Audit of contracts version 2


Published on

Meaning of contract audit, distinctive features of contract audit

Published in: Education
1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Audit of contracts version 2

  1. 1. Audit of contracts
  2. 2. Learning plan <ul><li>What is contract audit </li></ul><ul><li>Need for contract audit </li></ul><ul><li>Qualities and attributes of a contract auditor </li></ul><ul><li>Issues to be considered by a contract auditor (IAS 11) </li></ul><ul><li>Performance of audit work </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of contract auditing </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is contract audit <ul><li>Long-term contract are those projects of which completion falls into 2 or more acc periods </li></ul><ul><li>More associated with audits of major construction and maintenance contracts </li></ul><ul><li>And in particular with the audits of schemes, which are financed by capital expenditure. </li></ul><ul><li>Mostly: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Civil engineering works </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical and engineering works </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Auditing principles are the same to all types of contract (minor or major works) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Need for contract audit <ul><li>The need for this audit is due to: </li></ul><ul><li>The value and importance of contractual expenditure </li></ul><ul><li>The high turnover and diversity of contract (from supply of stationery to construction of roads) </li></ul><ul><li>The inherent risk of loss, waste and fraud from such expenditure levels. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Qualities and attributes of a contract auditor <ul><li>The auditor is primarily expected to be able to examine and interpret financial information pertaining to contracts </li></ul><ul><li>but should ideally also possess a working appreciation of technical and legal matters connected with such contracts. </li></ul><ul><li>This additional knowledge will: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>add depth to investigations, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allow meaningful discussions with staff from other disciplines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and provide for a more management-type of approach to the audits. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Issues to consider as per IAS 11 <ul><li>The following issues need to be considered in an audit of a long-term contract: </li></ul><ul><li>Conformance of disclosure with the requirement of IAS 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of costs recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Accuracy of revenues recorded </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of contract revenues and expenses </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition of expected losses </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in estimates </li></ul>
  7. 7. 1: Disclosure Requirements of IAS 11 <ul><li>The auditor must check that the disclosure is sufficiently informative to include: </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of contract revenue recognised as revenue in the period; </li></ul><ul><li>The methods used to determine the contract revenue recognised in the period; </li></ul><ul><li>And the methods used to determine the stage of completion of contracts in progress. </li></ul>
  8. 8. 1: Disclosure Requirements of IAS 11 <ul><li>For each of the contracts in progress at the balance sheet date: </li></ul><ul><li>the aggregate amount of costs incurred and recognised profits (less recognised losses) to date; </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of advances received; and </li></ul><ul><li>the amount of retentions. </li></ul>
  9. 9. 2: Accuracy of costs recorded <ul><li>IAS 11 stipulates that contract costs shall comprise: </li></ul><ul><li>Costs that relate directly to the specific contract; </li></ul><ul><li>Costs that are attributable to contract activity in general and can be allocated to the contract; and </li></ul><ul><li>Such other costs as are specifically chargeable to the customer under the terms of the contract. </li></ul>
  10. 10. 3: Accuracy of contract revenue <ul><li>According to IAS 11 contract revenue shall comprise: </li></ul><ul><li>the initial amount of revenue agreed in the contract; and </li></ul><ul><li>variations in contract work, claims and incentive payments: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(i) to the extent that it is probable that they will result in revenue; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(ii) they are capable of being reliably measured. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 4: Recognition of Contract Revenue and Expenses <ul><li>It is stated that contract revenue and contract costs shall be recognised as revenue and expenses respectively by reference to the stage of completion at the balance sheet date. </li></ul><ul><li>An expected loss on the construction contract shall be recognised as an expense immediately in accordance with paragraph 36. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>When it is probable that total contract costs will exceed total contract revenue, the expected loss shall be recognised as an expense immediately. </li></ul><ul><li>The amount of such a loss is determined irrespective of: </li></ul><ul><li>(a) whether work has commenced on the contract; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) the stage of completion of contract activity; or </li></ul><ul><li>(c) the amount of profits expected to arise on other contracts which are not treated as a single construction contract </li></ul>5: Recognition of Expected Losses
  13. 13. 6: Changes in estimates <ul><li>The percentage of completion method is applied on a cumulative basis in each accounting period to the current estimates of contract revenue and contract costs. </li></ul><ul><li>Therefore, the effect of a change in the estimate of contract revenue or contract costs, or </li></ul><ul><li>the effect of a change in the estimate of the outcome of a contract, is accounted for as a change in accounting estimate </li></ul><ul><li>(see IAS 8 Accounting Policies, Changes in Accounting Estimates and Errors ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Stages of contract auditing <ul><li>Contract auditing embraces five distinct areas, namely: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pre-contract investigations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency of contract investigations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Final contract investigations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post completion investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General investigations </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. A: Pre-contract investigations <ul><li>At this stage the auditor conducts the examination and assessment of documents pertaining to the contract </li></ul><ul><li>and of decisions taken by the mgt team in respect of that contract. </li></ul><ul><li>It may also make possible the detection of bribery and corruption, </li></ul><ul><li>The tendering procedures and the acceptance of tenders are areas susceptible to illegal or immoral practices and </li></ul><ul><li>the operation of a weak system of control could result in considerable loss to the organization </li></ul>
  16. 16. A: Pre-contract investigations <ul><li>The auditor should pay attention to whether: </li></ul><ul><li>The system for and effectiveness of project appraisal within the Organization </li></ul><ul><li>The systems for admitting contractors to the approved list and for reviewing their performance and current viability </li></ul><ul><li>The methods for the selection of contractors invited to tender </li></ul>
  17. 17. A: Pre-contract investigations <ul><li>The system for regulating the tendering procedures and the letting of contracts </li></ul><ul><li>The system for reviewing the suitability of Conditions of Contract and Tender documents </li></ul><ul><li>Insurance and Bonding procedures </li></ul>
  18. 18. B: Currency of contract investigations <ul><li>The continued development of interim or current audits is an attempt to prevent loss, waste and extravagance, </li></ul><ul><li>and hence encourage savings or improved controls throughout the construction period of the contract under investigation, as well as future contracts of a similar nature. </li></ul><ul><li>the auditor is not involved on a continuous basis </li></ul><ul><li>but independently examines, assesses and reports on the mgt controls and procedures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by employing sampling techniques, spot checks, system appraisal techniques and risk analysis. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. B: Currency of contract investigations <ul><li>The following should be checked: </li></ul><ul><li>The system and documentation for providing financial information to enable costs to be adequately controlled </li></ul><ul><li>The system of on- site control regulating valuations of work for Interim payments </li></ul><ul><li>The system for the examination and control of price fluctuations </li></ul><ul><li>The system for the control and issue of variations </li></ul><ul><li>The system for the receipt and evaluation of contractual claims </li></ul>
  20. 20. C: Final contract investigations <ul><li>The final contract audit is easier to conduct and has more of an accounting format. </li></ul><ul><li>Where the auditor is in disagreement with the officials responsible for drawing up the account, any relevant matters should be brought to their attention at the time of the audit and </li></ul><ul><li>should also be pointed out in an appropriate minute or report to management. </li></ul>
  21. 21. C: Final contract investigations <ul><li>The auditor’s role at this stage is independently to examine the account in order to detect weaknesses, error or fraud in the contract system. </li></ul><ul><li>He should check: </li></ul><ul><li>The system for ensuring that when the final account is produced, it is complete and accurate </li></ul><ul><li>The system to ensure that damages have been recovered where appropriate </li></ul>
  22. 22. D: Post completion investigation <ul><li>The post completion investigation would include: </li></ul><ul><li>Re-appraising the project to examine whether the benefits expected at the outset have been achieved </li></ul><ul><li>Assessing the performance of the contractor to determine if the he provided good VFM </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing the consultant’s performance in a similar manner, for example, fees charged, ability, competence, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Reviewing the organization’s own departmental costs and the performance of the departmental staff involved in the project. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Relationship with other Professions <ul><li>Although primarily financed based, the contract auditor must be capable of liaising with persons from other disciplines and professions, which would include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>architects, engineers, quantity surveyors, clerks of the works, legal officials, consultants and contractors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The auditor is an observer of matters that are managed by these persons and therefore takes no responsibility in the running of such projects. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Relationship with other Professions <ul><li>It is essential that a strong working relationship between audit and other professions be established, </li></ul><ul><li>that access to contracts matters is readily offered to the auditor by these professional persons and that they are not offered grounds for scepticism. </li></ul><ul><li>Working without assistance of other professions would be detrimental to the effectiveness of the contract auditor and would in fact be unprofessional and short-sighted. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>The end! </li></ul>