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Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
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Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement

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Transcript

  • 1.  
  • 2.
    • Chemistry – science that deals with matter and the changes that matter undergoes
    • Macroscopic – all around us
    • Microscopic – air, molecules, etc
  • 3. Scientific Problem Solving
    • 3 Step Process
      • 1. state problem and make observations (qualitative vs. quantitative)
      • 2. formulate a possible solution
      • 3. perform experiments to test hypothesis
  • 4. Theory vs. Law
    • Theory – gives a universally accepted explanation of the problem
    • Law – state what general behavior is observed that occurs normally
  • 5. States of Matter
    • All matter has 2 characteristics
      • Has mass and occupies space
      • 3 types: solid, liquid, gas
      • Solids – definite shape and volume; packed tightly together; vibrate gently around fixed positions
      • Liquids – no shape of own; fill container; definite volume; particles are free to move
      • Gases – no shape or definite volume; particles spread apart; filling all space in container
  • 6. Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes
    • Physical Property: color, odor, density, hardness, solubility, melting point, boiling point
    • Physical Change: chemical composition always remains the same. Ex. Phase changes (2 less known ones are sublimation (solid to gas) and deposition (gas to solid)
    • Chemical Property: reacts with acid, reacts with base, oxidation and reduction
    • Chemical Change: won’t go back to original substance. Ex. combustion
  • 7. E, C, M
    • Element – pure substance that cannot be broken down any further…..single substance from periodic table
    • Compound – pure substance that cannot be broken down by physical means; formed when elements bond together….have fixed composition
    • Mixture – varying composition and is made up of a number of pure substances.
      • Homogeneous – uniform composition
      • Heterogeneous – varying composition
  • 8. Measurement
    • Scientific Notation
      • The number of places the decimal point has moved determines the power of 10
      • Decimal moves left = positive power
      • Decimal moves right = negative power
        • 42000 = 4.2 x 10 4
        • 0.00012 = 1.2 x 10 -4
  • 9.
    • SI Units and prefixes
    Base Quantity Unit Symbol Mass Kilogram kg Length Meter m Time Second s Amt. of Substance Mole mol Temperature Kelvin K
  • 10. Prefix Symbol Meaning Giga G 10 9 Mega M 10 6 kilo k 10 3 deci d 10 -1 centi c 10 -2 milli m 10 -3 micro μ 10 -6 nano n 10 -9 pico p 10 -12
  • 11.
    • 3 scales for temperature
    • Celsius
    • Kelvin
    • Fahrenheit
      • Celsius to Kelvin (°C + 273)
      • Kelvin to celsius (K – 273)
      • Celsius to fahrenheit (°C * 9/5) + 32
      • Fahrenheit to celsius (°F – 32) * 5/9
  • 12.
    • Derived Units
    • All other units can be derived from base quantities
    • Examples:
      • 1. Volume : unit is length 3
      • Common units are L or mL (how much is a cm 3 ?)
      • 1.00 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm 3 = 1.00 dm 3
      • 2. Density = mass/volume
  • 13.
    • Uncertainty
      • When reading the scale on a piece of lab equipment, there is always a degree of uncertainty
      • Estimate must be made to record the final digit
      • This “uncertain” digit is recorded by using the +/- scale
      • Rounding – don’t round until the end of a calculation
  • 14.
    • Significant Figures
      • Remember the Atlantic and Pacific rule
      • In Calculations
        • Multiplying and dividing: limit answer to least number of sig figs used
        • Adding and subtracting: limit answer to same number of decimal places that appear in the original data with fewest number of decimal places
  • 15.
    • Accuracy vs. Precision
      • Accuracy – relates to how close the measured value is to the actual value of the quantity
      • Precision – how close 2 or more measurements of the same quantity are to one another
  • 16.
    • Percent Error
      • Data that is derived from experiments will often differ from the accepted, published, actual value
      • Common way of expressing accuracy is:
        • | Actual – Calculated | x 100
        • Actual