Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 28 Number 4 Fall 2009 Monthly meetings Thompson Park Center/Dakota Conservation priorities, botanical workshops are Lodge Thompson County Park among future plans 360 Butler Ave. E., West St. Paul, MN 55118 Programs by Scott Milburn, MNNPS president The Minnesota Native Plant Society meets the first Thursday When the board recently met for our quarterly meeting, the discussion in October, November, December, centered on committee direction, future programming events, and bylaw February, March, April, May, and changes. June. Check at www.mnnps.org Over the last few years, the conservation committee has been revived for more program information. under the leadership of Beth Nixon. In an effort to refine our efforts, the 6 p.m. — Social period 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, Society board decided that we need to narrow our focus. Each board member and business officer was given the task of coming up with three potential conservation Nov. 5: “Decorative Harvesting issues that directly involve our mission.The board will then decide on onefrom Minnesota’s Spruce Bogs,” of these issues to focus on in the upcoming years. Possible topics includeby Norm Aaseng, plant ecologist, biofuels, off-highway vehicle use, and sustainable forestry practices.Minnesota County Biological The board also discussed possible 2010 symposium topics, alongSurvey. Annual Seed Exchange. with the concept of botanical workshops for the membership. The 2010 Dec. 3: “Salvage Logging in symposium committee will be the same committee as led this past year’sSt. Croix State Park,” by Gretchen event. The botanical workshops would ideally develop into annual eventsHeaser, St. Croix State Park with a focus on a particular suite of species. It may be a year or twoResources Specialist. Plant of theMonth: Orobanche uniflora, one- before we have our first botanical workshop, since we are currently atflowered broom rape or cancer-root, the conceptual stage. We are obviously open to suggestions and ask forby Ken Arndt, Critical Connections membership participation.Ecological Services, Inc. Finally, the board is going to update both the bylaws and the operations Feb. 4: To be announced. manual. It has been five years since the last update, and it definitely is time to incorporate some changes. BoardField trips being planned Fall and winter field trips are being member Russ Schaffenberg will serve as the lead for this undertaking. In this issue Healthy watersheds initiative ...2planned. For the latest information, Members will be informed about MNNPS is on Facebook ....... ....2go to the Society website. future bylaw changes in the Plant Spotted knapweed fight ..........3 Press, and these proposed changes Campus wetland restoration .. ..3MNNPS website will be voted on at the general Latin botanical nomenclature ...4 Aspen Parklands tour, plans ....6 For current information about monthly meetings. As always, we look forward to the continued Plant Lore: Steeplebush .........7Society field trips, meetings and New members .......................7other events, check the website: involvement of our members, and Your dues are due ....................7www.mnnps.org to hearing from you.
Mississippi River amount of nitrogen and phosphorus reaching basin waters. MNNPS BoardBasin Healthy The watersheds will be selected in consultation with state technical of DirectorsWatersheds committees, using a consistent watershed evaluation process. President: Scott Milburn, firstname.lastname@example.orgInitiative planned Vice President: Shirley Mah The USDA Natural Resources MNNPS is on Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@ mnnps.orgConservation Service is developinga new initiative in Minnesota and 11 Facebook DerekAnderson, board member, email@example.com states to help improve water by Michael Bourdaghsquality and the health of related The MNNPS can now be found Ken Arndt, board member, fieldnatural resources in the Mississippi on Facebook. This is a social trip chair, firstname.lastname@example.orgRiver Basin. Michael Bourdaghs, board networking website where users can The program will be concentrated create their own profile page, join member, michael.bourdaghs@in priority basin watersheds in networks of other users organized mnnps.orgArkansas, Kentucky, Illinois, Angela Hanson, board member, by interests, and communicate in aIndiana, Iowa, Louisiana, Minnesota, email@example.comMissouri, Ohio, Tennessee, and variety of ways.Wisconsin. $320 million has been Have an announcement, want to Elizabeth Heck, board member,allocated for the initiative. start a discussion, or share a great webmaster, elizabeth.heck@mnnps. org NRCS and its partners will work picture with other members? Youwith producers in these priority can do all of these quickly and easily Dylan Lueth, board member,watersheds to help them voluntarily firstname.lastname@example.org on Facebook.implement conservation and Elizabeth Nixon, board member,management practices which avoid, To find the MNNPS Facebook conservation committee chair, beth.control, and trap nutrient runoff. page, go to www.facebook.com and email@example.comThey will use a conservation systems log in. First time users will have to Erika Rowe, board member,approach to control soil erosion, create a new account and personal firstname.lastname@example.org surface and drainage water, page. Type “Minnesota Native Plant Russ Schaffenberg, boardimprove soil quality, and provide Society” in the Search box, and then member, russ.schaffenberg@wildlife habitat, thereby reducing the click the “Become a fan” link. mnnps.org Treasurer: Ron and Cathy Minnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Huber, email@example.com Linda Huhn, program (Abbreviated from the bylaws) coordinator, 612-374-1435 This organization is exclusively organized and operated for educational and scientific purposes, including the following. Secretary: Andrés Morantes, firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Conservation of all native plants. 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@ mnnps.org 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant life. Memberships: memberships. 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to email@example.com Minnesota. Historian-Archives: Roy 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation, ecosytems. Robison, historian-archives. firstname.lastname@example.org 6. Preservation of native plants, plant communities, and scientific and natural areas. Technical or membership 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural inquiries: contact.mnnps@mnnps. org resources and scenic features. 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through Minnesota Plant Press Editor: Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006; meetings, lectures, workshops, and field trips. email@example.com
MDA releases MNNPS helps fund nativeweevils to fight plantings for campus wetland spotted knapweed by Andrés commute west of the State Fair Grounds on Como Ave., you If you F. Morantes The Minnesota Department of may notice an urban green space on the north side of the road. This urbanAgriculture is alerting farmers andother landowners about spotted wetland is known as Sarita Wetlands, and it serves as a major componentknapweed (Centaurea stoebe), an in stormwater drainage for the University of Minnesota St. Paul campus.invasive weed that is showing up In recent years, the campus community has promoted the restoration of thiswith increasing frequency in parts of green space, and MNNPS has contributed to the efforts.Minnesota. It is considered a threat The recent efforts began in the winter of 2005 when students fromto agriculture and the environment. the Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology (FWCB) Club andSeedhead and root weevils are being University staff outlined a vision for having an on-campus living laboratoryused to help control it. to complement the education of natural resource studies. To achieve an “Spotted knapweed has attractive urban space with a diversity of native insects, birds, and other subjects forpink flowers, but it is not a goodneighbor,” Geir Friisoe, MDA plant study, the vision outlines a need to restore the native vegetation.protection director said. “When it The efforts continued during the spring of 2006 and 2007 with treebecomes established in an area, it plantings to increase the diversity of the future canopy and removal of somecrowds out forage plants and other of the heavy boxelder and cottonwood cover. In 2008, MNNPS Presidentdesirable vegetation. This can lead Scott Milburn guided student planning for increasing the herbaceousto loss of pasture productivity, diversity in the wetland shorelines and surrounding woodland uplands aterosion problems, and degradation Sarita.of wildlife habitat.” There are extensive infestations Most recently, FWCB students planted shoreline vegetation in thein the northwest part of the state, and spring of 2009. Funding for plant material in 2009 came partly fromit has been found recently in several MNNPS, which donated $250 to the student-led project. Plantings in 2009central Minnesota counties. Spotted included wildflowers such as boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum), monkey-knapweed arrived in North America flower (Mimulus ringens), and great blue lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica), andin the early 1900s as a contaminant a variety of sedges, including bristly sedge (Carex comosa), fringed sedgein crop seed. (Carex crinita), and needle spike-rush (Eleocharis acicularis). The MDA has teamed up with the This project is a unique ongoing effort that is only possible throughDepartments of Natural Resources the continued cooperation and leadership of FWCB students, campus(DNR) and Transportation (Mn/DOT) to introduce seedhead weevils staff, professors, and outside organizations like MNNPS. While studentat multiple sites in Chippewa County leadership in the project changes from year to year, several campusto reduce the spread and impact of faculty have played a major role in the project, most notably Professorknapweed in that area. Peter Jordan, a past presenter for MNNPS. To date, the university has not Seedhead weevils lay their eggs officially committed to sponsoring the project. Therefore, future successon knapweed flowers, and the larvae of this project will continue to rely on volunteers, grants, and donations.eat developing seeds. The larvae ofthe root weevil feed and develop DNR seeks volunteers dnr.state.mn.us/volunteering/index. Individuals, families, and groups arein knapweed roots, weakening or for varied projects welcome to participate. Childrenkilling the plants. The DNR needs assistance with under the age of 16 must be under Small infestations can be collecting prairie seeds, brushing adult supervision to volunteer.controlled by gloved hand-weeding, trails, bud-capping trees, surveying If a DNR opportunity is notfollowed by herbicide treatment trail users, installing tree shelters, listed for your area, contact yourto kill remaining seeds. Weevils transcribing historical interviews, local DNR office to inquire aboutmay be the better option for larger and river clean-ups throughout available volunteer positions. Forsites. For additional information, Minnesota. the number and location of your localgo to www.mda.state.mn.us/plants/ Volunteer opportunities are office, call the DNR Informationbadplants/skw-origin posted on their website at www. Center, 1-888-646-6367. 3
What’s in a name? Commonly encounteredMastering Latin nomenclature andpronunciation of botanical names Minnesotaby Rebecca Dolan, Ph.D., ButlerUniversity Friesner Herbarium professional botanists pronounce the same names differently. It epithets Intimidated by multisyllabic doesn’t really matter. by Shirley Mah Kooyman, MNNPSLatin plant names? Understanding vice president and Minnesota Here’s another trick: Think Landscape Arboretum coordinatorwhy Latin names are used may about what a Latin term means.make them more tolerable. Here angustifolia (narrow-leaved) – Often the term relates to some Lavandula angustifolia (Englishare some principles to help you deal obvious feature of the plant. Awith them effortlessly. lavender) botanist describing a new species argentea (silvery) – Salvia Formal scientific names of plants must follow international rules of argentea (silver sage)and other organisms are given botanical nomenclature. The newin Latin so that the language is name given the plant must be an aurea (golden) – Potentillainternational and unchanging. I can original combination of genus and aurea (golden-flowered potentilla)look at a paper or book in Japanese species names, but the choice of a borealis (northern) – Linneaor Russian and still distinguish specific epithet (or species name) is borealis (twinflower)scientific names. While visiting entirely up to the investigator. caeruleum (deep blue) –my sister in Holland, I bought a The name usually reflects a Polemonium caeruleum (Jacob’swildflower identification book physical trait of the plant, but it ladder with blue flowers)written in Dutch but illustrated with may indicate where the plant was candidum (white) – Liliumvery nice photographs and Latin first collected, the geographic area candidum (lily with white flowers)scientific names. Thus I could learn where it grows, the name of thethe plants and see their relationships coccineus (scarlet) – Phaseolus person who first collected it, or coccineus (scarlet runner bean)with our North American flora. someone who has done a lot of work cernuum (nodding) – Trillium Common names are important with related plants. cernuum (nodding trillium)and often carry historical Personal names are “Latinized,”information, such as medicinal uses and generally the genus and species esculentus (edible) –of plants, but they have limitations. names end with matching masculine Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)For example, very rare plants may (-us) or feminine (-ia) endings. farinacea (mealy) – Salvianot have common names. Some Some terms are borrowed from farinacea (mealy sage, mealy cupplants share common names, and Greek and Latinized. sage)some plants have different common graveolens (aromatic) – We can use these terms tonames in different parts of the Pelargonium graveolens (rose- examine names for some oaks.country. The use of scientific Latin scented geranium) All oaks are in the genus Quercus.names overcomes these problems. hirta (hairy) – Rudbeckia hirta White oak is Quercus alba, scarlet Pronunciation of Latin is much oak is Quercus coccinea, and red (black-eyed Susan)easier than English. All letters are oak is Quercus rubra. However, latifolia (broad-leaved) – Typhapronounced; there are no silent Quercus nigra is water oak, and latifolia (cat-tail with wide leaves)vowels or consonants. The main black oak is Quercus velutina, maculatum (spotted) – Lamiumtrick is knowing where to place apparently because of velvety hairs maculatum (spotted dead nettle),the emphasis. Most words have on the undersurfaces of the leaves. Geranium maculatum (wildthe emphasis on the next-to-the- Reprinted with permission from geranium)last syllable; others may have the INPAWS Journal: News and Views nana (dwarf) – Betula nanaemphasis on the syllable before that. from the Indiana Native Plant and (dwarf birch)Take comfort in knowing that even Wildflower Society, Spring 2009. odoratus (scented) - Lathyrus4
odoratus (sweet pea), Resedaodorata (mignonette) creeper) reptans (creeping) – Polemonium How botanical officinale (medicinal)Taraxacum officinale (dandelion), – reptans (creeping Jacob’s ladder) sativa (cultivated) – Lactuca names areCalendulamarigold) officinalis (pot sativa (lettuce), Cannabis sativa (hemp) created by Shirley Mah Kooyman pallida (yellow) – Echinacea scandens (climbing) – Cobaeapallida (yellow-flowered Prefix: macro (large, Aster scandens (cup and saucer vine) macrophyllus)coneflower), Impatiens pallida sinensis (of China) – Camellia Suffix: florus (flowered, Trillium(yellow-flowered impatiens) sinensis (tea), Miscanthus sinensis grandiflorum) palustris (growing in bog) – (silver grass) General personality: debileCaltha palustris (marsh marigold) (weak, Sedum debile) suaveolens (sweetly scented) – pratensis (of meadows) – Salvia Mentha suaveolens (mint) Color: argenteus (silvery, Salviapratensis (meadow sage), Trifolium sylvatica (of woods) – Myosotis argentea) pratense (red clover) sylvatica (forget-me-not) Markings: maculatus (spotted, pumila (dwarf) – Mahonia Geranium maculatum) tomentosum (hairy) – Cerastiumpumila (dwarf Oregon grape) Shape: campanulatus (bell- tomentosum (snow-in-summer) shaped, Agapathus campanulatus) procumbens (prostrate) – virgatum (wand-like) – Panicum Texture: laciniatus (slashed,Sanvitalia procumbens (creeping virgatum (panic grass) Rudbeckia laciniata)zinnia), Gaulteria procumbens viridis (green) – Salvia viridis Direction: cernuus (nodding,(creeping wintergreen) (salvia with green bracts) Trillium cernuum) radicans (rooting stem) – vulgaris (common) – Linaria Habitat: montanus (ofCampsis radicans (trumpet vulgaris (common toadflax) mountains, Centaurea montana) People: Kalmia (for Peter Kalm, a student of Linnaeus, KalmiaSearching for rare plants latifolia) Places: neapolitanus (Naples, Italy, Allium neapolitanum) DNR studying how to increase diversity of plants, insects to aid grassland birds The DNR is conducting a research project on increasing plant diversity and insect populations to benefit grassland birds and their broods, including pheasants, prairie chickens and meadowlarks. The project is being conducted on portions of 15 state Wildlife Management Areas and one federal Waterfowl Production Area which were originally planted with a heavy rate of grass and few if any broad- leaf plants. Prescribed burns will be Lynden Gerdes, on Seahorse Lake, is documenting rare flora of the conducted on each research unit. Boundary Waters Canoe Area. He was participating in the ongoing They will be interseeded with forbs. Minnesota County Biological Survey of the Border Lakes. Photo by For details, go to http://news.dnr. Scott Milburn, who was also on the survey team. state.mn.us/index.php/2009/09/17 5
County to Hwy. 2 in Polk County,MNNPS members tour stopping to view prairies and the Old Crossing of the Red Lake Riverthe Aspen Parklandsby Derek Anderson along the way. DNR preparing 10- The prairie-aspen parkland is a Canadian ecoregion that extends acrossManitoba, Saskatchewan, and Alberta. A small section also extends into year forest plan fornorthwestern Minnesota, adding an under-appreciated facet to the state’s Aspen Parklandsfabled reputation as the meeting place of major biomes. As a follow-up to The DNR is preparing athe Native Plant Society’s spring symposium featuring this biome, nearly Subsection Forest Resource40 plant society members and local citizens attended a series of field trips Management Plan for the Aspenon the weekend of July 11-12. Parklands ecological subsection in Many of the natural features of this landscape are the legacy of Glacial northwestern Minnesota. They hopeLake Agassiz, which left the level Red River Valley in its former lakebed to implement the plan in 2010.and a series of beach ridges on its former eastern shore. The beaches The plan is to provide strategic themselves support dry prairie and savanna communities. Between the direction for vegetation management ridges, the interbeach zones support wet brush prairie, including the habitat of the Aspen Parklands, to identify of Minnesota’s largest populations of western prairie fringed orchid. harvestable timber stands, and to Saturday trips included a choice of explorations of Polk County’s outline harvest levels for the next Agassiz Dunes SNA and Thorson Prairie WMA with University of decade. Minnesota, Crookston, instructor Rhett Johnson; or joining DNR The state manages about 12 botanists Derek Anderson and Nancy Sather to learn about the life history percent of the area. Forests and of the western prairie fringed orchid, assist with the annual census of woodlands (96,000 acres) will be flowering plants, and assist with demographic monitoring. A number of considered for forest management; trip participants remained in the area to help DNR monitoring crews later state brushlands and prairies in the week. A thank you is extended to all who helped; the monitoring (250,000 acres) will be considered could not have been completed in for biomass. The remainder of state the short flowering window if it lands (9,000 acres) is in state parks were not for volunteers. or scientific and natural areas and On Sunday, about 25 people will not be considered for forest explored Skull Lake WMA and management. Caribou WMA with Robert Dana, A public comment period was who spent several years as an held Sept. 15 – 30. The planning MCBS plant ecologist documenting team will now produce a document native plant communities in that addresses issues and provides a Kittson County. Another group draft list of forest stands for possible accompanied Nancy Sather, whose harvest. They will seek public avocation is landscape history, in comment on that draft plan. For a retracing of the Pembina Trail additional information, go to www. Oxcart route along the beach ridges dnr.state.mn.us/forestry/subsection/ from Old Mill State Park in Marshall aspenparklands/index Above: Western prairie fringed orchid, Platanthera praeclara. Right: Some of the field trip par- ticipants exploring the savanna. Photos by Derek Anderson.6
Plant Lore in Spiraea. As an inflammatory, Spiraea extracts lack the side effects Reminder:by Thor KommedahlWhat is steeplebush? of aspirin. Of course, salicylic acid was named from willow (Salix It’s time to pay Steeplebush, Spiraea tomentosa,is a member of the rose family. It is species), which also contains aspirin ingredients. your duessometimes called hardhack. The Society now operates on a calendar-year basis, so dues areWhat do its names mean? Spiraea comes from the Greek payable in January. Members mayword speira, a wreath. Theophrastus pay at the November or Decemberapplied this name for plants used meeting, if they wish. (We do notin making garlands. The name meet in January.)steeplebush comes from the flower We do not send out dues notices,cluster, which is shaped like a church so this reminder will be the onlysteeple or spire. Tomentosa refers one that you receive.to the tawny, woolly undersides ofleaves. Hardhack means “hard to You can download thecut.” membership form from our websiteWhere do the plants grow? (www.mnnps.org) or get one at a It is native to the east-central meeting.counties in Minnesota. It grows Mail the form or just send thein swamps and wet meadows, and information and your check to:often appears abundantly after afire. Minnesota Native Plant Society P.O. Box 20401What do the shrubs look like? Bloomington, MN 55420. The woody shrubs grow up tofour feet tall. The alternate leaves Membership categoriesare egg- or willow-leaf-shaped and • $15 - Individualhave hairy undersurfaces; the veins • $15 - Family (Two or moreare prominent. The red, pink, or individuals at the same address)magenta flowers are borne closelypacked (6-10 per centimeter of axis) • $8 - Student (Full time)in panicle-like clusters and produce • $8 - Senior (Over 62 orbrown fruits (follicles) that mature retired)September to mid-October, splitting • $20 - Institutionopen in November and December to • $25 - Donorshed seeds in winter. Include your name, full address,Does it have edible or medicinal telephone number (work and/orproperties? home) and e-mail address. It is not edible. Roots and leaveswere used as an astringent by OsageIndians and by herbalists. TheBlackfeet Indians made tea from it Spiraea tomentosa flower and MNNPS welcomes shrub. Photos by Peter Dziuk.to serve as an enema and for vaginal new membersinfections. It was a country remedy The Society gives a warmfor dysentery. MNNPS finances welcome to four new members who Spiraea species contain methyl Treasurers Ron and Cathy Huber joined during the third quarter ofsalicylate and other salicylates that report that on Sept. 30, the Society 2009. They are:are ingredients in aspirin. In fact, had total assets of $26,255.82.the term “aspirin” is derived as “a” Income for the year totaled Debra Gagner, Minneapolisfor acetyl and “spir” from Spiraea. $11,003.26 mostly from dues and Diane Lindgren, Edina(Acetylsalicylic acid is aspirin.) the symposium. Expenses totaled Jim Mulvey, St. PaulThe “in” is a standard suffix— $9,909.92; the largest were for the Ramsey Conservation District,because the salicylates were found symposium and Dakota Lodge rent. Arden Hills 7
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Fall 2009 Directions: Take MN Hwy. 52 to the Butler Ave. E. exit in West St. Paul. Go west on Butler 0.2 mile to Stassen Lane. Go south on Stassen Lane to Thompson County Park.