History of ComicsAnd Comics as an Educational Tool By: Samantha Abela
Who are we? • A group of people who Like comics and manga We organize various activities through out the year and participate in others in order to promote comic culture in Malta and abroad.
What do we do? We promote comic c ulture. We provide various opportunities of We encourage the c reation expos ure for Maltes e of c omics artis ts . We inform the public about We organize activities new comic publications to bring comics through reviews on our webs ite clos er to the public and provide a We provide a platform for ‘cultural encounter’ dis c us s ion about c omic s with foreign comic and their us e in education. creators .
• “A comic book or comicbook is a magazine or book containing sequential art in the form of a narrative. Comic books are often called comics for short. Although the term implies otherwise, the subject matter in comic books is not necessarily humorous, and in fact its dramatic seriousness varies widely.”• - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia
C omic B ooks are wildly popular! • p From 2001-2006, comic books have grown from • a $75 million to a $330 million industry • a Movies and novels are now being made into • comic books specifically aimed at children • c Many popular writers, musicians and creative • designers are working with comics. • d Google Chrome presented by Scott McCloud.
Dave Windett & Renee WitterstaetteWorkshops andAudience
Some M altes e Publications•The Golden Lizard - Fabio Agius, Mark Ellul and Chris Le Galle (SierraBooks)•The Tsar - Issue 1 - Joseph Bugejia and Joseph Whizz Farrugia (BDL) •Hal Mudlam - Issue 1 & 2- Joseph Bugeja (BDL) •Arcana Crusade – Bernard Micallef•For Gallantry Issue 0 & 1 – Fabio Giangolini•Apocalyse Rocked – Dean Fenech•Pilot – The Steampunk ed. – The Pilot Group•RPG Game – Jeanelle Zammit and Bernard Micallef•Komiks tas-Sikkina
Contact Us• Facebook Group : http://www.facebook.com/profile.php?id• Website: http://www.maltacomic-con.com/
A brief history ofComics in Education • The first comics used to ‘educate’ people were the political cartoons used to send messages about politics and social issues to the illiterate public
T h e f ir s t c o m ic s• They were issued in the 1930’s (pre- WWII) and by the 1940’s an estimate of 95% of all 8-14 year olds read comics.• 65% of the 15-18 year olds read comics too!
Whilst some see thepositive in the use of Comics in education others criticize… • A stumbling block to literacy • Impede reading comprehension • Reduce imagination • Provide eyestrain
Nonetheless…• A ‘Scholarship on the Educational Value of Comics’ was established in America in the second half of the 20th century
Still…• Some criticized comics as promoting ‘violence’ and ‘delinquency’• Of using ‘slang’ and ‘dialect’ too much…
Can comics be used as an effectivemedium in education? • Yes! Comics can be used to transfer Knowledge! • They can be used as a ‘TOOL’ or • Use ‘Educational Comics’.
What areEducational Comics? • These are comics devised on purpose to teach a subject / with a clear intent and message. • = a comic on Maltese legends / important events – Great Siege + Consalvo Monroy
Comics aseducational tool • These are comics that their initial purpose was not to ‘educate’ but for leisure. Nonetheless teachers and parents use them to teach:
• History • Science• Reading • Social studies• Language• Culture context• Science• Story telling
Why use comicsin the classroom? • For pre-readers they provide practice for: • - sequencing • - prompts for language use (visual cues) • -connect words with images
• For Advance Readers• - complexity of normal written word with visuals• - a step-stone to more complex texts• -make reading more approachable
Comics meet the needs of Students in a variety of learning styles
L e a r n in gIt is a product of the agreement between teaching strategies and the individual differences among learners. According to Dr.Steve Hunt, every learner use his own unique style of learning and thinking At last, this is not true which differentiate anymore! him from others.
L e a r n in g s t y le s• Information processing• Instructional preferences• Learning Strategies
Learning Modalities:This is the theory that all learners have a preferencefor receiving and storing information through one ormore of the sensory modalities.
How to use comicsin the classroom? • The teacher provides the material • The students create their own comic • Use IT Skills through various software to create comics
Advantages of using comic assignments • Story telling • Character analysis • Plot analysis • Biographical work • Timelines
The use ofGraphic Novels• They offer value, variety and a new medium for literacy that acknowledges visuals. They are useful across the curriculum depending on the creativity of the teacher and students.• (Lavin 1998) suggested that reading Graphic Novels employs more cognitive skills.• Graphic Novels present an alternative view of culture, history and human life in accessible ways giving voice to minorities and those with diverse view points.• Ex: Classic Comics lead to the reading of the full ‘novel’
Graphic Novels: • Brain Food • Gentle Persuasion • Think small (don’t go into the big titles) • Improve reading comprehension • Promote Socialisation • Motivate • Help students with reading difficulties • Leave a permananet mark • Provide intermediary link to other subjects • Are popular and cool – bring youth culture to the classroom • Ideal for differentiated teaching
S omee x a m p le s http://www.thechesscomic.com/
“Why?” is a Korean science comic book series. The series had 20million copies sold over the last sixyears, which is a new record in the local publishing industry.
• Comics make language manageable and language profitable for beginners. They help to engage students. The brain seeks patterns/association/ links… comics help to provide them!• Comics provide the ‘spark’ for attention which will help knowledge to be embedded.
• Comics used as a means to teacher dialect• To engage reluctant readers• Also a defence against the enemy of literacy - TELEVISION
Winner of Pulitzer Price in1992 (the first comic to winsuch a prize!)Experience of a prisoner atAuschwitzCats – NazisMice - Jews
Comics for awareness campaigns• A comic by a US hospital about testicular cancer using patient stories• Marvel / DC campaign against breast cancer• ‘Donate Blood’ campaign – Malta Blood unit
C o m ic s a n d h e r it a g e • Exercise in Empathy • Help to illustrate ‘Causes and Consequences’ • Offer visual aids to ‘Chronology’ in history • Political Cartoons offer a platform to discuss ‘bias’ and ‘perspectives’ • Make history more exciting and engaging
S o m e id e a s : • Time traveller • Bios of Historical Figures • Re-telling of an important battle • Adventure story leading to discovery of artefacts – Indiana Jones style
Tim Perkins-British Comic writer andartistsSpecial Guest at theMalta Comic ConCreated a comic strip as apromotion for his owncomic using as inspirationHAGAR QIM!