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Summer 2010 Minnesota Plant Press Summer 2010 Minnesota Plant Press Document Transcript

  • Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 29 Number 3 Summer 2010 Monthly meetings Thompson Park Center/Dakota Lodge Garden for Butterflies Thompson County Park 360 Butler Ave. E., West St. Paul, MN 55118 with Native Plants by Pat Thomas, wildlife gardener, educator and photographer. This is a Programs summary of her talk at the May 6, 2010, MNNPS meeting. The Minnesota Native Plant Butterflies are beautiful insects with four distinct developmental stages: Society meets the first Thursday egg, caterpillar, chrysalis and butterfly. You can enjoy all four stages by in October, November, December, providing nectar plants for adult butterflies and larval or host plants for February, March, April, May, and caterpillars. Native plants are the best choice for your butterfly garden. In June. Check at www.mnnps.org spring they are an early nectar source, and in fall, despite low temperatures, for more program information. they continue to supply nectar at a crucial time for migrating butterflies and 6 p.m. — Social period those that remain. Native plants also serve as food for caterpillars, ensuring 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, Society new generations of butterflies. business Select plants appropriate for your site conditions. Place at least some Oct. 7: “State parks: A legacy of the plants in an area shelteredof preserving history, natural from strong winds. You can createresources and native flora and a windbreak with trees or shrubs orfauna,” by Chris Niskanen, outdoors by covering a fence or trellis witheditor, St. Paul Pioneer Press. vines. Remember that you don’t have to have a large yard to attract Nov. 4: To be announced. (Check butterflies; container gardening isthe website.) Seed exchange. always an option. Dec. 2: To be announced. (Check Try to have flowers bloomingthe website.) from early spring to late fall, and group plants closer together than inBring native seeds for a traditional garden. Plant in massesthe annual exchange of color, and keep plants that attract The Society’s annual seed Continued on page 4 In this issueexchange, which will be held atthe Nov. 4 meeting, provides anopportunity for members to obtain President’s Column ..................2seeds of native plants at no cost. Conservation Corner .................2Seeds must be placed in marked Roadsides for pollinators .........3envelopes — no bulk piles will be New members ..........................3accepted. Field trips ................................3MNNPS website Plant Lore: hoary puccoon ......5 Threatened species list ............5 For information about Society Fritilary on butterfly-weedfield trips, meetings and events, (Asclepias tuberosa), photo by Genetic conservation of ash. ...6 Pat Thomas. Dwarf trout lily .......................8check the website: www.mnnps.org
  • Conservation Conservancy and others, recently joined by Minnesota’s Institute on MNNPS BoardCorner the Environment. Those goals can benefit our mission. of Directorsby Elizabeth Nixon President: Scott Milburn, Why value native plants?Conserving native plants as part President’s Column scott.milburn@mnnps.org by Scott Milburn Vice President: Shirley Mahof natural, healthy ecosystems in We recently held our quarterlya human-dominated and climate- Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@ board meeting in June, with Daniel mnnps.orgchanging world depends on Jones officially joining the board.awareness of the many values, The board voted Ken Arndt back Secretary, program coordinator:uses, and services such plants and to serve the remainder of Angela Andrés Morantes, andres.ecosystems provide for humans. Hanson’s three-year term. We also morantes@mnnps.org More diverse grasslands can held officer elections, with all four Treasurer, membership databe conserved through heightened positions remaining the same. This base: Ron and Cathy Huber, ron.awareness of carbon sequestration is now my fifth term in this position, huber@mnnps.orgvalue and through wise harvesting and I would like to continue to growfor biofuels. Undrained peatlands as we have as a society. Derek Anderson, board member,can conserve a vast array of native derek.anderson@mnnps.orgspecies and provide a very important Obviously, we would like to continue with our great programs Ken Arndt, board member, fieldcarbon sink. Policies for native trip chair, ken.arndt@mnnps.orgecosystems as carbon sinks may have and field trips, but we also need to grow our membership. This can be Michael Bourdaghs, boardpotential to go a long way towards accomplished in a number of ways, member, michael.bourdaghs@valuing and conserving native including making membership mnnps.orgplants. Local foods, regionallyproduced, eaten in concert with the renewals easier. We have recently Elizabeth Heck, board member,seasons, are a popular value that opened a PayPal account in order webmaster, elizabeth.heck@mnnps.has the potential to be significantly to make renewing easier. This is not orgexpanded into the realm of regional on the website yet, but we anticipate Daniel Jones, board member,native plant species. that everything will be fully running daniel.jones@mnnps.org Victoria Ranua, MNNPS by the time we all need to renew our memberships. I would like to thank Dylan Lueth, board member,member, recently volunteered to dylan.lueth@mnnps.orgeducate Y campers about Minnesota Katy Chayka for setting this up, andnative plant food values. Cattail also for all of her work on the blog.  Elizabeth Nixon, board member,root starch is a great bread-baking  The board also discussed possible conservation committee chair, beth.ingredient, and who knows, wise topics for the 2011 Symposium. For nixon@mnnps.orgharvesting for this purpose could be the past several years, we have been Erika Rowe, board member,a management tool for the invasive focusing on a region or landform, but erika.rowe@mnnps.orghybrid cattail species. the board discussed the possibility Russ Schaffenberg, board Humans value protection of exploring large-scale concepts member, russ.schaffenberg@against flooding of urban areas and that are being examined worldwide. mnnps.orghomesteads. Belief that we can drain Discussions will continue for theentire watersheds and use energy- next several months, with a topic to Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@intensive engineering solutions as be announced in the next newsletter. mnnps.orga way out of the flood devastation As always, we will be looking for Memberships: memberships.in their wakes is losing popularity volunteers for the event. mnnps@mnnps.orgto large scale watershed-based, Historian-Archives: Royenergy-neutral wetland restoration Plant sale income up Robison, historian-archives.efforts that can also restore native The June Plant Sale is a source mnnps@mnnps.orgplant diversity to large areas. of income for the Society. We received $566 this year — higher Technical or membership We encourage you to consider inquiries: contact.mnnps@mnnps.these ideas and promote them than in 2009 and 2008; lower thanin your various professional and in 2007 and 2006. Totals for the last orgcommunity activities. Look into the five sales are: 2010 - $566; 2009 Minnesota Plant Press Editor:recently developed Natural Capital - $416; 2008 - $450; 2007- $842; Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006;Project spearheaded by The Nature 2006 - $911. plantpress.mnnps@mnnps.org2
  • Roadsides for their annual colonies. The main idea is these bees need a diversity of MNNPS welcomes new membersPollinators  native plants and soil substrates to create their homes.  The Society gives a warmby Laurel Sundberg, interpretive Here’s the encouraging part: welcome to 30 new members whonaturalist, Lowry Nature Center. studies have found roadsides with joined during the second quarter of Our native pollinators, bees and abundant native wildflowers and 2010. Listed alphabetically, theyother insects, are unable to find the grasses support twice as many are:real estate they need to survive and bees and about 35 percent more Lynnette S. Anderson, St. Croixthrive. They aren’t able to enter bee species than roadsides with Beach;into a bidding war with developers monocultures and/or exotic plants. Paul D. Anderson, Edina;over land being gobbled up at an The more diversity, the higher the Sara Barsel, Roseville;estimated rate of four acres per number of insect pollinators. A 50/50 John Berquist, Rochester;minute across the U.S. mix of grasses to forbs attracted Karin Ciano, Minneapolis; The Minnesota DNR has a new the most pollinators. Leave a few Jordan and Miranda Curzon, St.poster advocating use of native shrubs or trees, and the mix should Paul;plantings along roadsides as a way prove irresistible for native bees, Ken Graeve, St. Paul;to combat habitat loss. The studies butterflies and many others.   Holly Hamilton, Plymouth;focus on roadsides because they Brooke Karen Haworth, St. Paul; What’s a homeowner or native Carol Hepokoski, Rochester;serve as connections to key habitats plant connoisseur to do? Keepand are often set aside from further Erica Hoaglund, St. Paul; planting natives. Some plants of very Mari Ito, Shoreview;development. We can’t argue that high value to pollinators are: aster,a narrow ditch is comparable to Susan Jones, St. Paul; bergamot, Culver’s root, goldenrod, Tara Kelly, Afton;keeping the “back 40” a prairie, but giant hyssop, leadplant, milkweed,any small positive change can make L. Alden Kendall, Duluth; partridge pea, penstemon, prairie Alexis McCarthy, Minneapolis;a difference.   clover, spiderwort, and sunflower. Randall Neprash, Roseville; An estimated 60 - 80 percent of These are plants many of us are Melvin M. Prantner, Duluth;the world’s flowering plants require already focused on cultivating in JoAnn and Richard Schnitzus,some sort of animal pollinator to our gardens. Minnetonka;produce viable seeds. Many of If you have a roadside already Dan Shaw, St. Paul;our agriculturally important plant sporting this kind of diversity, try Greg and Pam Spar, Big Lake;species are dependent on animal to reduce mowing to only a strip Laurel Sundberg, Minnetonka;pollinators. These pollinators are along the edge, and reduce pesticide Evelyn Timm, Duluth;often insects: beetles, flies, moths, and herbicide use. We probably all Joe White, Minnetonka;butterflies, and especially bees. We enjoyed listening to the hum of bees Karin Wolverton, Richfield;tend to think of the domesticated working in the garden. Imagine if we Jason Yadley, Oakdale;European honeybee as the key could bring back that kind of beauty Estella Yeung, Oakdale.pollinator, but there are many to our roadsides — and help ourmore native bee species that have native pollinators in the process.  Treasurers’ reportdeveloped as part of Minnesota’s For more information, a poster The 2010 second quarterecology and are adapted to our based on the article “Pollinators treasurers’report from Ron and Cathyclimate and plants.  and Roadsides” is available from Huber shows income of $8,918.79 These native bee species, along the MN DNR at  http://files.dnr. and expenses of $7,319.52. Theywith other insect pollinators, are state.mn.us/assistance/nrplanning/ estimate that expenses for thelosing ground when it comes to community/roadsidesforwildlife/ remainder of the year will be aboutfinding high quality habitat. To beesforroadsides.pdf $3,700. Assets total $26,368.40,support these winged pollinators, including $8,794.69 in CDs.we need to provide food, shelter, Field trips Major sources of income for theand space. Food sources for these MNNPS field trips are being year were the symposium ($5,275),bees come in the form of pollen and planned for late summer and fall. memberships ($2,728) and the plantnectar. For shelter, solitary bees will Check the website (www.mnnps. sale ($566). Expenses includedexcavate an underground nest, or org) periodically for updates. the symposium ($3,857), grantuse an existing tunnel into a pithy The Bell Museum also conducts to digitize film ($1,300), printingor woody stem. Social bumblebees field trips. They are posted at www. ($728), new display stand ($354)recycle old mouse nests to create bellmuseum.org and postage ($322). 3 View slide
  • VinesButterfly gardening Hog peanut, Amphicarpa(Continued from page 1) bracteata;butterflies away from busy streets. Wild cucumber, EchinocystisSelect the widest variety of plants lobata;possible, and incorporate different Hops vine, Humulus lupulus.layers of vegetation. Trees, shrubs,grasses, wildflowers, groundcovers Some nectar plants forand leaf litter are all important. Use butterfliesnatural areas near your home to Perennial flowersinspire your garden design. Allium species (including common Designate one area in your yard garden chives);that can remain undisturbed (no Yarrow, Achillea;mowing, weeding or digging). Place Anise hyssop, Agastachethe larval plants there with leaf foeniculum;litter as mulch. Allow those plants Milkweed, Asclepias species; to remain standing throughout the Black swallowtail on purple Aster, Aster species;winter. In spring, if necessary, gently coneflower (Echinacea Turtlehead, Chelone glabra;cut back the plants. If possible, let angustifolia), photo by Pat Prairie thistle, Cirsium flodmani (athe old plant material remain on site Thomas. native thistle);to let overwintering stages continue [Note: Thistle is both a nectar andtheir life cycle. Some host plants for larval plant, but can be invasive. Plant only native species.] You can also attract butterflies caterpillars Coreopsis, Coreopsis species;by providing very shallow drinking Trees Coneflower, Echinacea species;areas with rocks and twigs so Juneberry and Serviceberry, Joe Pye weed, Eupatoriumbutterflies can perch and drink. Amelanchier species; maculatum;Overripe fruit such as bananas, Birch, Betula species; Boneset, Eupatorium perfoliatum;watermelon, oranges, peaches, and Pagoda dogwood, Cornus Blanketflower, Gaillardia species;apples will be appreciated by some alternifolia; Sunflower, Heliopsis species;butterflies. Others may come to a Poplar and aspen, Populus species; Blue flag iris, Iris shrevi;salt lick. Wild plum, Prunus americana; Liatris, blazingstar, Liatris species; Pin cherry, Prunus pennsylvanica; Wild bergamot, Monarda fistulosa; Butterflies are cold blooded and Chokecherry, Prunus virginiana; Black-eyed Susan, Rudbeckiacannot fly until their muscles are Oak, Quercus species; hirta;warmed. Some, like monarchs, can Staghorn sumac, Rhus typhina; Rose, Rosa species;shiver to warm flight muscles, but Willow, Salix species. Compass plant, Silphiummost need to use the sun. Locatepart of your garden in a sunny, warm Flowers laciniatum;location. Butterflies will bask on Pearly everlasting, Anaphalis Cup plant, Silphium perfoliatum;rocks, tree trunks, stone or concrete margaritacea; Goldenrod, Solidago species;paths, mulch, evergreens and bare Columbine, Aquilegia canadensis; Vervain, Verbena species;soil. Smooth Rock Cress, Arabis glabra; Ironweed, Vernonia species; Milkweed, Asclepias species; Violet, Viola species. Do not use any insecticides Aster, Aster species;or pesticides. These products kill Turtlehead, Chelone glabra; Shrubs and treesall insects including butterflies. Goldenrod, Solidago species; New Jersey tea, CeanothusEncourage neighbors to stop Violet, Viola species; americanus;spraying. Golden Alexander, Zizia aurea. Chokecherry, Prunus virginiana; Our yards are important, but Shrubs Sumac, Rhus species;they cannot replace butterflies’ Dogwood, Cornus species; Basswood, American linden, Tilianatural habitats. Do everything Smooth wild rose, Rosa blanda; americana;you can to protect trees, wetlands, Prairie rose, Rosa arkansana; Wild plum, Prunus americanus;air and water, grasses and flowers Nannyberry, Viburnum lentago; Blueberries, Vaccinium species;so we may always be blessed with Blueberry, Vaccinium Blackberries, raspberries, andbutterflies. angustifolium. dewberries, Rubus species.4 View slide
  • Field guides Plant Lore Creating Summer Magic in your Garden, 2nd edition; Sierra ClubButterflies Books, San Francisco, 1998.Jim P. Brock and Ken Kaufman, by Thor KommedahlButterflies of North America; What is hoary puccoon?Houghton Mifflin Company, N.Y., Threatened species Hoary puccoon is Lithospermum canescens in the forget-me-2003. list still stalled not  family and is native toJeffrey Glassberg, Butterflies Minnesota’s list of endangered, Minnesota.through Binoculars: The East; threatened, and special-concernedOxford University Press, N.Y., plants, animals, and other species How did it get its names?1999. has not been updated since 1996, The genus name comes fromLarry Weber, Butterflies of the although the law requires an update the Greek lithos, a stone, andNorth Woods, 2nd edition; Kollath- every three years. sperma, a seed, referring to the hardStensaas, Minn., 2006. Hearings were held on a proposed seeds  (nutlets) that resemble small, revision in 2000, but then the polished stones. Hoary describesCaterpillars process stopped. The latest revision its hairy leaves and stems,  andThomas J. Allen, Jim P. Broch, was completed in December 2009. canescens means “turning hoaryand Jeffrey Glassberg, Caterpillars It includes 180 new species and de- white.” Puccoon is an Algonquianin the Field and Garden; Oxford lists 29. This list has been discussed name for the reddish dye extractedUniversity Press, N.Y., 2005. within the DNR, but it has not been from the stout roots.David L. Wagner, Caterpillars of approved by Commissioner Mark Where does it grow?Eastern North America; Princeton Holsten, according to an article It thrives in prairies, open woods,University Press, N.J., 2005. by Tom Meersman in the July 6 and on roadsides, often in dry, Minneapolis StarTribune. sandy soil, in almost all counties inButterfly Gardening Once Holsten approves the list, itClaire Hagen Dole, editor, The Minnesota except the Arrowhead. will be sent to Gov. Tim PawlentyButterfly Gardener’s Guide, What does the plant look like? for his approval. After that, it canBrooklyn Botanic Garden Guides, It is a perennial nine to 18 inches be published in the state registerN.Y., 2003. tall with alternate, narrow, silky and assigned to an administrativeJudy Burris and W. Richards, The law judge for public hearings. This gray leaves, each with a prominentLife Cycles of Butterflies; Storey process is expected to take from six mid-rib. Flowers have five yellow-Publishing, Mass., 2006. months to a year. Until then, the new orange petals in forget-me-not-likeXerces Society and the Smithsonian list cannot be used for enforcement lobes that flare out from a tube thatInstitution, Butterfly Gardening: against developers. also hides the stamens (with brown anthers). It blooms April through June. Is it medicinal or poisonous? Captain John Smith (1612) saw Indians beat dried roots to a red powder, which was applied to soothe aches and swellings. Indians also brewed a leaf tea for treating fevers and seizures. Shikonin derivatives able to combat bacterial infections of human skin have recently been isolated from roots. It is not poisonous or edible. Has it economic uses? Indians used the red dye for pottery, basketry, and personal ornaments. It can be grown in wildflower gardens, in sunny and dry locations, and from cuttings Clump of hoary puccoon (Lithospermum canescens), photo by Peter Dziuk. collected in July. 5
  • A genetic conservation for the death of over 20 million ash trees, with roughly 10 million ash trees having succumbed in theprogram for Minnesota ash southeast Michigan/northwest Ohio region. In May 2009, EAB wasby Andrew David, Michael threatened by an exotic invasive detected near Victory, Wis., acrossReichenbach and Julie Hendrickson, insect species, Agrilus planipenni, the Mississippi River from Houstonassociate professor, adjunct assistant or emerald ash borer. EAB was County, Minn. A short while later,professor and graduate student introduced from Asia, most likely EAB was confirmed in a littlerespectively, Department of Forest on dunnage associated with an over 60 trees in St. Paul’s SouthResources, University of Minnesota, overseas shipment. It was first St. Anthony Park area, then on theThis article is a summary of a talk noticed in 2002 in the Detroit, University’s St. Paul campus, andgiven at the March 4, 2010, meeting Mich.,/ Windsor, Ontario, area. most recently in Prospect Park inof the MNNPS. The life cycle for EAB is fairly Minneapolis, about one-half mileMinnesota’s ash resource simple. Adults emerge in late west of the original infestation. Minnesota is host to three May through August, leaving a Because it is usually three to sixspecies of ash: white ash (Fraxinus characteristic D-shaped hole in the years before an EAB infestation isamericana), green ash (F. bark. As adults, they are active identified, early detection and strictpennsylvanica) and black ash (F. potentially for a month while they adherence to quarantines on movingnigra). White ash is an upland eat only the foliage of ash trees, nursery stock and firewood are keyspecies at the northern edge of mate, and lay eggs under the bark to limiting EAB movement.its range in extreme southeast of ash trees. The developing larvae Biological efforts to controlMinnesota; both black and green ash then girdle the tree by eating the the spread of EAB have beenare common lowland hardwoods. phloem. Most larvae then become largely unsuccessful because EABGreen ash is found throughout the prepupa and spend the winter in does not appear to use long-rangestate as individual trees in the forest; shallow chambers in the sapwood pheromones that would be usefulblack ash is found primarily in the or in thick bark. However, research in trapping the insect, and there arenorthern third of the state in larger has shown that some larva do no known biological control agents.densities. not turn into prepupa until the Without effective pheromones, Minnesota’s 900 million ash following fall, requiring two years monitoring activities are reducedtrees have cultural, ecological and to complete their metamorphosis. to watching and waiting for neweconomic value. Black ash is very Thus, although adults emerge outbreaks. Once a new outbreak isimportant in native cultures as a during summer, larvae may be under located, the common practice hassource of wood for ash baskets and the bark during any time of year. been to eradicate every ash tree in aspecialty products. Ecologically, Therefore, because of the possibility half-mile radius and then establish ablack and green ash are the most of two-year larvae, we must assume quarantine area.important hardwoods in the lowland that all wood from an infected tree Due to the lack of an effectiveforest community, representing 51 is infected. Unlike most borers that control for EAB, the number ofpercent of the lowland hardwood target larger trees, EAB is capable ash species affected, the range ofcover type in Minnesota. The next of utilizing seedlings down to as susceptible tree sizes, and the factclosest species is silver maple, which small as one-half inch in diameter. that no natural resistance to EABrepresents 11 percent of this cover Depending on the number of beetles has been detected, it is prudent andtype. The most recent economic infesting a tree, death occurs within proactive to prepare for an invasioninformation from the Minnesota one to five years. of EAB in Minnesota. ThisDepartment of Natural Resources As of March 2010, EAB has preparation should take the form ofestimates annual ash stumpage at been found in Michigan, Illinois, a gene conservation effort in black$15 million. Although Minnesota’s Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, Wisconsin, and green ash to capture the geneticash resource is primarily small Minnesota, Missouri, Pennsylvania, variation of these two species. Thisdiameter trees, both black and green New York, Maryland, Virginia, gene conservation effort wouldash provide a source of pallet, saw West Virginia, Ontario, and Quebec. preserve the genetic variation for aand veneer logs to manufacturers Currently, all of the lower peninsula future point in time when EAB canthat promote employment in rural of Michigan is considered infected, be controlled and both species canportions of the state. and new outbreaks are no longer be reintroduced to Minnesota usingEmerald ash borer reported or tracked. It is estimated locally adapted seed sources. These important species are that EAB already is responsible In an effort to combat EAB6
  • in Minnesota, the Minnesota a grocery bag. Trees are separated Evaluating the collectionDepartment of Agriculture has by a distance of 150 feet or more strategiesestablished an EAB action team and to decrease the possibility of being The three collection strategiesa scientific panel to advise on the best related, and the collected seed is sent (population, ecoregion andmanagement practices in and around to the Natural Resource Conservation volunteer) represent three veryinfection areas. With assistance Service Plant Introduction Station different methods for gatheringfrom the University of Minnesota’s in Ames, Iowa, where it is put into genetic variation in these two ashAgricultural Experiment Station long-term storage. species. To determine which ofRapid Agricultural Response Ecoregion collections utilize these methods results in adequateFund, we have initiated a genetic the Omernik Level III ecoregions levels of genetic variation to meetconservation program for ash species to define seed collection areas. the goals of the ash-seed collectionin Minnesota. The two goals of this There are seven such ecoregions in program, we will use molecular toolsproject are to: Minnesota. The goal is to collect to test the efficacy of the collection• Capture the genetic variation of two to four inches of seed in the strategies to determine the level ofMinnesota’s black ash (F. nigra) bottom of a grocery bag from 10- genetic variation that each strategyand green ash (F. pennsylvanica) 15 individuals per ecoregion. This captures. This information canresource by collecting open seed is sent to the National Seed assist our collection project focus onpollinated seed from these species, Laboratory in Dry Branch, Georgia, a collection strategy that allows thecreating an ex situ seed bank, and where it is put into long-term greatest amount of genetic variation• Evaluate different seed collection storage. with the least amount of time andstrategies using molecular tools Volunteer collections come from effort expended for seed collection.to determine the most efficient seed collectors who may have been It will also provide other seedmethod. The ideal collection trained at one of our seed-collector collection efforts with guidelines forstrategy will capture more than workshops or may have heard collecting from similar or additional80 percent of the genetic variation about our collection effort through ash species.in a population as well as capture articles in local newspapers, or were We have chosen to work withtraits that allow adaptation to local linked to our collection efforts on microsatellite markers, which are agrowing conditions. the Internet. These collections are class of molecular marker that has Both green and black ash are primarily single-tree collections and been used successfully in the past towind-pollinated and disperse seed can range from a handful of seed to identify levels of genetic variationvia wind. Green ash is dioecious, half a grocery bag. These smaller in tree species. Seventeen differentmeaning there are male and female collections are shipped to the USDA microsatellite markers have beentrees, while black ash is dioecious Agricultural Research Service derived from European ash (F.or polygamous, with male and facility in Fort Collins, Colo., where excelsior), and we are checking theirfemale flowers on the same tree. they are stored. ability to identify genetic variationBased on the life history traits of Once seed is collected or is in black and green ash. The goal isthese species and information found mailed to our laboratory in Grand to have six to eight fully functionalin provenance trials, it would be Rapids by volunteer collectors, it microsatellite markers before weappropriate to collect seed from is cleaned and shipped out to one proceed with the analysis of theunrelated individuals in different of the three storage sites, basedportions of the state to meet the two on how it was collected. There it three seed-collection strategies.goals of the seed collection project. is dried to an internal 8 percent Currently, of the 17 microsatelliteGenetic conservation via seed moisture content and stored at -200 markers, six are optimized in blackcollections C. In this low-moisture, frozen and green ash, two look promising The ash seed collection project state, the seed can remain viable for for black and green ash, four moreactually has three different sampling upwards of 20 years. This process are promising for black ash only, andstrategies — population collections, is not meant to be a solution; rather, five show no amplification in eitherecoregion collections, and volunteer it serves as a method for storing the species. Once the fully functionalcollections. Population collections genetic variation found in the ash markers have been identified, theinvolve collecting 15-20 different species until such time as EAB can be controlled. Once EAB can be genetic assessment will begin. Inpopulations per species, with atleast 20 individuals per population. controlled, this seed can be used to the meantime, we will continue toA minimum of 50 viable seeds per reintroduce ash to areas where it has collect ash seed as it is available intree are collected, typically one to been extirpated, or used for some regions of the state where we havetwo inches of seed in the bottom of other research or breeding purpose. not made collections. 7
  • Minnesota Native Plant Society P.O. Box 20401 Bloomington, MN 55420Summer 2010 in search for Erythronium. There40 years ago was one specimen. It had beenDwarf trout lily goes to Kew contributed by Asa Gray in 1871. The specimen was collected by the [This article about Erythronium area mingled with E. albidum botany teacher at St. Mary’s Schoolpropullans was printed in the [white trout-lily or dogtooth- in Faribault. Apparently she knewMarch 1970 issue of The Minnesota violet]. Propullans has smaller Professor Gray and collected plantsHorticulturist, the magazine of the flowers, less than one-half the size for him. Gray, in turn, presented theMinnesota Horticultural Society. of albidum. The pedicels are very type specimen to the Royal BotanicThe endangered dwarf trout lily fine, and the leaves are smaller. The Garden.is the flower on the logo of the distinguishing characteristic is an Ninety-eight years later, I hadMinnesota Native Plant Society. offshoot from the stem of the plant the honor to present Kew with theJohn Masengarb, a Society member, just below the ground level. This second specimen. On returningsubmitted the article; the MSHS offshoot is said to produce a single from England, a letter was waitinggave permission to reprint it.] bulblet. E. albidum produces an from Sir George Taylor, director ofby Julius Wadekamper offshoot below its present bulblet. the Gardens, which stated in part: The Minnesota Horticulturist A few specimens were collected “We are most grateful to you andpublished an article on Erythronium with the intention of adding one to particulary appreciate receivingpropullans in the April 1968 issue. my collection as well as to that of recently collected specimens ofI was interested in locating and the University. Since I was going Erythronium propullans Gray,studying this species and perhaps to London that summer to attend previously represented in ouradding it to my collection of the International Lily Conference, I collection only by type material sentMinnesota plants. It is said to be thought I would take one to the Royal here 98 years ago by Professor Asaendemic to a few areas along the Botanic Gardens at Kew and maybe Gray.”Cannon and Zumbro rivers in Rice make an original contribution. [According to a photo caption,and Goodhue counties. Mr. Green, the officer of the day the presentation was made in front I located E. propullans in Rice at the Kew Herbarium, welcomed of the building because the specimenCounty. It was growing in a low me. We went through the herbarium had not yet been fumigated.]