Literary Heritage Prose A664 Animal Farm George OrwellYou will have a choice of two questions and 45 minutes to answer. This is one half of the exam – the other being unseen contemporary poetry.
Showing an understanding of the story and its possible interpretations.Choose quotes thatsupport the point AO1 Respond to texts critically and imaginatively;you have made and select and evaluate relevant textual detail tothen analyse what illustrate and support interpretations.that quote revealsabout the AO2 Explain how language, structure and formstory/characters and contribute to writers’ presentation of ideas,how a reader might themes and settings.respond to thoseideas. Language: The words on the page. Orwell’s descriptions of Give a characters/setting/action and what the characters actually say. detailed Structure: The way the story has been put together. The order of analysis. events within the story. The significance of the extract in terms of the whole novel. The significance of the type of characters used. How the story is told. Form: The overall shape of the story as a whole. The type of story it is.
How is this part of the exam marked? A band 1 response:AO1 AO2 QWC•sophisticated critical •sensitive understanding of •text is legibleperception in response to and the significance and effects of •spelling, punctuation andinterpretation of text(s) writers’ choices of language, grammar are accurate and•cogent and precise evaluation structure and form assuredof relevant detail from the •meaning is very clearlytext(s) communicated REMEMBER: Quality of Written Communication is assessed in this paper. You are expected to: •ensure that text is legible and that spelling, punctuation and grammar are accurate so that meaning is clear; •present information in a form that suits its purpose; •use a suitable structure and style of writing.
GRADE D/E GRADE C GRADE ASimply repeats your Makes a point and Makes a point, embedsidea supports it with a a quote and develops quote your ideaWhen Napoleon gives When Napoleon gives The ‘terrible baying soundthe signal, there is the the signal, terror is outside’ heightens thesound of the dogs heightened through the terror of Snowball’sbarking outside the description of the expulsion from the farmbarn, ‘there was a ‘terrible baying sound and also emphasises theterrible baying sound outside’. animals’ confusion atoutside’. what unfolds before them, building the tension before the dogs actually appear in the barn.
The words on the page Words used to describe characters, actions, places and the speech between characters.• What does the language used reveal about the characters, setting or action?• How does the language used make the reader feel or respond to the characters or themes presented?Using quotes:• Always use quotation marks, even if you are just quoting one word.• Do not use a quote that just repeats what you have already written, it should develop your point.• Fit the quotation into your sentence.
The way the story has been put together The novel’s narrative structure • It parallels the RUSSIAN REVOLUTION: it is a political allegory. The farm represents Russia; Napoleon represents Stalin; the Battle of the Windmill is when Germany invaded Russia. The book charts the corruption of Major’s ideals in stages; making complex political events easy for the reader to understand. • Narrative Voice: Third person; omnipotent; detached; trustworthy; acts as a typical storyteller, unfolding the story for us. • Cyclical Structure: Life ends up just as bad as it was at the beginning. IN AN EXTRACT BASED QUESTION Your answer should considerthese points:• What is significant about this particular moment in relation to the whole story?• Does the extract hint at something yet to happen in the story?• What is revealed about a character, relationship or a theme and how is itrevealed?
The type of story it isIt is an ALLEGORY: a story with two different meanings. A straightforward surface meaning is used to reveal a deeper political meaning underneathIt is a POLITICAL SATIRE: an attack on dictatorships and the way in which they seized and held onto power. A satire works by attacking an idea to make it look stupid and ridiculous.Other ideas you can write about:A FAIRYSTORY: Orwell subverts the expected form of a fairystory.Good is punished and bad is rewarded, there is no happy ending.A BEAST FABLE: Animals used to teach moral points to children.Ambiguous ending – we don’t know how life will turn out for theanimals.
An Extract Based QuestionJust like in an ‘Journey’s End’ you need to show thatyou are able to analyse in detail a key moment in thestory and comment on its significance to events andthemes in the rest of the novel.
Answering an exam question• Choose a question - there will be a choice between an extract based and a discursive question.• Underline the key words in the question. Keep using these key words in your answer, at least once per paragraph, this will help to keep you on track; make sure everything you do focuses on these key words. The wording from the question should feature at the start of each paragraph.• Aim to write at least 5 developed paragraphs – a purposeful opening in which the focus of the question is introduced and, in an extract based question, you ground the extract in the novel; 3 developed PEARL paragraphs; and a relevant and well- reasoned conclusion.• Spend 10 minutes planning your answer: what will you write about? – If there is more than one strand to the question, try to address each equally. Depending on the question, try to answer with 2 points per strand. – Make a list of the key points (no more than a few words per point) that will help you answer the question. – Select relevant textual detail to illustrate EVERY one of your points. – For each significant moment in the novel you are analysing in detail, mindmap the context of the ‘moment’. – In an extract based question Consider the context of the extract within the novel: what has just happened/what will happen next; which characters are in this extract; what the characters know; how the characters are feeling; what the reader knows; what the reader is likely to be feeling. – Focus on the READER and the ways in which reader reactions are influenced (the R of PEARL). – Avoid over-simplified character analysis – try to explore alternative interpretations of the characters and the ways in which the author uses the character.
Key Point Reference Link to the rest of the novelYour answer must be A reference can be a Even if you are focusing on a few keyorganised. direct quote, a moments from the novel, you must alsoRemember the paraphrasing of a quote bring in other parts. When completing yourPEARL structure for or a brief description of plan, try to think of where you can use othereach of your key the structure/action/ parts of the novel to explain/ justify/ providepoint paragraphs. plot. further evidence/ contradict your key point.Key points can be In a discursive question: Don’t do this fororganised by: every key point – only where it is relevant.•Chronological order•Character (one at a In an extract based question: The key pointstime) based on the extract will form the spine of•Method (e.g. one the answer – and must account for 4/5 ofsection on structure, your response. However you must alsoone on language, one bring in other parts of the novel. Thison form OR one of should account for 1/5 of your answer.characters, one on Don’t write this as a separate paragraph butthemes, one on integrate this into your key points.style...) AIM TO HAVE 3-4 KEY POINTS.
Plan your answer to this extract-based question In what way does Orwellpowerfully depict the relationship between the pigs and the other animals in this extract?
In what way does Orwell powerfully depict the relationship between the pigs and the other animals in this extract?They had won, but they were weary and bleeding. Slowly they began to limp back towards the farm. The sight of their dead comradesstretched upon the grass moved some of them to tears. And for a little while they halted in sorrowful silence at the place where thewindmill had once stood. Yes, it was gone; almost the last trace of their labour was gone! Even the foundations were partially destroyed.And in rebuilding it they could not this time, as before, make use of the fallen stones. This time the stones had vanished too. The force ofthe explosion had flung them to distances of hundreds of yards. It was as though the windmill had never been.As they approached the farm Squealer, who had unaccountably been absent during the fighting, came skipping towards them, whisking histail and beaming with satisfaction. And the animals heard, from the direction of the farm buildings, the solemn booming of a gun.‘What is that gun firing for? said Boxer.To celebrate our victory" cried Squealer.What victory? said Boxer. His knees were bleeding, he had lost a shoe and split his hoof, and a dozen pellets had lodged themselves in hishindleg.What victory, comrade? Have we not driven the enemy off our soil - the sacred soil of Animal Farm?But they have destroyed the windmill. And we had worked on it for two years!’What matter? We will build another windmill. We will build six windmills if we feel like it. You do not appreciate, comrade, the mightythings that we have done. The enemy was in occupation of this very ground that we stand upon. And now - thanks to the leadership ofComrade Napoleon - we have won every inch of it back again!Then we have won back what we had before, said Boxer.That is our victory, said Squealer.They limped into the yard. The pellets under the skin of Boxers leg smarted painfully. He saw ahead of him the heavy labour of rebuildingthe windmill from the foundations, and already in imagination he braced himself for the task. But for the first time it occurred to him thathe was eleven years old and that perhaps his great muscles were not quite what they had once been.
In what way does Orwellpowerfully depict the In Animal Farm, Orwell powerfully depicts therelationship between the pigs relationship between the pigs and the other animalsand the other animals in this through their conversations on the farm. In thisextract? extract, when Squealer says ‘We will build another windmill. We will build six windmills if we feel like Point it’ we are shown how little he cares about Boxer’s Evidence injuries by not even acknowledging them. Squealer doesn’t mention how he, or any of the pigs, will be Analysis participating in rebuilding the windmill and his Reader response words are indicative of the growing divide between Link back to question the ruling class and the workers on the farm. His repetition of the word ‘we’ is ironic, especially as Squealer himself did nothing to help the building of the windmill and was ‘unaccountably absent’ from the fighting. The reader is made to feel sympathetic towards Boxer’s situation as we know that the burden will fall on him to rebuild, and we begin to realise that his situation in life, and that of the other animals, is only going to get worse under the pigs rule. The relationship between the pigs and the other animals is quite clearly depicted as problematic.
Now you try: Choose another part of the text thatPoint shows the relationship between theEvidence pigs and the other animals.Analysis Construct a PEARL paragraph.Reader response • Make a clear POINTLink back to question • Remember to choose EVIDENCE that develops your point. • Most of your writing should be in the ANALYSIS, developing your point and commenting on the language used. • Comment on the effect of this language and/or idea on the READER. • Your last sentence should LINK back using words from the question.
Plan your answer to this discursive questionHow does Orwell vividly portray the importance of the sheep and dogs in Animal Farm? Remember tosupport your ideas with details from the novel.
How does Orwell use language to show the differences or similarities between the animals and the human beings? Language analysis and PEARL Paragraphing
How does Orwell use language to show the differences or similarities between the animals and the human beings?“worthless parasitical human beings”What does the word ‘parasitical’ suggest?And ‘worthless’?What other quotation could be used to support this one? – consider what Major said in his speech to the animals.What is Orwell doing by describing the humans in this way?
How does Orwell use language to show the differences or similarities between the animals and the human beings?“worthless parasitical human beings” Strong adjectiveProvokes feelings of distaste and dislike Living off other creatures!Describing the humans using negative adjectives for impact.
PEARL paragraphOrwell uses language to show the differences between thehumans and the animals by describing the humans usingnegative adjectives for impact, “worthless parasitical humanbeings”. The strong adjective “parasitical” implies the humansare creatures who live off other animals and provokes feelingsof distaste and dislike from the reader because a parasite is aninsect that sucks the blood (or life) out of another creature.Orwell’s manipulation of language here is further reiteratedthrough Major’s speech “Man is the only creature thatconsumes without producing”.(Continue this analysis)
How does Orwell use language to show the differences or similarities between the animals and the human beings?By using the adjective “worthless”, Orwellconveys his thoughts about the humans andpaints a negative image for the reader…Colour code your own PEARL paragraph,ensuring your paragraph is detailed and theanalysis is thorough.