D.4.1: Describe the eﬀects of depressants. • Depressants are drugs which depress the central nervous system by interfering with the transmission of nerve impulses in the nerve cells. • Depressants slow down the funcAons of the body including mental acAvity • The most commonly taken depressant is alcohol. • Depressants are someAmes referred to as anA‐ depressants because they relieve the symptoms of mental depression.
D.4.1: Describe the eﬀects of depressants. • In low doses they induce a feeling of calm and relieve anxiety and may induce sleep.• In moderate doses, the compound may induce sedaAon (soothing, reducAon of anxiety). • In larger doses they can cause loss of consciousness, coma, and death.
D.4.2: Discuss the social and physiological eﬀects of the use and abuse of ethanol• Medically, alcohol is used as an anAsepAc before injecAons and is also used to harden the skin. • Drinking large and regular amounts of alcohol can cause psychological and physical dependence, known as alcoholism. • The social costs of road accidents, violent behavior, and family breakdowns due to alcohol consumpAon are huge.
D.4.2: Discuss the social and physiological eﬀects of the use and abuse of ethanol Short Term Long Term Eﬀects• Loss of self‐restraint. • Dependence,, known as • Memory, concentraAon, and alcoholism. insight are impaired. • Liver disease, including • Violent behavior associated with cirrhosis and liver cancer. domesAc abuse and family • Coronary heart disease breakdown. • High Blood Pressure• Dangerous risk‐taking behavior • Strokes which can lead to accidents. • Increased DemenAa • DehydraAon • Miscarriage and fetal • VomiAng, loss of consciousness, abnormaliAes. coma, and death can be caused by high doses.
D.4.3 Describe and Explain the Techniques used for the DetecAon of Ethanol in the Breath, Blood and UrineDetecAon in the:Breath‐A roadside breathalyser involves either: (not admissible in court)‐acidiﬁed potassium (or sodium) dichromate(VI) crystals turning green when reduced by alcohol to Cr3+‐the use of a fuel cell where ethanol is oxidized to produce electricity‐‐A Modern Intoximeter (conducted at a police staAon) is based in the fact that the C‐H bonds in ethanol will absorb a certain wavelength (‐3.39µm). 1) The Suspect blows a breath sample into a chamber, and 2) infrared radiaAon is then passed alternately through the sample chamber and control chamber. 3) The intensiAes of the emerging beams are compared, and 4) the amount of radiaAon absorbed is converted into micrograms of ethanol per 100ml of breath
D.4.3 Describe and Explain the Techniques used for the DetecAon of Ethanol in the Breath, Blood and UrineDetecAng in the Blood and Urine• Alcohol in both blood and urine are detected using chromatography• Infrared Intoximeter diagram• Roadside breathalyser
D.4.4 Describe the synergisAc eﬀects of ethanol with other drugsTaken from hp://oade.nd.edu/educate‐yourself‐alcohol/cauAon‐alcohol‐and‐other‐drugs‐do‐not‐mix/
D.4.5 IdenAfy other commonly used depressants and describe their structure• Other depressants commonly prescribed to reduce anxiety and insomnia are benzodiazepines and prozac, but only for a limited period of Ame with counseling and psychotherapy• Depressants are also used in hospitals before surgery (sedaAves)• Three common depressants prescribed are Valium, sleeping pills (mogadon) and Prozac
D.4.5 IdenAfy other commonly used depressants and describe their structure• FluoxeAne hydrochloride (Prozac) Nitrzepam (mogadon, sleeping pill) Diazepam (Valium)