Sakti MandalCalcutta University Research Scholar (CSIR JRF)
The concept of service centres is the outcome ofclassical ‘Central Place Theory ‘of Christallar andLosch. The fundamental element of ‘Central Placetheory’ is the ‘Centre Place’ providing centralfunctions, which are available at a few places.There are two main features of service centres i.e.(i) The provision of external services(ii) Trade and commercial activities. Service centres integrated rural and urban activities and created new employment opportunities for the region.
This subdivision covered an area of 1264.68 sq km and thetotal population is about 1836769 as per 2001 census. Itconsidered an overall 26.60% of the total district population.Diamond Municipality is the only one urban area in theSubdivision, which covered very small area of 10.36 sq km.Though it was established long in 1982, its rate of growth orexpansion is really pitiable. The density of population is veryhigh which is about 3594/sq km. But it is 2.36% of the totalpopulation of the Subdivision. So easily assumed that 97.37%of the total Sub divisional population lives in ruralareas, where development is taken care of by the panchayetbodies.
The main objectives of the proposed work are as follows:-(i) To identify potential growth centres and demarcates their influence zones.(ii) To appraise the physical resources viz. land, water, vegetation etc. and cultural resources viz. Human resource base, agricultural resource, industrial resource and their localizing factors etc.(iii) To present a perspective plan for balance development of the Subdivision.
Community development block have been taken as theunit of analysis.Various data have been collected by the DistrictGazetteer, District Statistical Hand Book, Statisticalabstract of the district etc.For calculating service centres spacing in the study area‘Mather’s formula has been employed.The spatial pattern of distance of service centres, NearestNeighbour Analysis (N.N.A) has been employed.Functional Centrality Index.
(i) The settlement should be linked with metalled road.(ii) The marketing facility is a must.(iii) A settlement with 2000 or more population having educational (excluding primary school), medical and communicational facilities has been treated as service centre.(iv)As per 2001 census, out of the district total working force, share of the centre should be at least 0.05%.Based on above criteria 29 settlements of the subdivision have been identified as service centres.
The term “spatial pattern” signifies the form oftheir distribution which indicates the locationalarrangement of points over the geographicalspace. The spatial distribution of pattern ofservice centre varies from region to regiondepending upon the physico-cultural variations. For calculating service centres spacing in the studyarea ‘Mather’s formula has been employed. Thisformula is mathematically expressed as H.S = 1.0746 A/N, Where, H.S. = Hypothetical spacing between two centres, A= Area, N= Number of service centres.
Taking the block including municipality as an aerialunit, hypothetical inter service centre spacing has beencalculated and three categories have been worked outi.e. low, moderate and high spacing.Four C.D. Blocks fall in low (below 3.5 km) spacinggroup. Those are Magrahat II, Mathurapur I, DiamondHarbour I, and Falta. This due to availability of variousinfrastructures required for the creation of servicecentres. Moderate spacing group (3.5 to Bellow 7 km)holds four C.D. Blocks, namely-MagrahatI, Mathurapur II, Diamond Harbour II, andMandirbazar. One C.D. Block Kulpi, with 15.6 km.comes under high spacing group above 7 km.
For working out the spatial pattern of distance of servicecentres, Nearest Neighbour Analysis (N.N.A) has beenemployed . 1. ro = di / n Where, ro= The mean actual nearest neighbour distance Di= The distance from the i th point to its own nearest neighbour n= Number of locations in the pattern.For computing the rE (Expected mean distance) following mathematical expression is used: 2. rE = 0.5√A/N Where, rE= Expected mean distance, A= Area of the unit, N= Number of service centre in the pattern.Index of randomness (Rn) has been calculated at the level by using the Clark and Evan’s formula given bellow: 3. Rn = ro /rE Where, Rn = Index of Randomness, ro = The mean actual distance observed, rE = The expected mean distance.
CHARACTERSTICS OF SERVICE CENTRE ro, rE, H.S ro as %Sl. Name of Block Area in No. of mean expected RN Hypothe of DiNo. Sq km Service actual mean value tical (Index Centre distance distance spacing of (Km) (Km) Random ness)1 Magrahat I 119.04 3 8.68 1.81 4.79 3.90 222.562 Magrahat II 136.93 6 14.27 0.97 14.71 2.09 682.773 Mandirbazar 118.07 2 5.37 2.72 1.97 5.83 99.814 Kulpi 210.83 1 8.69 7.26 1.19 15.60 55.705 Falta 130.68 4 11.37 1.42 8.00 3.07 370.356 Diamond 78.79 3 9.51 1.47 6.46 3.17 300.00 Harbour I7 Diamond 95.59 2 8.48 2.44 3.47 5.25 161.52 Harbour II8 Mathurapur I 147.30 4 10.96 1.51 7.25 3.26 336.199 Mathurapur II 227.45 4 14.68 1.88 7.80 4.05 362.46
Influence zone of a service centre is consequence oflocational network, distributional pattern ofpopulation, status of infrastructure, facilities andaccessibility to the centre. These factors lead to interactionof people who prefer a particular service centre, becauseof proximity based on least travel time, cost and efforts. Functional magnitude, commercial population andworking force are the reliable indicators of centrality.Therefore considering the agrarian economy and ruralcharacter of the study area, 32 functions likeeducation, health, transport andcommunications, administration, agricultural extensionand credit /finance institutions existing at servicecentres, have been taken into account.
The weightage for 32 selected functions has been determined by applying Bhat’s formulla: Wi = N / Fi Where, Wi= Weightage to the i th function, N= Total number of settlement of the district, Fi= Total number of settlements having the i th function.Functional Centrality Index (F.C.I): FW1+ FW2+…………..n F.C.I = ----------------------------------- X 100 ∑w Where, F.C.I. = Functional centrality index, FW = weightage of function, ∑w = Summation of weightage score of all service centres of the area.Working Population Index: WI = Wi / w X 100 Where, Wi = working population of i th service centre. W= Total working population of the district.
Godlund’s formula with slight modifications been used forcalculation C.I. index which is- C.I. = (Tcpi /Tcp) X 100 Where, C.I. = Commercial population index, Tcpi = Trade and commercial population of i th service centre, Tcp = Total trade and commercial population of district.Taking an average of functional centrality index (FCI), working population index (W.I) and commercial population index (C.I),The composite centrality index (C.O.I.) has been calculated for all 29 service centres employing the following expression: FCI + WI + CI C.O.I. = ------------------- X 100 3
Service centres, population and Centrality IndexS.L Name of theNo. Order Service Population F.C.I C.I. W.I. C.O.I Centre 1 1st order Diamond 30266 74.12 0.82 0.53 25.15 Harbour (M) 2 2nd order Magrahat 14634 33.63 0.25 0.18 11.35 3 3rd order Usthi 4570 24.25 0.07 0.05 8.12 4 Sarisha 3690 22.37 0.08 0.05 7.5 5 Mathurapur 7384 19.96 0.09 0.09 6.71 6 Baribhanga 6040 19.34 0.04 0.08 6.48 Abad 7 4th order Kamarpol 8526 17.37 0.14 0.11 5.87 8 Kulpi 2896 13.22 0.07 0.06 4.45 9 Lakshikantapur 3514 12.43 0.07 0.05 4.1810 Gillarchat 24489 9.91 0.50 0.34 3.5811 Raidighi 18917 9.96 0.33 0.26 3.5112 Krishnachandr 7244 10.11 0.11 0.09 3.43 apur13 Sirakol 8661 9.40 0.14 0.12 3.22
Diamond Harbour (M) town is only the 1st order service centre inthe subdivision having 22.15 C.O.I. by virtue of beingadministrative headquarters of the subdivision and highconcentration of higher function as well as greater share ofcommercial and working population. The first order servicecentre comprises 3.44% of total service centre. Magrahat is onlythe 2nd order service in the subdivision having 11.35 C.O.I. due toblock headquarter and also higher function. 3rd order servicecentres i.e. Usthi, Sarisha, Mathurapur (Bhq.) and BaribhangaAbad of which one is block headquarter and three have higherlevel functions. Their composite centrality ranges 8.12, 7.5, 6.71and 6.48 respectively. These 3rd order service centres comprise13.79 of the total service centre. Fourth and fifth includes 7 and 16centres which C.O.I. ranges between 5.87 (Kamarpol) and 1.84(Chandapala Anantapathpur). These 4th and 5th order servicecentres comprise 24.13% and 55.17% of total service centres.(Table -3)
Composite Number of % of total Hierarchical Centrality service service order Index (COI) centre >15.00 1 3.44 1st order 09.00 – 12.00 1 3.44 2nd order 06.00 – 09.00 4 13.79 3rd order 03.00 -06.00 7 24.13 4th order <03.00 16 55.17 5th orderSubdivision total 29 100.00 -
In this study, the entire area of the subdivisionhas been organized through service centres asthey perform various socio-economic functionsand provide facilities. These facilities should bemade easily available to consumers with 3 to 5km radius. The subdivision area thereforerequires more service centres.