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Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement
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Chemistry- JIB Topic 1 Matter and Measurement

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  • 1.  
  • 2. <ul><li>Chemistry – science that deals with matter and the changes that matter undergoes </li></ul><ul><li>Macroscopic – all around us </li></ul><ul><li>Microscopic – air, molecules, etc </li></ul>
  • 3. Scientific Problem Solving <ul><li>3 Step Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. state problem and make observations (qualitative vs. quantitative) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. formulate a possible solution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. perform experiments to test hypothesis </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Theory vs. Law <ul><li>Theory – gives a universally accepted explanation of the problem </li></ul><ul><li>Law – state what general behavior is observed that occurs normally </li></ul>
  • 5. States of Matter <ul><li>All matter has 2 characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Has mass and occupies space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 types: solid, liquid, gas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solids – definite shape and volume; packed tightly together; vibrate gently around fixed positions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liquids – no shape of own; fill container; definite volume; particles are free to move </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gases – no shape or definite volume; particles spread apart; filling all space in container </li></ul></ul>
  • 6. Physical and Chemical Properties and Changes <ul><li>Physical Property: color, odor, density, hardness, solubility, melting point, boiling point </li></ul><ul><li>Physical Change: chemical composition always remains the same. Ex. Phase changes (2 less known ones are sublimation (solid to gas) and deposition (gas to solid) </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Property: reacts with acid, reacts with base, oxidation and reduction </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical Change: won’t go back to original substance. Ex. combustion </li></ul>
  • 7. E, C, M <ul><li>Element – pure substance that cannot be broken down any further…..single substance from periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>Compound – pure substance that cannot be broken down by physical means; formed when elements bond together….have fixed composition </li></ul><ul><li>Mixture – varying composition and is made up of a number of pure substances. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homogeneous – uniform composition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous – varying composition </li></ul></ul>
  • 8. Measurement <ul><li>Scientific Notation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The number of places the decimal point has moved determines the power of 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimal moves left = positive power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decimal moves right = negative power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>42000 = 4.2 x 10 4 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>0.00012 = 1.2 x 10 -4 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>SI Units and prefixes </li></ul>Base Quantity Unit Symbol Mass Kilogram kg Length Meter m Time Second s Amt. of Substance Mole mol Temperature Kelvin K
  • 10. Prefix Symbol Meaning Giga G 10 9 Mega M 10 6 kilo k 10 3 deci d 10 -1 centi c 10 -2 milli m 10 -3 micro μ 10 -6 nano n 10 -9 pico p 10 -12
  • 11. <ul><li>3 scales for temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Celsius </li></ul><ul><li>Kelvin </li></ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Celsius to Kelvin (°C + 273) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kelvin to celsius (K – 273) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Celsius to fahrenheit (°C * 9/5) + 32 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fahrenheit to celsius (°F – 32) * 5/9 </li></ul></ul>
  • 12. <ul><li>Derived Units </li></ul><ul><li>All other units can be derived from base quantities </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Volume : unit is length 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common units are L or mL (how much is a cm 3 ?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1.00 L = 1000 mL = 1000 cm 3 = 1.00 dm 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Density = mass/volume </li></ul></ul>
  • 13. <ul><li>Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When reading the scale on a piece of lab equipment, there is always a degree of uncertainty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimate must be made to record the final digit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This “uncertain” digit is recorded by using the +/- scale </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rounding – don’t round until the end of a calculation </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. <ul><li>Significant Figures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the Atlantic and Pacific rule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiplying and dividing: limit answer to least number of sig figs used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adding and subtracting: limit answer to same number of decimal places that appear in the original data with fewest number of decimal places </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. <ul><li>Accuracy vs. Precision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy – relates to how close the measured value is to the actual value of the quantity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision – how close 2 or more measurements of the same quantity are to one another </li></ul></ul>
  • 16. <ul><li>Percent Error </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data that is derived from experiments will often differ from the accepted, published, actual value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common way of expressing accuracy is: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>| Actual – Calculated | x 100 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> Actual </li></ul></ul></ul>

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