungs.<br />(2) Anemicanoxia:<br /> - Chemicallycombinedhemoglobin.<br /> - Hemolysis.<br /> - Hemorrhage.<br />(3) Stagnant anoxia.<br />(4) Histotoxicanoxia.<br />
  4. 4. Stages of mechanicalanoxia or violent asphyxia:<br />Three stages:<br />(1) Stage of forced respiration:<br /> - It is due to stimulation of the respiratory center.<br /> - Clinicalpicture: DYSPNEA<br />(2) Stage of convulsions:<br /> - It is due to cerebral irritation.<br /> - Clinicalpicture: CONVULSIONS, CYANOSIS, HYPERTENSION, LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS, CONSTRICTED PUPILS.<br />(3) Stage of paralysis:<br /> - Clinicalpicture: LOSS OF CONSCIOUSNESS, FLACCID MUSCLES & LOST REFLEXES, DEEP CYANOSIS, DILATED PUPILS, IRREGULAR BREATHING (Cheyne-Stokes respiration).<br /> **Deathoccurs in about 5 minutes..<br />
  5. 5. General postmortempicture of mechanicalanoxia:<br /> - Deepcyanosis.<br /> - Proptosis of the eyeballs.<br /> - Bloody frothfrom the nose and mouth.<br /> - Congested face withpetechialhemorrhage all over.<br /> - Dark violet or blue extensive hypostasis.<br /> ** All these are externalsigns<br />N.B: Blood isdark and fluid in consistancy due to increased CO2 and fibrinolysisrespectively. <br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11.
  12. 12. Hanging<br />Definition:<br />It is the mechanicalanoxicdeath due to suspensionof the body from the neck by a ligature.<br />Causes of death:<br /> - Cerebralischemia.<br /> - Vagal cardiac inhibition.<br /> - Mechanicalanoxia.<br /> - Transection of the spinal cord (judicialhanging).<br />
  13. 13. Post-mortem picture:<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br /> - Protrusion of the tongue.<br /> - Dribbling of saliva.<br /> - Hypostasis of the lowerhalf of the body.<br /> - Neck signs:<br /> .Elongated and the headistilted to the opposite side of suspension point.<br /> .Ligature marks (HIGH UP in the neck, OBLIQUE, INCOMPLETE, has an IMPRINT of the ligature).<br /> ** Homicidal, suicidal or accidental<br />
  14. 14. Types of hanging<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
  19. 19.
  20. 20.
  21. 21.
  22. 22.
  23. 23.
  24. 24.
  25. 25.
  26. 26.
  27. 27.
  28. 28.
  29. 29.
  30. 30.
  31. 31. Strangulation<br />Definition:<br /> It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by constriction of the neck by a ligature occluding the air passages fromoutside.<br />Causes of death:<br /> - Mechanicalanoxia.<br /> - Reflex cardiac inhibition.<br /> - Delayededema of the glottis and choking.<br />
  32. 32. Postmortempicture of strangulation:<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br />All are neck signs:<br /> - Ligature marks:<br /> . Low in the neck below the thyroid cartilage.<br /> . Transverse.<br /> . Complete.<br /> . Deep all through.<br /> . Abrasions and contusions taking the shape of the ligatingmaterial.<br /> - Inward fracture of the hyoidbone and the thyroid cartilage maybefractured.<br /> - Contusions and lacerations of the neck muscles.<br />**Homicidal, suicidal or accidental<br />
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35.
  36. 36.
  37. 37.
  38. 38.
  39. 39.
  40. 40.
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
  44. 44.
  45. 45.
  46. 46.
  47. 47.
  48. 48. Throttling «Manual strangulation»<br />Definition:<br /> It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by constriction of the neck by the hand occluding the air passages fromoutside.<br />Causes of death:<br /> - Mechanicalanoxia.<br /> - Reflex cardiac inhibition.<br /> - Cerebralanoxia.<br /> - Delayedglotticedema and choking.<br />
  49. 49. Postmortempicture:<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br /> All are neck signs<br /> - Multiple contusions and fingernail abrasions.<br /> - Inward fracture of the hyoidbone (itis the mostcommon cause of hyoidbone fracture) and fracture of the thyroid cartilage.<br /> - Contusions of the deep tissues of the neck.<br />** Homicidal, suicidal or accidental<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51.
  52. 52.
  53. 53. Smothering<br />Definition:<br /> It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by occlusion of the externalrespiratoryopenings by the hand or soft objects.<br />Causes of death:<br />Mechanicalanoxia<br />Postmortempicture of smothering:<br /> (1) General<br /> (2) Specialfeatures<br /> - Multiple contusions and fingernail abrasions.<br /> - Contusions in the buccal mucosa.<br /> - Ventral hypostasis in cotdeath.<br />** Homicidal, suicidal or accidental<br />
  54. 54.
  55. 55.
  56. 56.
  57. 57.
  58. 58.
  59. 59. Traumatic asphyxia: Overlaying<br />Definition:<br /> It is the mechanicalanoxicdeath due to mechanical pressure by a heavyobject on the chestwith or without abdominal compression leading to prevention of respiratorymovements.<br />Causes of death:<br /> - Mechanicalanoxia.<br /> - Injury to vital organs. <br />
  60. 60. Postmortempicture<br />(1) General<br />(2) Specialfeatures<br /> - Contusions and abrasions of the chest and abdomen.<br /> - Fracture ribs.<br /> - Rupture of internalorgans.<br /> - Line of demarcationbetween the discoloredupper part of the body and the lower part.<br />** Homicidal, suicidal or accidental<br />
  61. 61.
  62. 62. Choking<br />Definition:<br /> It is the mechanicalanoxicdeathcaused by occlusion of the respiratory passages frominside.<br />Causes of death:<br /> - Reflex cardiac inhibition<br /> - Mechanicalanoxia<br />Types:<br /> - Pathological<br /> - Non-pathological<br />**Homicidal, suicidal or accidental<br />
  63. 63.
  64. 64.
  65. 65.
  66. 66.
  67. 67. Drowning<br />Definition:<br /> It is the mechanicalanoxicdeath due to submersion of the respiratoryopeningsunder water.<br />Causes of death:<br /> - Direct causes: mechanicalanoxia<br /> - Indirect causes: <br /> . Reflex cardiac inhibition due to vagal stimulation<br /> . Head injury or other fatal injuries.<br />
  68. 68. Posrmortempicture of drowning<br />- Sure externalsigns:<br /> . Froth<br /> . Cadavericspasm<br />- Probable externalsigns:<br /> . Related to anoxicanoxia: cyanosis<br /> . Related to presence of the body in water: <br /> skin is pale&wet<br />Goose skin<br />Washerwoman skin<br />Postmortem injuries<br /> . Affection of postmortem changes due to presence in water:<br />Cooling, hypostasis, adipocere, putrefaction<br />**Homicidal, suicidal or accidental<br />
  1. A particular slide catching your eye?

    Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later.

×