Malignant Lid tumours &
Reconstruction
Basal cell carcinoma
• General features
• BCC - most common human malignancy
malignant eyelid tumour - elderly patients.
•...
• Clinical types
• Clues : ulceration, lack of tenderness, induration, irregular
borders and destruction of lid margin
• a...
Squamous cell carcinoma
• General features
• SCC is a much less common , more aggressive tumour - metastasis to regional l...
• Histology
• Arise from squamous cell layer of the epidermis.
• Atypical epithelial cells with prominent nuclei and abund...
Sebaceous gland carcinoma
• General features
• Very rare slowly-growing tumour - elderly Females
• It usually arises from ...
• Histology
• Lobules of cells with pale foamy vacuolated lipid-containing
cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic nuclei
• Cli...
Melanoma
• Pigmentation is a hallmark of melanoma
• Features suggestive of melanoma include recent
onset of a pigmented le...
Lentigo maligna
• (melanoma in situ, intraepidermal melanoma /Hutchinson
freckle)
Uncommon condition that develops in sun-...
Melanoma
Histology shows large atypical melanocytes within the dermis
Signs
• Superficial spreading melanoma is characteri...
Merkel cell carcinoma
• Rare Fast-growing tumour which typically affects the elderly.
Although Merkel cells lie within the...
Kaposi sarcoma
• Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumour which typically
affects patients with the acquired immune deficiency
...
Rare predisposing conditions :
Xeroderma pigmentosum AR disease
- skin damage on exposure to sunlight,progressive cutaneou...
Treatment
• (a) Incisional - using a blade or a biopsy punch,
in which only part of the lesion is removed to
allow histolo...
Surgical excision
• Aim to remove the entire tumour with preservation of as
much normal tissue as possible.
• Smaller tumo...
• 1 Standard frozen section :
Histological examination of the margins of the excised specimen at the
time of surgery to en...
Reconstruction
• Depends on the extent of tissue removed &
whether this is full- or partial-thickness.
If one of the lamel...
• 2 Moderate size defects involving up to
half of the eyelid may require a flap (e.g. Tenzel
semicircular) for closure
3 L...
CUTLER- BEARD PROCEDURE
Hughes tarsoconjuntival flap:
Laissez-faire [Let it do]
• Full reconstruction of the defect created by
tumour removal may not always be required. In
the...
• THANK YOU.
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction
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Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction

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Malignant lid tumours & reconstruction

  1. 1. Malignant Lid tumours & Reconstruction
  2. 2. Basal cell carcinoma • General features • BCC - most common human malignancy malignant eyelid tumour - elderly patients. • Risk factors : fair skin • inability to tan • chronic exposure to sunlight • Site : lower eyelid, followed in relative frequency by the • medial canthus, upper eyelid and lateral canthus. • Slow-growing and locally invasive but non-metastasizing. • Prone to invade the orbit and sinuses • Greatest risk of recurrence- needs aggressive treatment. • Histology • Arises from basal layer of the epidermis - proliferate downwards palisading at the periphery tumour lobule • Squamous differentiation - production of keratin - hyperkeratotic type of BCC. • Sebaceous and adenoid differentiation
  3. 3. • Clinical types • Clues : ulceration, lack of tenderness, induration, irregular borders and destruction of lid margin • architecture. • • 1 Nodular BCC - shiny, firm, pearly nodule with small dilated blood vessels On its surface. • 2 Noduloulcerative BCC (rodent ulcer) - central ulceration, - pearly raised rolled edges - Dilated and irregular blood vessels (telangiectasis) 3 Sclerosing BCC (morphoeic) -infiltrates laterally beneath the epidermis as an indurated plaque . -simulate a localized area of chronic blepharitis
  4. 4. Squamous cell carcinoma • General features • SCC is a much less common , more aggressive tumour - metastasis to regional lymph nodes - elderly individuals • Careful surveillance of regional lymph nodes is therefore an important aspect of initial management. • Perineural spread to the intracranial cavity via the orbit. • SCC accounts for 5–10% of eyelid malignancies • arise de novo / pre-existing actinic keratosis / carcinoma in situ • Immunocompromised patients such as those with AIDS or following renal transplants are at increased risk. Site - lower eyelid and the lid margin. Risk Factors : fair complexion history of chronic sun exposure. The diagnosis of SCC may be difficult because keratoacanthoma and cutaneous horn may reveal histological evidence of invasive SCC at deeper levels of sectioning.
  5. 5. • Histology • Arise from squamous cell layer of the epidermis. • Atypical epithelial cells with prominent nuclei and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm within the dermis • Well-differentiated tumours - keratin ‘pearls’ and intercellular bridges (desmosomes). • Clinical types • 1 Nodular SCC - hyperkeratotic nodule develop crusting erosions and fissures • 2 Ulcerating SCC - red base and sharply defined, indurated and everted borders. • 3 Cutaneous horn with underlying invasive SCC
  6. 6. Sebaceous gland carcinoma • General features • Very rare slowly-growing tumour - elderly Females • It usually arises from the meibomian glands, glands of Zeis or from sebaceous glands in the caruncle. • Site - upper eyelid [ meibomian glands numerous]. • The clinical diagnosis of SGC is frequently difficult because, in its early stages, external signs of malignancy may be subtle so that the tumour may resemble a chalazion or blepharitis. • A yellowish material within the tumour is highly suggestive of SGC. There are difficulties in diagnosis and delay in treatment • Adverse prognostic features upper lid involvement tumour size of 10 mm or more Duration of symptoms of over 6 months.
  7. 7. • Histology • Lobules of cells with pale foamy vacuolated lipid-containing cytoplasm and large hyperchromatic nuclei • Clinical types • 1 Nodular SGC - discrete, hard nodule, most commonly within the upper tarsal plate, that may exhibit yellow discoloration due to the presence of lipid . - may masquerade as a chalazion , unusual consistency should undergo full-thickness resection and histological examination. 2 Spreading SGC infiltrates into the dermis and causes a diffuse thickening of the lid margin that may result in loss of lashes and be mistaken for ‘chronic blepharitis’. 3 Pagetoid spread refers to extension of the tumour within epithelium including the palpebral forniceal or bulbar conjunctiva. - mistaken diagnosis of an inflammatory condition.
  8. 8. Melanoma • Pigmentation is a hallmark of melanoma • Features suggestive of melanoma include recent onset of a pigmented lesion, change in an existing pigmented lesion, irregular margins, asymmetrical shape, colour change or presence of multiple colours, and diameter greater than 6 mm in diameter.
  9. 9. Lentigo maligna • (melanoma in situ, intraepidermal melanoma /Hutchinson freckle) Uncommon condition that develops in sun-damaged skin in elderly individuals. Malignant change may occur, with infiltration of the dermis. • Histology - intraepidermal proliferation of spindle-shaped atypical melanocytes that replace the basal layer of the epidermis • Signs A slowly expanding pigmented macule with an irregular border Nodular thickening and areas of irregular pigmentation are highly suggestive of malignant transformation Treatment is usually by excision.
  10. 10. Melanoma Histology shows large atypical melanocytes within the dermis Signs • Superficial spreading melanoma is characterized by a plaque with an irregular outline and variable pigmentation • Nodular melanoma is typically a blue-black nodule surrounded by normal skin 3 Treatment is usually by wide excision and may include local lymph node removal.
  11. 11. Merkel cell carcinoma • Rare Fast-growing tumour which typically affects the elderly. Although Merkel cells lie within the epidermis, the tumour appears to arise from the dermis. -Difficulty in diagnosis and delay in treatment. • The tumour is highly malignant and 50% of patients have metastatic spread at presentation. • 1 Histology - sheets of cells with scanty cytoplasm, round or oval nuclei and numerous mitotic figures 2 Signs. A violaceous, well-demarcated nodule - intact overlying skin, - upper eyelid 3 Treatment is by excision, frequently combined with chemotherapy.
  12. 12. Kaposi sarcoma • Kaposi sarcoma is a vascular tumour which typically affects patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Many patients have advanced systemic disease although in some instances the tumour may be the only clinical manifestation of HIV infection. • 1 Histology shows proliferating spindle cells, vascular channels and inflammatory cells within the dermis . 2 Signs. A pink, red-violet to brown lesion which may be mistaken for a haematoma or a naevus. 3 Treatment is by radiotherapy or excision.
  13. 13. Rare predisposing conditions : Xeroderma pigmentosum AR disease - skin damage on exposure to sunlight,progressive cutaneous pigmentation abnormalities - bird-like facies - development of (BCC), (SCC) and melanoma, which may be multiple. -Conjunctival malignancies have also been reported. Gorlin–Goltz syndrome (naevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome) AD - Extensive congenital deformities of the eye, face, bone and CNS. - multiple small BCC during the 2nd decade of life and are - predisposed to medulloblastoma, breast carcinoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Muir–Torre syndrome AD - Cutaneous tumours include BCC, sebaceous gland carcinoma (SGC) and keratoacanthoma. - Colorectal & genitourinary carcinoma is the most common systemic tumour.
  14. 14. Treatment • (a) Incisional - using a blade or a biopsy punch, in which only part of the lesion is removed to allow histological diagnosis. • (b) Excisional, in which the entire lesion is removed and a histological diagnosis made; the latter may be: 1 Shave excision using a blade to remove shallow epithelial tumours, such as papillomas and seborrhoeic keratosis. 2 Full-thickness skin excision for tumours that are not confined to the epidermis.
  15. 15. Surgical excision • Aim to remove the entire tumour with preservation of as much normal tissue as possible. • Smaller tumours can be removed via an excision biopsy and the defect closed directly, whilst awaiting histological confirmation of complete clearance. • More radical surgical excision is required for large BCC and aggressive tumours such as SCC, SGC and melanoma. • It is necessary to ensure complete clearance of tumour prior to undertaking any reconstruction. • Faster confirmation can be achieved using either frozen- section control or micrographic surgery, and reconstruction can then take place on the same day.
  16. 16. • 1 Standard frozen section : Histological examination of the margins of the excised specimen at the time of surgery to ensure that they are tumour-free. No tumour cells - eyelid is reconstructed; Tumour cells present , further excision is performed until the tumour- free. 2 MOHS micrographic surgery - Layered excision of the tumour. Processing of each layer enables a map of the edges of the tumour to be developed. - Further tissue is taken in any area where tumour is still present until clearance is achieved. -Time-consuming, maximizes the chances of total tumour excision minimizing sacrifice of normal tissue. - Useful technique for tumours that grow diffusely and have indefinite margins with finger-like extensions, such as sclerosing BCC, SCC, recurrent tumours and those involving the medial or lateral canthi.
  17. 17. Reconstruction • Depends on the extent of tissue removed & whether this is full- or partial-thickness. If one of the lamellae has been sacrificed during excision of the tumour, it must be reconstructed with similar tissue. • 1 Small defects involving less than one-third of the eyelid closed directly - surrounding tissue is sufficiently elastic - approximation of the cut edges . • If necessary, a lateral cantholysis - to mobilize additional tissue - defect cannot be reapproximated.
  18. 18. • 2 Moderate size defects involving up to half of the eyelid may require a flap (e.g. Tenzel semicircular) for closure 3 Large defects involving over half of the eyelid • a Posterior lamellar reconstruction - an upper lid free tarsal graft, buccal mucous membrane or hard palate graft. b Anterior lamellar reconstruction - skin advancement, a local skin flap or a free skin graft (At least one reconstructed lamella requires its own blood supply to maximize the viability of any free graft.
  19. 19. CUTLER- BEARD PROCEDURE
  20. 20. Hughes tarsoconjuntival flap:
  21. 21. Laissez-faire [Let it do] • Full reconstruction of the defect created by tumour removal may not always be required. In the laissez-faire approach the wound edges are approximated as far as possible and the defect is allowed to granulate and heal by secondary intention. Even large defects can often achieve a satisfactory outcome with time.
  22. 22. • THANK YOU.
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