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Prezentation solar ear
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Prezentation solar ear


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  • 1. Cooling and Heating (large) facilities with the supporting power of the … the absorption cooling process converts water heated to 80 degrees by fossil fuels or the power of the sun to cold water of about 8 degrees… sun Project designed and build by SOLID & UNIproject
  • 2. Reasons for the use of solar energy for heating and cooling
    • Reduces operational costs of facilities
    • Reduces dependency on fossil energy supply and/or electricity
    • Contributes to a healthy environment by cooling without the use of toxic gases
    • Use of renewable energy contributes to the reduction of CO2 emissions
  • 3. Saving money through Solar energy utilisation
    • Amortisation after only 5 years possible**
    • Conventional heating / cooling systems do not have an amortisation potential
    • Low operational costs facilitate higher profits
    ** Depending on sun days and subsidies made available through national environmental agencies *accumulative
  • 4. Solar applications in Europe
    • On the increase with;
    • Greece being the largest user of installed solar an collectors with annual sun radiation* of 1500 kWh/m 2
    • GR is followed closely by Germany & Austria with an annual radiation of only
    • 950 – 1200 kWh/m 2
    • Mediterranean countries with values of >1500 kWh/m 2 utilize solar energy least
    * Global radiation / year [kWh/m 2 ] installed
  • 5. The Potential of Solar Power utilization in Europe Germany and Austria located in areas of Europe which have a relatively low radiation utilize solar sun power more to those with higher values
  • 6.
    • The reduction of CO 2 emissions was agreed at Kyoto** & adopted by the EU
    • 50% of the green house effect is
    • caused by burning of fossil fuels (CO2)
    • and 22% by CFCs & HFC gases
    • used in conventional cooling
    • A reduction can only be achieved if;
      • renewable energy systems are used
      • cooling systems are used which do
      • not use toxic gases (absorption cooling)
    Solar utilisation reduces CO2 emissions…. *Chloro- & Hydrofluorocarbons **reduction by 8% until 2012
  • 7.
    • to support political programmes in reducing CO 2 emissions…
    The EU target until 2012…
    • As one way forward can be rated the annual increase in the production of glazed solar panels for the use of;
    • sanitary hot water
    • central heating
    • pool heating
    • with a large potential in absorption cooling
  • 8. Solar energy is available throughout the year to;
    • Heat during the cold months with temp.< 60 o C
    • Cool, using an absorption thermo chemical process during hot months with temp. > 80 o C
    FOR MORE INFO... on the absorption cooling process see slides 10 & 11 *high yield in summer, **low yield in winter Cooling* Heating** Heating**
  • 9. Components in the utilisation of solar energy facilitating cooling
    • Solar collectors achieve yields up to 0,6 kW/m 2
    • Modern heat exchangers have low heat losses
    • Use of large buffer storage tanks to retain collected energy
    • Separating sanitary water from buffer water
    • Absorption cooling requiring heat > 80 o C which is achievable through solar energy in summer
    • Tele-monitoring of the controls (also from abroad) to optimise efficiency of plant
  • 10. The absorption cooling cycle
    • … is similar to a vapour compression
    • cycle in that it relies on 3 basic principals;
    • When liquid is heated it vaporizes (boils) and when gas is cooled it condenses
    • Lowering the pressure of a liquid reduces its boiling point
    • Heat flows from warmer to cooler mediums
  • 11. absorption cooling–continued
    • Instead of mechanically compressing a gas, the absorption cooling relies on a thermo-chemical compressor
    • Two different fluids are used that dissolve easily in one another;
      • water under a vacuum as refrigerant
      • ammonia or LiBr* as an absorbent
    • The refrigerant (water) can change from liquid to vapour state easily and is circulated through the system driven by the heat of the solar plant >80 degrees
    *Lithium Bromide
  • 12. The Environmental Benefits
    • The ammonia used in the closed cooling system is safe, odourless and non-toxic
    • Ammonia carries no risk to the ozone layer
    • The hot water heated by the sun used as the primary energy source carries no risk to the environment
    • Should a support* energizer be required, waste product combustion can be used as well as any conventional energy source such as gas, oil or electricity
    *during periods of reduced solar yield
  • 13. Solar Cooling of EAR Tower 1. Solar plant 227m2 (ÖKOTECH, A) 2. Heat exchanger (ALFA LAVAL, S) 3. Storage tank 4.000l (ANGERER, A) 4. Heating manifold (Kosovo/SCG) 5. Domestic hot water circuit 6. Space heating circuit (radiators, fan coil units. air handling unit, etc.) 7. Back up heating system (200kW VIESSMANN/WEISHAUPT, Germany (D)) 8. Absorption cooling machine (2x45kW YORK, D) 9. Cooling tower (220kW BALTIMORE AIRCOIL, I) 10. Cold water storage tank (1.000l ODOERFER, Austria) 11. Back up chiller (30kW electric compr.YORK, I) 12. Air handling unit (UNIKLIMA, BiH)
  • 14. Cost and Efficiency for Solar Heating and Cooling Plants depend on;
    • Location of building in respect to the sun
    • Quality of building in respect to thermal insulation and glazing standards used
    • Usable floor area of the building
    • Buffer size to store heated water during periods of reduced solar yield
    • Heating / cooling requirements of the users
    • Type of supporting energizer
  • 15. Indicative cost for a complete solar heating/cooling plant…
    • Cost per m2 usable area is ~200 € *, for;
    • Design, commissioning of plant (consultant services)
    • Solar plant for heating/cooling made up of;
      • the required solar collectors (~15% of usable floor area)
      • heat exchanger and pumps
      • buffer reservoir with separate boiler for sanitary water
      • absorption cooling machine with cooling tower
      • fan coil units to dissipate the energy
      • Waste combustion, gas or oil fired support system
    • Control components and tele-monitoring
    *refer to note on the next slide Recurring Costs 0.5 €/month/m2
  • 16. Consultancy Services and Tools….
    • Calculation of energy needs of facilities
    • Tele-monitoring of the plant & equipment
  • 17. … noting that;
    • the herein described system is hydraulic as it is more efficient to air based systems to transport the collected solar energy*
    • all air ventilation needs are to be dealt with separately which will increase the cost of the plant by up to 50 €/m 2 floor area
    • the energy required to heat or cool the circulated air can be supplied by the described system at no extra cost
    • The square meter price for solar collectors do not exceed 200 €/m 2 with yield of 0,6 kW/m 2
    * water is a better conductor of energy than air by a factor of 3,500
  • 18. Situation in Kosovo…
    • KEK* produces approx. 3 GW of electricity by coal per annum (losses not considered)
    • It is assumed that about 2,2 M people live Kosovo in about 280 T households
    • That puts the per head consumption at 1,364 kW/per annum against Portugal** with 4TkW/a
    • Consumption per household 10,714 kW/annum
    • Noting that about 30% of the population live in urban centres…
    • It is assumed that people living in towns will consume double to the pop living in villages
    * Kosovo Energy Cooperation **least consumer in EU
  • 19. Household consumption…
    • of people living in towns could be as high as 25,000 kWh* per annum per household
    • This amounts to an energy need of up to 250 kW/h/m 2 usable floor area assuming a 100 m 2 dwelling, against current EU needs of 100 kW/h/m 2 (in similar climatic conditions)
    • This energy need can be reduces by 20%, if;
      • the facility receives thermal insulation (external)
      • the facility receives air tight windows / doors
      • the windows / doors receive thermal glazing
      • the roof / basement are sufficiently insulated
    * Hot water boiler, e-stove, washing machine, accumulators, fridge, lights, etc.
  • 20. What actions should be set to reduce the energy need?
    • Energy consumption of a medium sized house should be reduced from 250 kW/m2 per year to at least 100 kW / m2 / year
    • To reduce demand by 60% of current e-usage a combination of activities are required
  • 21. Energy saving in residential houses
    • Further savings can only be achieved if alternative energy systems are used for;
      • Heating or cooling a facility (15%)
      • Heating up sanitary water (15%)
      • Cooking (10%)
    • For the hydraulic systems solar plants are recommended whilst for cooking, gas is the only real feasible alternative
  • 22. Potential Saving per household
    • By an annual electrical consumption of 25 mWh,
    • or 2,083 kWh* per month, installing alternative
    • heating systems for;
    • hot water, can save 6,5 mWh per annum
    • central heating, save 6,0 mWh per annum
    • cooking with gas instead of electricity
    • the total electrical power thereby saved per annum
    • will amount to ~ 15 mWh , saving 750 €** from the
    • annual electricity bill
    **Electrical cost per kWh = 0,05 € *Hot water boiler, e-stove, washing machine, accumulators,fridge, lights, etc.
  • 23.
    • Producing components that can be used to utilize solar power, e.g.;
      • Solar collectors
      • Boilers (used as buffer storage tanks)
      • Making and installing solar heaters
      • Making and installing central heating systems for residential and public buildings
      • Photovoltaic technology and their applications
    • Thermal insulation;
      • Material production, also organic
      • Providing thermal façades to facilities
    Market Potentials for Kosovo?
  • 24. Companies involved in the Solar Plant at the EAR Tower*
    • Installation; SOLID / UNIPROJECT , Kosovo
    • Technical Design: iC Consulenten, Austria
    • Solar cooling/heating; SOLID GmbH, Austria
    • Solar collectors; GLUATMUGL of ÖKOTECH , Austria
    • Supplementary heating boiler (Oil); VIESSMANN, G
    • Supplementary Oil burner; WEISHAUPT, Germany
    • Absorption machine; YORK/YAZAKI, Germany
    • Buffer boilers; ANGERER, Austria
    • Control systems & technology; SCHNEID Electr. , A
    • Tele-monitoring; SOLID & SCHNEID Electronic, A
    * In Pristina / KOSOVO