Minnesota Plant Press The Minnesota Native Plant Society NewsletterVolume 28 Number 1 Winter 2009 Monthly meetings Thompson Park Center/Dakota How will Minnesota spend its outdoor Lodge Thompson County Park 360 Butler Ave. E., heritage fund? West St. Paul, MN 55118 651-552-7559 (kitchen) Programs The Minnesota Native Plant by Scott Milburn, Minnesota Native Plant Society presidentSociety meets the first Thursday Much has happened since my last column in terms of the nationalin October, November, December, election and the historic passage of the Clean Water, Land, and LegacyFebruary, March, April, May, and constitutional amendment in Minnesota. It was quite a remarkable featJune. Check at www.mnnps.org for this to pass as it did, with much economic uncertainty, but this showsfor more program information. where our priorities are. 6 p.m. — Social period 7 – 9 p.m. — Program, society The next step in the process to determine how this money will be spentbusiness is no easy task. We all need to be cognizant of how this dedicated funding Feb. 5: “Community is spent, since we all have a vested interest.Involvement in Restoration of Approximately one-third of the revenue generated from this salesPrairie and Savanna in Wild tax will go toward the Lessard Outdoor Heritage Fund. As stated, thisRiver State Park,” by David money is to be “spent only to restore, protect, and enhance wetlands,Crawford, park naturalist; Plant-of- prairies, forests, and habitat for game, fish, and wildlife.” Many groupsthe-Month: Aristida tuberculosa throughout the state were instrumental in getting the word out and getting(sea beach needlegrass). this amendment passed. However, along with that come the expectations Mar. 5: “Natural History of from these various groups as to how this money must be spent. The fear,Beltrami Island,” by Scott Zager, when there are so many ideas and expectations, is that there will not beplant ecologist, Wildlands Ecological a comprehensive strategy. In order for this to be a success, a landscapeServices; POM: Rubus arcticus approach would likely prove more beneficial than a piecemeal approach.ssp. acaulis (arctic raspberry). The Lessard Outdoor Heritage Council has expressed the desire and Apr. 2: “Between the need for the citizens of Minnesota to speak up. Ultimately, this council willMississippi and the Missouri, recommend to the Legislature how the money should be spent. My hope1838-1839: A new look at the is that our Society will be active and In this issuebotany of Charles Geyer,” by vocal in keeping with our mission.Charles Umbanhowar, Jr., professorof biology, St. Olaf College; It is a time for great optimism, and I encourage your involvement. Conservation tip of season........2POM: Solidago riddellii (Riddell’s Board, membership news .........3goldenrod). There should also be much Non-native forest inventory.......4 May 7: “Making a Floral Atlas confidence with the Society itself, Prairie restoration research ......5for the Shakopee Mdewakanton as we continue to change and grow Trees, shrubs of Minnesota....6Sioux Community,” by Victoria as an organization. We are now Symposium is April 4 ..........6Ranua, environmmental assessment at full capacity, having nine board Orchid photos needed ...........6specialist for the SMS Community; members. Elizabeth Heck and Dylan Plant Lore: Anise root ..............7POM: Solanum rostratum (buffalo Lueth were appointed at the last Rare Species Guide is online .....7burr). Continued on page 3
Conservation In essence, what responsibility does the state now have to ensure MN NPS BoardTip of the that as many citizens as possible understand the next 25 years of of DirectorsSeason spending on the environment? President: Scott Milburn, Perhaps the Green Jobs Task Force email@example.com Elizabeth Nixon weblog should be the place to Vice President: Shirley Mah This is the legislative season, and carry out a public debate on these Kooyman, shirley.mah.kooyman@this year it is uniquely important to questions. It can also be started on mnnps.orgsend ideas to your state legislators. the Native Plant Society blog by any Ken Arndt, board member, field energetic individual. trip chair, firstname.lastname@example.org With an unprecedentedconstitutional amendment as an act These questions will be topics Peter Dziuk, board member,of commitment to the environment, for the Conservation Committee, email@example.com elected representative and and all with views on the issues Elizabeth Heck, board member,senator should take seriously are invited to participate during the webmaster, firstname.lastname@example.org jobs of making sure they, season/session. org“environmentally literate,” at least Society’s balanceas well as their constituents, are Dylan Lueth, board member, email@example.com the next 25 years, the life of the sheet grew in 2008 Beth Nixon, board member,amendment. Treasurers Ron and Cathy Huber conservation committee chair, beth. What is environmental literacy? reported that the Society’s 2008 firstname.lastname@example.orgIs it knowing the major biomes, income was $2,443.30 higher than Erika Rowe, board member,the majority of native Minnesota its expenses. email@example.com communities and their Total income for the year was Russ Schaffenberg, boardsignature species? Is it knowing $17,588.37. Total expenses were member, russ.schaffenberg@the difference between sustainable $15,145.07. Expenses included mnnps.organd environmentally damaging three grants — Newcomb guides to apublic infrastructure when northern school, $271.80; school bussing for Treasurer: Ron and CathyMinnesota or sensitive landscapes field trips, $300; and microscopes Huber, firstname.lastname@example.org under development pressure? for the Herbarium, $1,614.64. Linda Huhn, programWho should be environmentally coordinator, 612-374-1435 Assets on Nov. 15, 2008, totalledliterate? Perhaps it should be every $24,645.89. Secretary: Andrés Morantes,Minnesota high school graduate. Andres.Morantes@mnnps.org Listserv Coordinator: Charles Umbanhowar, email@example.com Minnesota Native Plant Society’s purpose Field Trips: fieldtrips.mnnps@ (Abbreviated from the bylaws) mnnps.org This organization is exclusively organized and operated for Memberships: memberships. educational and scientific purposes, including the following. firstname.lastname@example.org 1. Conservation of all native plants. Historian-Archives: Roy 2. Continuing education of all members in the plant sciences. Robison, historian-archives. 3. Education of the public regarding environmental protection of plant email@example.com life. Technical or membership 4. Encouragement of research and publications on plants native to inquiries: contact.mnnps@mnnps. Minnesota. org 5. Study of legislation on Minnesota flora, vegetation, ecosytems. Minnesota Plant Press Editor: 6. Preservation of native plants, plant communities, and scientific and Gerry Drewry, 651-463-8006; firstname.lastname@example.org natural areas. 7. Cooperation in programs concerned with the ecology of natural MN NPS website resources and scenic features. For current information about 8. Fellowship with all persons interested in native plants through MN NPS field trips, meetings, and meetings, lectures, workshops, and field trips. other events, check the website: www.mnnps.org2
Introducing… numerous volunteer capacities as a Minnesota Master Naturalist. Her President’s column Continued from page 1Dylan Lueth, board member passion for botanizing, plant uses Dylan Lueth is the Native Plant and conservation led to training as board meeting to fill two vacancies.Society’s newest board member. He an herbalist, in which education Both new board members bringis a biologist with Midwest Natural about botanical sustainability is a energy and enthusiasm, and I lookResources and has worked there for priority. Elizabeth’s painting and forward to their future efforts. Wetwo years. His focus is on rare plant photography consume her spare also have a new secretary servingsurveys, which has brought him to time and reflect the “hand lens the Society, Andrés Morantes. Onemany different locations throughout view” of nature’s plant beauty. She other change you will soon noticethe state, although much of his is honored to be a part of the board is a remodeled website. Besidestime has been spent in Northern and the good work of the plant being a board member, ElizabethMinnesota. society. Heck has graciously taken over as Dylan grew up in the rural town Andrés F. Morantes, secretary webmaster.of Arlington, Minn., with an ever Andrés hails from Plymouth, I would like to remind everyonegrowing interest in the outdoors. Minn., and currently resides in that this group is solely dependentAfter graduation, he moved to Minneapolis. He is a senior at the and run through volunteer effort.Trenton, Ohio, and enrolled at Miami University of Minnesota and plans By utilizing the talents and skillsUniversity of Ohio. He continued to graduate in May 2009 with a of our membership, we are able tohis studies at the University of Bachelor of Science degree in put our financial resources towardsMinnesota, Duluth, and graduated ecology. He became interested in other efforts.with a Bachelor of Science in biology ecology as a teenager while spending The board has been watchfuland a minor in chemistry. He started time outdoors working as a summer to not frivolously donate excesshis career as a coatings chemist in camp counselor and from traveling resources. Just recently, the boardRockford, Minn., but soon lost his into the Costa Rican rainforests approved the purchase of two newlab coat. Outside of work, Dylan is when visiting his extended family. dissecting microscopes, which werean avid ice fisher and continues his Currently, he works part-time at donated to the Bell Museum ofinterest in chemistry through home the Bell Museum of Natural History Natural History Herbarium. Thebrewing. Herbarium, where he mounts plants. two scopes are now at the herbarium Dylan has been a member of the As an undergraduate, he has served and are available for anyone whoNative Plant Society for two years. as officer and project manager for stops by.He decided to become a board the University’s Fisheries, Wildlife, In closing, I would like to thankmember with the goal of helping and Conservation Biology Club. the folks who made our last meetingthe Society continue to expand He has been an MN NPS member in December a memorable event. Iits membership and maintain its for one year. first would like to thank Lifetimeprestigious reputation. MN NPS member Welby Smith forElizabeth Heck, board member You can be a his great contribution with his book, Lifetime member Elizabeth Heck recently joined Trees and Shrubs of Minnesota. Ithe Minnesota Native Plant Society would also like to thank CarmenBoard after volunteering on the by Ron Huber Converse and Jan Wolff for theirSociety’s Conservation Committee The MN NPS board recently help at the event. Lastly, I wouldfor the past few years. voted to offer a new category like to thank Erik Anderson at the of membership — Lifetime — University of Minnesota Press for Elizabeth holds a degree from consistent with those offered by making sure we had the books inthe University of Minnesota and other natural history organizations. time for the meeting.spent most of her career with a small Most organizations offeringengineering firm as a proposal writer, We had more than 100 folks in this category make it a 20-year attendance and sold over 120 books.GIS specialist and consultant. She multiple of the standard individualtransitioned into a graphic designer This was likely our best attended membership. Thus, the Lifetime monthly program in years. Weand will offer those skills to the membership for MN NPS is set atsociety, including development of a are always hoping to build on the $300. (We will continue to award momentum, and Linda Huhn hasnew website. honorary Lifetime memberships.) been doing a great job lining up the Elizabeth has worked as Jason Husveth, our former remaining talks for the year. I looka naturalist for Eloise Butler president, is our very first paid forward to these programs and hopeWildflower Garden and serves in Lifetime member. Thanks, Jason. to see those who can attend. 3
Inventory shows extent of non-nativeinvasive plants in Minnesota forestsby W. Keith Moser, Mark D. Nelson, Autumn olive, Elaeagnus such as aspen, black spruce, andand Mark H. Hansen, U.S. Forest umbellata paper birch, had few instances of theService, Northern Research Station, Nonnative bush, Lonicera spp. invasive plant species. The forestForest Inventory and Analysis. This European privet, Ligustrum types with the most observationsarticle summarizes Keith Moser’s vulgare of invasive plants in Minnesotapresentation at the Minnesota Vines — white oak/red oak/hickory andInvasives Species conference in Kudzu, Pueraria montana sugarberry/hackberry/elm/greenDuluth in October 2008. Porcelain berry, Ampelopsis ash — are either mid-shade tolerant Readers are no doubt aware Asian bittersweet, Celastrus species that rely upon disturbanceof the impact that non-native orbiculatus to maintain their position, orinvasive plants (NNIP) present to Japanese honeysuckle, Lonicera riparian species subject to frequentMinnesota’s ecosystems. The U.S. japonica anthropogenic disturbance overForest Service’s Northern Research Chinese yam, Dioscorea their range.Station (NRS) Forest Inventory and Black swallowwort, Cynanchum Species of NNIP found inAnalysis (FIA) Program is studying louiseae Minnesota forested plots, 2005-what determines where these plants Wintercreeper, Euonymus fortunei 2006.are found, including forest type, tree Grasses The number of forested plots ondensity, disturbance, productivity, Reed canary grass, Phalaris which each species was found isand topography. Phragmites, Common reed, in parentheses. Over the past decade, the NRS- Phragmites Most prominent species:FIA program has measured NNIP Nepalese browntop, Japanese, Common buckthorn (125)over a large network of inventory Microstegium Non-native bush honeysucklesplots. Minnesota’s forest inventory Herbaceous (22)is “double intensity,” meaning Garlic mustard, Alliaria petiolata Common burdock (10)that there are two plots for every Leafy spurge, Euphorbia esula Reed canary grass (4)6,000 acres, and field crews search Spotted knapweed, Centaurea Japanese barberry (3)for 25 species that are considered Dame’s rocket, Hesperis Multiflora rose (2)the worst NNIP on four 24-foot- matronalis Garlic mustard (2)radius subplots at each forested plot Mile-a-minute weed, Asiatic, Glossy buckthorn (1)location. Polygonum Autumn olive (1) Common burdock, Arctium minus European privet (2) The following list represents Japanese knotweed, Polygonum Marsh thistle (1)those species our stakeholders Marsh thistle, Cirsium palustrebelieve are likely to have a Given the history of natural and The locations of NRS-FIA plots human-caused disturbance andsignificant impact within 11 states with non-native invasive plants in forest types whose shade toleranceof the Upper Midwest, including Minnesota’s forests are shown in means the growing space mightMinnesota. Inventory results the map. Woody invasive species not be completely occupied, theprovide information on individual were particularly common, while authors expected to find multipletree species, diameter, and height. the few herbaceous NNIP observed relationships between NNIP andMeasurements of overstory basal were located along the oak/prairie forest and site characteristics.area and stand density index provide ecotone. In a regional study, Moser et al.estimates of density. Of the 2,445 plots sampled (2008) found that measurementsNon-native invasive plants in this study so far, only about 5 of disturbance and fragmentationsurveyed on FIA plots, 2005-2006 percent had one or more of the 25 were significantly related to NNIPWoody species invasive species of interest. Only presence and cover. The percentage Multiflora rose, Rosa multiflora nine of the NNIP on our list were of total county area in forests was Japanese barberry, Berberis observed and only one — common very closely related to the presence thunbergii buckthorn (125 plots) — was found of almost every one of the 25 Common buckthorn, Rhamnus in large numbers. Some of the most species; the higher the percentage cathartica prominent forest types in our state, of forest, the less likely one would4
likely occurred many years ago. We are presently conducting a region- wide analysis using inventory and weather data and other information sources to follow up on our initial measurements and analysis. Prairie restoration techniques studied at Lamberton How can native prairies be more successfully recreated? Reseachers at the University of Minnesota’s Cartographer Mark Nelson, Forest Inventory and Analysis, USDA Southwest Research and Outreach Forest Service, Northern Research Station, prepared this map, using Center at Lamberton are seeking FIA and ESRI data and maps. answers.find invasive plants. Our challenge is separating Experiments at test plots in A combination of fragmentation human influence from some the center’s 30-acre native prairiemeasures (Heilmann et al. 2001) ecological advantage of the invading restoration site will help determinewas positively associated with the plants. One could easily argue better ways to restore native grassespresence of common buckthorn, that our results reflect the heavily and forbs. So far, inclusion of cool-multiflora rose, and non-native bush disturbed nature of Minnesota’s season grasses in seed mixes seemshoneysuckles, as well as reed canary second- and third-generation forests.grass. Distance from the nearest The characteristics of the landscape to be critical, and fall planting worksroad seemed to have a significant that we found to influence invasive best.negative association. species presence may also be a How can non-native, invasive These results suggest that site significant influence on homestead Canada thistles be best controlled?productivity was good for multiflora choice by settlers. Researchers are testing whetherrose coverage in the Upper Midwest Analysis of invasive species herbicides can be used selectivelyand was negatively associated at one point in time is usually not to reduce thistle growth withoutwith non-native bush honeysuckle sufficient to evaluate trends in excessive damage to native forbs.coverage. While certain measures regeneration, expansion, or growth. A third project seeks to stopof density and stand age seemed to The FIA database tracks disturbancebe negatively correlated with (any) and silvicultural treatments, but only native grasses, which grow quickly,NNIP presence and abundance, in the interval since the previous from preventing slower-growingMoser et al. (2008) did not find as inventory. The human activities forbs from being establishd. Thestrong relationships with individual that resulted in the establishment of solution to this problem has not yetinvasive plant species. these non-native invasive species been found. 5
New book describes Orchid photosMinnesota trees, shrubs needed for book The University of Minnesota “Trees and Shrubs of Minnesota,” drawings of the leaves are compared Press has decided to publish a newby DNR botanist Welby Smith, side-by-side. edition of the the out-of-print 1993published by the University of At the end of the species accounts book Orchids of Minnesota byMinnesota Press; 703 pages; $59.95. is a seven-page glossary that Welby Smith. The first edition had aThe following book description is by includes illustrations of different small section of color photographsWelby Smith. leaf shapes and leaf margins. There in the center of the book. This new book covers all the is also an eight-page bibliography of The second edition is to havenative and naturalized woody scientific papers cited in the species color photographs throughout thespecies in Minnesota. That includes accounts. book. Toward this goal, they are92 native tree species, 131 native This is not a small book; it soliciting high-quality photos of 49shrubs, and 12 native vines. Add to measures 8.5 by 10.25 inches and orchids from local photographers.this 15 naturalized species, and the weighs in at slightly over five The photos can be film or digital buttotal reaches 250. pounds. It is bound in a sturdy green must be sharp and show fine detail. The book begins with a 14- embossed hardcover with a dust For a list of orchids or forpage introduction that includes jacket. The author will tell you that additional information, directdescriptions and maps of the soils he worked on it for 14 years, but in inquiries to Todd Orjala at t-orja@and climate of Minnesota, and truth it is the work of a lifetime. umn.edu Symposium todiscussions of ecological regions. Most online sources are sellingThis section also has maps of tree it at a discount, which brings the be April 4 atdistribution based on bearing tree price down to around $50, whichdata from the Public Land Survey is not insignificant in these days of Bell Museumthat was conducted at the time of recession. So, if you can’t afford tosettlement. This part is followed by buy a copy, check it out from youra key to the genera of woody plants local library or borrow a copy from The Aspen Parklands subsectionin Minnesota. a friend, and let the author know in northwestern Minnesota will be The next part (the main body what you like about it and what the topic of this year’s MN NPSof the book) contains the detailed you don’t. He just might live long symposium.species accounts. Each species gets enough to write a second edition. This subsection is part of thetwo pages. The left page has the text, greater Tallgrass Aspen Parklandsincluding a scientific description, tips Province that expands north intoon identification, and a discussion of Canada. This region is a transitionalnatural history. This page also has a landscape between the LaurentianNorth American range map and a Mixed Forest and the PrairieMinnesota distribution map. provinces that had once been Glacial The facing page has color Lake Agassiz. photographs of the leaves, flowers, The symposium will be April 4 atfruit and bark. There is also an ink the Bell Museum of Natural Historydrawing of the winter silhouette of on the University of Minnesotaeach tree species and most of the campus in Minneapolis.larger shrubs. If a genus has more The Symposium Committeethan one species, then it is preceded is finalizing the speakers for theby an identification key to the species. event. Brochures will be mailed inThe large and difficult genera of Purple coneflowers, Echinacea February to Society members andwillows, oaks and hawthorns have angustifolia, are found in the will also be available online at ourcomparison pages where life-size Aspen Parklands. website, www.mnnps.org6
Plant Lore Rare Speciesby Thor KommedahlWhat is anise root? Guide is online Anise root is Osmorhiza Profiles of more than 430longistylis in the carrot family Minnesota endangered, threatened,(Apiaceae/Umbelliferae). Another and special concern species are available in a new, searchablename is sweet cicely; O. claytonii database from the Minnesotais also called sweet cicely, but not Department of Natural Resourcesanise root. Style length and root Division of Ecological Resources.scent separate the species. Both The guide is Minnesota’sspecies are native to Minnesota. authoritative reference for theHow did it get its names? state’s endangered, threatened, and The genus name comes from a special concern species and servesGreek word osme meaning scented as an update to the 1988 book,or fragrant and rhiza meaning Minnesota’s Endangered Flora androot. Longistylis refers to the long Fauna.style— longer than the petals. Cicely The list was last revised in 1996,comes from a Latin and Greek but it is currently undergoing aword seselis, and sweet refers to formal rule revision process. Oncethe anise-scented root. Osmorhiza that has been completed, additionalclaytonii has roots with little or no species profiles will be added to The Rare Species Guide, andanise scent and is named after John status designations and taxonomyClayton, a Virginia botanist (1694- information will be updated.1773). Anise smells like licorice. Information on the websiteWhat do the plants look like? includes: Anise root is a perennial, • Taxonomic information;herbaceous plant one to three feet • State, federal status designations;tall, with insect-pollinated, whiteflowers borne in clusters (umbels). • State and North American rangeStyles are longer than the petals. maps;It has fern-like leaves, three times • Color photos and/or illustrations;compoundly divided with egg- • Reason a species is listed;shaped leaflets. The dark purple • Description, habitat, life history;fruits (schizocarps) cling to clothing. • Conservation, management issuesOsmorhiza longistylis is smooth, and recommendations;whereas O. claytonii is hairy. Plants • Life form, longevity, leaf duration,bloom April to June. Osmorhiza longistylis (anise water regime, soil and lightWhere does it grow? root), photos by Peter Dziuk. requirements, phenology for all Both species grow in moist vascular plants. been added to salads for the anisewoodlands throughout the state. There are three ways to search flavor. Plants are not poisonous butDoes it have any medicinal have been confused with poison for species information:properties? hemlock in the same family. • A-Z list — find by either common American Indians made a What other features are there? or scientific name;poultice from roots to apply to boils It has been grown in wild flower • Filtered search — find groups ofand wounds. They also made a gardens, and hybrids have been species by broad taxonomic group;root tea for general debility and as developed. Black swallowtail • Keyword search — find a word ora tonic. butterflies feed on plants. Bees suck phrase within species’ profiles.Is it edible or poisonous? nectar and collect pollen from them. To access the guide, go to www. Leaves, fruits, and roots have Horses have been attracted to roots. mndnr.gov/rsg 7
Minnesota Native Plant SocietyP.O. Box 20401Bloomington, MN 55420Winter 2009 Directions: Take MN Hwy. 52 to the Butler Ave. E. exit in West St. Paul. Go west on Butler 0.2 miles to Stassen Lane. Go south on Stassen Lane to Thompson County Park.