GONORRHEA Perseus Ancheta Human Sexuality 021 Professor Sally Raskoff
What isGonorrhea?Gonorrhea- one of themost common curablesexually transmitteddiseases.Cause: abacterium, Neisseriagonorrhoeae, it grows inwarm moist environmentsin the reproductive tractsuch as:1. For Both Male and Female: the urethra2. For Female: cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes
What is Gonorrhea?• It is passed on by contact of the penis, vagina, and anus.• Babies can also acquire this infection if the mother was infected during the time of pregnancy.• Curable, but can be acquired if a person have sexual contact with another person infected with gonorrhea.
The SymptomsSymptoms vary with men andwomenFor men: it might take 30 orso days for the symptoms toappears, but the symptomsare: 1. Burning sensation when urinating. 2. White, yellow, or green discharge from penis 3. Rare cases of infection cause some to have swollen testicles.
The SymptomsFor women: mild symptons orno symptoms in someoccasions. Initial symptoms: 1. Burning sensaton when urinating 2. Increased vagina discharge and/or vaginal bleeding between periods.
The Symptoms• For both men and women:• Rectal infections: - Discharge -Anal itching -Soreness -Bleeding • Throat infections: - A possible sore throat, but most often none.
Who is at Risk?Anyone who issexually active canacquire and transmitgonorrhea.In the U.S. the mostgroups infected are:-Sexually activeteenagers-Young adults-African Americans
Rates of Infection by states of U.S. (CDC)
Rates by age and sex (CDC)
ComplicationsUntreated gonorrhea can lead to problems that can threaten both men’s and women’s health.• For women: causes pelvic • For men: causes epididymitis inflammatory disease (PID) – Epididymitis, a painful – PID symptoms can vary from condition of the ducts mild to severe such as attached to be testicles that abdominal pain to ectopic may later on cause infertility. pregnancy. -Can lead to infertility if the infection damages the fallopian tubes or can cause ectopic pregnancy in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus, often found in the fallopian tubes.
Complications• For a pregnant woman who has gonorrhea at the time of the baby’s delivery, she can pass on the infection as the baby travels through the birth canal.• For the baby, this can lead to blindness, joint infection, or a life threatening blood infection.
Treatment• Antibiotics can cure gonorrhea.• However, stronger drug-resistant strains of the infection are becoming more common than ever before in many countries including the United States.• In many cases, those who have gonorrhea may also have chlamydia (another type of STI), dual drugs are made for those who are infected with both STIs.• A person infected with an STI such as gonorrhea should also get tested for other STIs.• Although the antibiotic for gonorrhea can cure the infection, the permanent complications that came with the infection will be harder to cure and wont go away with the infection.
The Bad News• Gonorrhea has developed ever since its discovery to become more resistant to antibiotic drugs.• Cephalosporin-resistant gonorrhea is becoming more common in many countries including the U.S.• Less option for antibiotics that would help us cure it.
Dropping RatesIt is visible according to this graph from CDC that since 1990-2008, rates of gonorrhea have dropped.
PreventionAbstinenceLong-term monogamousrelationship with a partnerwho has been tested and freefrom any STIs.Correct use of condoms.
Conclusion• Gonorrhea is just one of the many different kinds of diseases that can be acquired through any skin contact of the penis, vagina, and anus.• It is curable but many permanent complications will not go away with antibiotics.• By practicing safe abstinence, monogamous relationships, safe and correct use of condoms, it will be easier to avoid gonorrhea and other sexually transmitted infections.
Reference“Gonorrhea-Fact Sheet”. CDC.gov/STD. April 5, 2011. May 27, 2011 <http://www.cdc.gov/std/gonorrhea/STDFact-gonorrhea.htm>“Gonorrhea Statistics”. CDC.gov/STD. March 16, 2011. May 27, 2011 <http://www.cdc.gov/std/Gonorrhea/stats.htm>