Periodontium (cont.)
Bone and alveolar bone
Dr Jamal Naim
PhD in Orthodontics
Functions of bone
1.

Support and protect the skeletal functions.

2.

Bone stores minerals, especially calcium and
phosph...
Structural Constituents
Osteoprogenitor cell
Location: Present in the deepest layer of periosteum
and lining the vascular canals of compact bone.
...
Osteoprogenitor cell
Bone cells

All types of bone cells are from the same type, the alters
there appearance according to there function: this ...
Intercellular substance
Types of bone

a.Compact bone
b.Spongy bone
Lamellar bone
a.

Compact bone (ivory bone):

It forms the main part of the shafts of the long bone
and covers the cancell...
Compact bone
Lamellar bone
Circumferential lamellae:
n

outer circumferential lamellae
beneath the periosteum.

n

inner circumferentia...
Lamellar bone
Havarsian lamellae:
n

It is the unite structure of the compact bone and is
called the Haversian system or o...
Lamellar bone
n

Osteocytes are arranged concentrically in
the osteons (they anastomose with each
others by their process)...
Lamellar bone
Interstitial lamellae:
n

The Haversian systems are separated from each
others by the interstitial lamellae....
Compact bone
Haversian system
Bone Trabeculae

Bone Marrow Spaces
Spongy bone
n

It is present in the central part of the flat bone.

n

It is formed of connected bone trabeculae in the
fo...
Woven bone
This type of bone is characterized by:
n

Irregular arrangement of the collagen fibers.

n

Great number, large...
3. Bundle Bone
It is referred to the bundles of principal fibers of
either the periosteum or PDL continue into the
bone as...
Bundle bone
n

It is found adjacent to the periosteum and periodontal
ligament (areas of tension).

n

It is characterized...
Alveolar bone

In X-ray the
cribriform plate
is referred to
lamina dura.
Alveolar bone
The alveolar process is that bone containing the alveoli.
It consists of:
n

an outer (lingual and buccal) c...
Alveolar bone
Alveolar bone
Alveolar bone
divided into the:
a.

alveolar bone proper
n

lining of the tooth socket or alveolus

n

bone is also called...
Alveolar bone
n

also called bundle bone because Sharpey’s fibers insert
into this bone (Sharpey’s fibers = portion of the...
Alveolar bone
n

varies in thickness from 0.1 to 0.5mm

n

can see a portion of the ABP on radiographs lamina
dura

n

mos...
Alveolar bone
b. supporting alveolar bone
n

has the same components as ABP

n

but is considered to be cortical and trabe...
Alveolar bone
n

trabecular bone is located between the ABP and the plates
of the cortical bone (cross section of mandible...
Alveolar bone
n

alveolar bone can be resorbed with age (edentulous)

n

the underlying basal bone is less affected with a...
Alveolar bone
n

after tooth extraction the clot is replaced with
immature bone

n

later remodelled as mature secondary b...
alveolar crest

Cortical plate

alveolar bone
Alveolar bone
The alveolar bone is
perforated by many
foramina to allow blood
and nerve supply to the
teeth, so it is refe...
Alveolar bone

Collagen fibers
Alveolar bone
Outer compact bone

Spongiosa

Collagen fibers
Alveolar bone
Cementum

Dentin

PDL

Spongiosa
Alveolar bone
Alveolar bone
Alveolar bone
Alveolar bone
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Alveolar bone

  1. 1. Periodontium (cont.) Bone and alveolar bone Dr Jamal Naim PhD in Orthodontics
  2. 2. Functions of bone 1. Support and protect the skeletal functions. 2. Bone stores minerals, especially calcium and phosphorous, which are mobilized according to the body needs. 3. Bone protects the internal organs. 4. Bone marrow manufactures the blood elements. 5. Bone remodeling is responsible for the development, growth, movements, fracture and repair.
  3. 3. Structural Constituents
  4. 4. Osteoprogenitor cell Location: Present in the deepest layer of periosteum and lining the vascular canals of compact bone. Origin: It is mesenchymal in origin. Function: According to the function needed they divide by mitosis to give any type of bone cells Morphology: It resembles mesenchymal cell with pale stained nucleus and little esinophilic cytoplasm.
  5. 5. Osteoprogenitor cell
  6. 6. Bone cells All types of bone cells are from the same type, the alters there appearance according to there function: this is what is called cell modulation.
  7. 7. Intercellular substance
  8. 8. Types of bone a.Compact bone b.Spongy bone
  9. 9. Lamellar bone a. Compact bone (ivory bone): It forms the main part of the shafts of the long bone and covers the cancellous bone e.g. ribs and flat bones of the skull. Its lamellae are arranged in 3 patterns: n Circumferential lamellae n Havarsian lamellae n Interstitial lamellae
  10. 10. Compact bone
  11. 11. Lamellar bone Circumferential lamellae: n outer circumferential lamellae beneath the periosteum. n inner circumferential lamellae adjacent to the endostium
  12. 12. Lamellar bone Havarsian lamellae: n It is the unite structure of the compact bone and is called the Haversian system or osteon. n The Haversian system if formed of Haversian canal which is surrounded by (4-20) concentrically arranged lamellae. n The Haversian canal contains B.Vs., nerves, C.T. and lined by osteoprogenitor cells.
  13. 13. Lamellar bone n Osteocytes are arranged concentrically in the osteons (they anastomose with each others by their process). n Haversian canals connected to each others or to the outer surface or to the bone marrow spaces with Volkmann's canal.
  14. 14. Lamellar bone Interstitial lamellae: n The Haversian systems are separated from each others by the interstitial lamellae. n They represent the remnants of an old resorbed and remodeled bone.
  15. 15. Compact bone
  16. 16. Haversian system
  17. 17. Bone Trabeculae Bone Marrow Spaces
  18. 18. Spongy bone n It is present in the central part of the flat bone. n It is formed of connected bone trabeculae in the form of network to give maximum rigidity. n In between the bone trabeculae, there are bone marrow spaces n The bone trabeculae have osteocytes.
  19. 19. Woven bone This type of bone is characterized by: n Irregular arrangement of the collagen fibers. n Great number, large size and irregular arrangement of the osteocytes. n Increase in the organic substance and decrease in the inorganic contents so; it appears radiolucent in X-ray. n This type of bone is resorbed completely and is replaced by lamellar bone.
  20. 20. 3. Bundle Bone It is referred to the bundles of principal fibers of either the periosteum or PDL continue into the bone as sharpeys fibers.
  21. 21. Bundle bone n It is found adjacent to the periosteum and periodontal ligament (areas of tension). n It is characterized by the presence of the Sharpey's fibers. n It has less number of cells than Woven bone; but more calcium salts than lamellar bone. So it appears more radio-opaque and called lamina dura. n Its fibers are arranged parallel to the socket wall.
  22. 22. Alveolar bone In X-ray the cribriform plate is referred to lamina dura.
  23. 23. Alveolar bone The alveolar process is that bone containing the alveoli. It consists of: n an outer (lingual and buccal) cortical plate (compact bone) n A central spongiosa (spongous bone) and n Alveolar bone (bone lining the alveolus), (bundle bone) The alveolar bone and the cortical plate meet at the alveolar crest (1.5 to 2 mm below the level of CEJ).
  24. 24. Alveolar bone
  25. 25. Alveolar bone
  26. 26. Alveolar bone divided into the: a. alveolar bone proper n lining of the tooth socket or alveolus n bone is also called the cribriform plate because of the many holes through which Volkmann’s canals pass (from the alveolar bone into the PDL)
  27. 27. Alveolar bone n also called bundle bone because Sharpey’s fibers insert into this bone (Sharpey’s fibers = portion of the fibers of the PDL) n these fibers are inserted at a 90 angle into the ABP – but are fewer in number than those found at the cemental surface n consists of plates of compact bone that surround the tooth
  28. 28. Alveolar bone n varies in thickness from 0.1 to 0.5mm n can see a portion of the ABP on radiographs lamina dura n most cervical rim = alveolar crest – slightly apical to the CEJ in healthy patients
  29. 29. Alveolar bone b. supporting alveolar bone n has the same components as ABP n but is considered to be cortical and trabecular bone – different arrangement of bony plates n cortical bone is made up of cortical plates of compact bone found on the facial and lingual surfaces n plates are usually 1.5 to 3mm thick over the posterior teeth and can vary over the anterior teeth
  30. 30. Alveolar bone n trabecular bone is located between the ABP and the plates of the cortical bone (cross section of mandible)
  31. 31. Alveolar bone n alveolar bone can be resorbed with age (edentulous) n the underlying basal bone is less affected with age – because it does not need the presence of teeth to remain viable n loss of teeth + alveolar bone can results in loss in the vertical dimension of the face – “Popeye” facial appearance
  32. 32. Alveolar bone n after tooth extraction the clot is replaced with immature bone n later remodelled as mature secondary bone, very similar process to fracture repair in skeletal bone
  33. 33. alveolar crest Cortical plate alveolar bone
  34. 34. Alveolar bone The alveolar bone is perforated by many foramina to allow blood and nerve supply to the teeth, so it is referred to cribriform plate Hirschfeld canal
  35. 35. Alveolar bone Collagen fibers
  36. 36. Alveolar bone Outer compact bone Spongiosa Collagen fibers
  37. 37. Alveolar bone Cementum Dentin PDL Spongiosa
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