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Carbohydrates
Monosaccharides <ul><li>All monosaccharides have the empirical formula CH 2 O.  </li></ul><ul><li>They contain a carbonyl ...
Types of Monosaccharides <ul><li>Monosaccharides with the formula C 5 H 10 O 5  are generally known as pentoses (ribose is...
Monosaccaharides Structures <ul><li>Many structural isomers are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition several carbon ato...
<ul><li>The form of natural glucose is known as D-glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture on the left is of a straight chai...
Ring Structure of D-glucose The ring structure of D-glucose can exist in two separate crystalline forms known as α-D-gluco...
Monosaccharides cont. <ul><li>Six-membered ring monosaccharides are known as pyranoses. </li></ul><ul><li>Hexoses can also...
Polysaccharides <ul><li>Monosaccharides can undergo condensation reactions to form disaccharides and eventually polysaccha...
Sucrose <ul><li>Sucrose is a disaccharides formed from the condensation of α-D-glucose in the pyranose form and β-D-frutos...
Sucrose continued <ul><li>In the case of sucrose the link is between the C-1 atom of glucose in the α-configuration and th...
<ul><li>Maltose, another disaccharide is formed from two glucose molecules condensing to form an α-1,4 bond.  </li></ul>
<ul><li>Lactose is a disaccharide in which the β-D-galactose is linked at the C-1 atom to the C-4 atom of β-D-glucose. Thi...
Starch <ul><li>Starch is one of the most important polysaccharides. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch exists in two forms: amylose,...
Amylose <ul><li>Amylose is a straight chain polymer of α-D-glucose units with α-1,4 bonds. </li></ul>
Amylopectin <ul><li>Amylopectin also contains α-D-glucose units but it has a branched structure with both α-1,4 and α-1,6 ...
<ul><li>Most plants use starch as a store of carbohydrates and their energy.  </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose, a polymer of β-...
Functions of Polysaccharides in the Body <ul><li>To provide energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food such as bread, biscuits, cak...
(cont.) <ul><li>As precursors  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For other important biological molecules they are components of nucle...
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B3 presentation

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IB Chemistry III B3 presentation

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  1. 1. Carbohydrates
  2. 2. Monosaccharides <ul><li>All monosaccharides have the empirical formula CH 2 O. </li></ul><ul><li>They contain a carbonyl group in addition to this and at least two –OH groups. </li></ul><ul><li>They have between 3 and 6 carbon atoms. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types of Monosaccharides <ul><li>Monosaccharides with the formula C 5 H 10 O 5 are generally known as pentoses (ribose is an example of this). </li></ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides with the formula C 6 H 12 O 6 are known as hexoses (glucose is an example of this). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Monosaccaharides Structures <ul><li>Many structural isomers are possible. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition several carbon atoms are chiral (asymmetric) and give rise to optical isomerism. </li></ul><ul><li>Open chain structures and ring structures are also possible. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>The form of natural glucose is known as D-glucose. </li></ul><ul><li>The picture on the left is of a straight chain formation of D-glucose. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Ring Structure of D-glucose The ring structure of D-glucose can exist in two separate crystalline forms known as α-D-glucose and β-D-glucose. The only difference is the the –OH group on the first carbon atom is inverted.
  7. 7. Monosaccharides cont. <ul><li>Six-membered ring monosaccharides are known as pyranoses. </li></ul><ul><li>Hexoses can also have a furanose structure where they have a five-membered ring containing an oxygen atom. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Polysaccharides <ul><li>Monosaccharides can undergo condensation reactions to form disaccharides and eventually polysaccharides. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sucrose <ul><li>Sucrose is a disaccharides formed from the condensation of α-D-glucose in the pyranose form and β-D-frutose in the furanose form. </li></ul><ul><li>The bond formed is known as a glycosidic link. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Sucrose continued <ul><li>In the case of sucrose the link is between the C-1 atom of glucose in the α-configuration and the C-2 atom of frutose. The links is known as a β-1,2 bond. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Maltose, another disaccharide is formed from two glucose molecules condensing to form an α-1,4 bond. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Lactose is a disaccharide in which the β-D-galactose is linked at the C-1 atom to the C-4 atom of β-D-glucose. This is called a β-1,4 bond. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Starch <ul><li>Starch is one of the most important polysaccharides. </li></ul><ul><li>Starch exists in two forms: amylose, which is water soluble and amylopectin, which is insoluble in water. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Amylose <ul><li>Amylose is a straight chain polymer of α-D-glucose units with α-1,4 bonds. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Amylopectin <ul><li>Amylopectin also contains α-D-glucose units but it has a branched structure with both α-1,4 and α-1,6 bonds. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Most plants use starch as a store of carbohydrates and their energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose, a polymer of β-D-glucose contains β-1,4 links. Cellulose, together with lignin, provides the structure to the cell wall of green plants. </li></ul><ul><li>most animals, including all mammals, do not have the enzyme cellulase so are unable to digest cellulose or other dietary fiber polysaccharides. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Functions of Polysaccharides in the Body <ul><li>To provide energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food such as bread, biscuits, cake, potatoes, pasta, and cereals are all high in carbohydrates. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To store energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Starch is stored in the livers of animals in the form of glycogen. Glycogen has almost the same chemical structure as amylopectin. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. (cont.) <ul><li>As precursors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For other important biological molecules they are components of nucleic acids and thus play an important role in the biosynthesis of proteins. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As dietary fiber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dietary fiber is mainly plant material that is not hydrolysed by enzymes secreted by the human digestive tract by may be digested by microflora in the gut. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be helpful in preventing conditions such as diverticulosis, irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Crohn’s disease, haemerrhoids and diabetes mellitus. </li></ul></ul>
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