The Creativity Machine


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Harnessing the web 2.0 collective intelligence

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The Creativity Machine

  1. 1. TrinacriaCamp2007 The creativity machine Harnessing the web 2.0 collective intelligence Salvatore Loguercio
  2. 2. Vernor Vinge: “We humans have built a creativity machine. It’s the sum of three things: a few hundred million computers, a communication system connecting those computers, and some millions of human beings using those computers and communications”. Present-day Internet::Computers + networks + people: Web 2.0 As Tim Berners-Lee pointed out, many of the technology components of quot;Web 2.0quot; have existed since the early days of the Web. The “2.0-ness” is not something new, but rather a fuller realization of the true potential of the web platform. Stephen Fry: “Web 2.0 is an idea in people’s heads rather than a reality”.
  3. 3. A glimpse into the cloud...
  4. 4. Source: T. O’Reilly, “What is Web 2.0”, 2005
  5. 5. The architecture of participation: .The architecture of the Internet, and the WWW, as well as of Open Source software projects like Linux, Apache, and Perl, is such that users pursuing their own ‘selfish’ interests build collective value as an automatic byproduct. Key principle: Users add value Web 2.0 systems get better the more people use them. Successful services act primarily as intelligent brokers, connecting the edges to each other and harnessing the power of the users themselves. Network effects by default: Web 2.0 companies set inclusive defaults for aggregating user data and building value as a side effect of ordinary use of the application.
  6. 6. Harnessing collective intelligence: Turning the web into a kind of global brain. Hyperlinking is the foundation of the web. Much as synapses form in the brain with associations becoming stronger through repetition or intensity, the web of connections grows organically as an output of collective activity of all web users. Much of the infrastructure of the web (Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl, PHP, Python) relies on the peer-production methods of open source, in themselves an instance of collective, net-enabled intelligence. Anyone can add a project, anyone can download and use the code... Folksonomy (in contrast to taxonomy): Collaborative categorization of sites using freely chosen keywords (tags). Tagging allows for multiple overlapping associations that the brain itself uses, rather than rigid categories (, Flickr)
  7. 7. Blogging and “the wisdom of crowds” Blogosphere: RSS + permalink + trackbacks You can subscribe to You can easily link to individual You can see when anyone else links each others sites comments on a page to your pages, and can respond Blogosphere is the equivalent of constant mental chatter in the forebrain, the voice we hear in all of our heads. It is a reflection of conscious thought and attention. Like Wikipedia, blogging harnesses collective intelligence as a kind of filter. The collective attention of the blogosphere selects for value.
  8. 8. Design for hackability and remixability Systems like the original web, RSS and AJAX have this in common: The barriers to re-use are extremely low. The most successful web services are those that have been easiest to take in new directions unimagined by their creators. Innovation in assembly: When commodity components are abundant you can create value simply by assembling them in novel or effective ways.
  9. 9. ...The same map nowadays New New New New Web 2.0 meme map in 2005...
  10. 10. Viral marketing: Recommendations propagating directly from one user to another. *The greatest Internet success stories don’t advertise their products. Virtual worlds (metaverses): They provide a range of software tools that gives participants the power to create artefacts. Thus the game depends on the skill and creativity of its participants to generate content. Augmented reality: Virtual worlds + web maps The explosion of social networks
  11. 11. Opportunities for development the already seen
  12. 12. Sensors
  14. 14. Ambient Intelligence
  15. 15. Smart Dust Sensors Invisible Computing, Disappearing Electronics Target Size ∼ 1 mm3 Target Price ∼ 1 US$
  16. 16. Wireless Sensor Networks: RFIDs Chip (IC) Antenna Target Price ≤ 0.01 US $
  17. 17. Body implanted RFID
  18. 18. What about the future?
  19. 19. How Much Information Is Out There? – World Information Content • More than 15 Billion Web Pages by Yotta end of 2002 Bytes Annual Growth ∼100% Zetta • • World information content storaged Internet All Books Exa Today? in analog and digital forms, MultiMedia estimated by end of Year 2002, in Peta the order of several Exabytes (15- All Books 100?) (Words) Tera – Paper – Film –Optical – Magnetic Storage A Movie Giga • Up 2 Exabytes were produced in Year 1999, and 2.8 Exabytes are A Photo Mega estimated for Year 2000 • About 5 Exabytes were produced in A Book Kilo Year 2002. Annual Growth ∼ 30% • Source: Sims University of California at Berkeley, November 2003
  20. 20. Calculations per Second, 1900-2100 1045 1040 1035 Calculations per Second 1030 All Human Brains 1025 Yotta Zetta 1020 Exa One Human Brain Peta 1015 One Mouse Brain Tera 1010 Giga One Insect Brain Mega 105 Kilo 100 10-5 10-10 1900 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100 Time Source: R. Kurzweil, 1999
  21. 21. The Moore’s Wall Performance Moore’s (log scale) Wall Integrated Computing Circuit Techniques • Molecular Integrated • Quantum Circuit • Genetic • Biological Transistor • Optical Tube 1900 19461959 2015 2025
  22. 22. human interfaces
  23. 23. ...The Internet will have leaked out, to become coincident with Earth. In the end, computers plus networks plus people add up to something significantly greater than the parts. The ensemble eventually grows beyond human creativity. To become what? The answer will be limited only by our imaginations.