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    D4 presentation D4 presentation Presentation Transcript

    • D4:
Depressants
Ellie,
Carson,
April,
Chynna

    • D.4.1:
Describe
the
effects
of
 depressants.
• Depressants
are
drugs
which
depress
the
central
 nervous
system
by
interfering
with
the
transmission
 of
nerve
impulses
in
the
nerve
cells.
• Depressants
slow
down
the
funcAons
of
the
body
 including
mental
acAvity
• The
most
commonly
taken
depressant
is
alcohol.
• Depressants
are
someAmes
referred
to
as
anA‐ depressants
because
they
relieve
the
symptoms
of
 mental
depression.

    • D.4.1:
Describe
the
effects
of
 depressants.
• In
low
doses
they
induce
a
feeling
of
calm
and
 relieve
anxiety
and
may
induce
sleep.• In
moderate
doses,
the
compound
may
induce
 sedaAon
(soothing,
reducAon
of
anxiety).
• In
larger
doses
they
can
cause
loss
of
 consciousness,
coma,
and
death.

    • D.4.2:
Discuss
the
social
and
physiological
 effects
of
the
use
and
abuse
of
ethanol• Medically,
alcohol
is
used
as
an
anAsepAc
 before
injecAons
and
is
also
used
to
harden
 the
skin.
• Drinking
large
and
regular
amounts
of
alcohol
 can
cause
psychological
and
physical
 dependence,
known
as
alcoholism.
• The
social
costs
of
road
accidents,
violent
 behavior,
and
family
breakdowns
due
to
 alcohol
consumpAon
are
huge.

    • D.4.2:
Discuss
the
social
and
physiological
effects
of
the
 use
and
abuse
of
ethanol Short
Term
 Long
Term
Effects• Loss
of
self‐restraint. • Dependence,,
known
as
• Memory,
concentraAon,
and
 alcoholism.
 insight
are
impaired.
 • Liver
disease,
including
• Violent
behavior
associated
with
 cirrhosis
and
liver
cancer. domesAc
abuse
and
family
 • Coronary
heart
disease breakdown.
 • High
Blood
Pressure• Dangerous
risk‐taking
behavior
 • Strokes which
can
lead
to
accidents. • Increased
DemenAa
• DehydraAon • Miscarriage
and
fetal
• VomiAng,
loss
of
consciousness,
 abnormaliAes.
 coma,
and
death
can
be
caused
 by
high
doses.
    • D.4.3
Describe
and
Explain
the
Techniques
used
for
the
DetecAon
of
Ethanol
in
the
Breath,
Blood
and
UrineDetecAon
in
the:Breath‐A
roadside
breathalyser
involves
either:

(not
admissible
in
court)‐acidified
potassium
(or
sodium)
dichromate(VI)
crystals
turning
green
when
reduced
by
alcohol
to
Cr3+‐the
use
of
a
fuel
cell
where
ethanol
is
oxidized
to
produce
electricity‐‐A
Modern
Intoximeter
(conducted
at
a
police
staAon)
is
based
in
the
fact
that
the
C‐H
bonds
in
ethanol
will
absorb
a
certain
wavelength
(‐3.39µm).





1)
The
Suspect
blows
a
breath
sample
into
a
chamber,
and
2)
infrared
radiaAon
is
then
passed
alternately
through
the
sample
chamber
and
control
chamber.

3)
The
intensiAes
of
the
emerging
beams
are
compared,
and
4)
the
amount
of
radiaAon
absorbed
is
converted
into
micrograms
of
ethanol
per
100ml
of
breath
    • D.4.3
Describe
and
Explain
the
Techniques
used
for
the
DetecAon
of
Ethanol
in
the
Breath,
Blood
and
UrineDetecAng
in
the
Blood
and
Urine• Alcohol
in
both
blood
and
urine
are
detected
using
chromatography• Infrared
Intoximeter
diagram• Roadside
breathalyser
    • D.4.4
Describe
the
synergisAc
effects
of
ethanol
with
 other
drugsTaken
from
hp://oade.nd.edu/educate‐yourself‐alcohol/cauAon‐alcohol‐and‐other‐drugs‐do‐not‐mix/

    • D.4.5
IdenAfy
other
commonly
used
depressants
and
describe
their
structure• Other
depressants
commonly
prescribed
to
reduce
anxiety
and
insomnia
 are
benzodiazepines
and
prozac,
but
only
for
a
limited
period
of
Ame
with
 counseling
and
psychotherapy• Depressants
are
also
used
in
hospitals
before
surgery
(sedaAves)• Three
common
depressants
prescribed
are
Valium,
sleeping
pills
 (mogadon)
and
Prozac
    • D.4.5
IdenAfy
other
commonly
used
depressants
and
describe
their
structure• FluoxeAne
hydrochloride
(Prozac)








Nitrzepam
(mogadon,
sleeping
 pill)
 
Diazepam
(Valium)