Closed packed structure and a very small atomic radii
Results in a very strong metallic bond
Leads to transition metals have higher densities, melting points, and boiling points.
Form a variety of oxidation states in their compounds
Metal +1 +2 +3 +4 +5 +6 +7 Sc Colorless Ti Violet Colorless V Violet Green blue Yellow Cr Blue Green Yellow (CrO 4 2- ) orange (Cr 2 O 7 2- Mn Pale pink Brown Dark green (MnO 4 2- ) Intense purple (MnO 4 - ) Fe Pale green Yellow or brown Co Pink Orange/yellow Ni Green Cu Blue Zn colorless
In naming salts, the name of the cation is given before the name of the anion.
Ex. In [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl]Cl 2 , we name the [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] 2+ and then Cl - .
Within a complex ion or molecule, the ligands are named before the metal. Prefixes that give the number of ligands are not considered part of the ligand name in determining alphabetical order.
In [Co(NH 3 ) 5 Cl] 2+ ion, the ammonia ligands are named first, then the chloride, then the metal: Pentaaminechlorocobalt (III)
3. The names of anionic ligands end in the letter O, whereas neutral ones ordinarily bears the name of the molecule. Number of Ligands Prefix 1 Mono 2 Di 3 Tri 4 Tetra 5 Penta 6 Hexa Ligand Name Cl - Chloro OH - Hydroxo NO 2 - Nitrito CN - Cyano SO 4 2- Sulfato H 2 O Aquo or aqua NH 3 Ammine CO Carbonyl NO Nitrosyl
A Greek prefix is used to indicate the number of each kind of ligand when more than one is present. If the name of the ligand itself contains a Greek prefix, such as mono- or di-, the name of the ligand is enclosed in parentheses and alternate prefixes are used, Bis-, Tris-, tetrakis-,hexakis
The oxidation number of the metal is given in parentheses in Roman numerals following the name of the metal.
Try naming these:
[Cr(H 2 O) 4 Cl 2 ]Cl
[Co(NH 3 ) 4 (H 2 O)CN]Cl 2
Na[Al(OH) 4 ]
K 2 [Ni(CN) 4 ]
(NH 4 ) 2 [CuBr 4 ]
[Ni(H 2 O) 6 ]SO 4
[CoCl 3 (NH 3 ) 3 ] 1-
[Co(NH 3 ) 6 ]Cl 3
K 3 [Fe(CN) 6 ]
K 4 [Fe(CN) 6 ]
☺ Central ion is first ☺ Ligands second ☺ Neutral molecules first ☺ Negative ions second ☺ Neutral molecules and polyatomic ions are always surrounded by (parentheses) , even if only 1 present ☺ Entire complex ion formula surrounded by [brackets]
Write the formula for the diamminepalladium(II) ion ☺ Central ion – palladium (Pd) ☺ Ligands – NH 3 (2) ☺ Written in parentheses ☺ Neutral charge ☺ Brackets around entire formula ☺ Calculate the net charge [Pd(NH 3 ) 2 ] 2+
Write the formula for the carbonylpentacyanoferrate(II) ion ☺ Central ion – iron (Fe) ☺ Ligands ☺ CN (5) 1- charge Written in parentheses ☺ CO (1) Neutral Written in parentheses ☺ Brackets around entire formula ☺ Calculate the net charge [Fe(CO)(CN) 5 ] 3-