GE6533 LANGUAGE LEARNING
STRATEGIES INSTRUCTIONS
PROF DR MOHAMED AMIN EMBI
S A K I L A D E V I
P 66501
FIVE FACTORS AFFECT...
LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY
• A high level of proficiency has been
associated with an increased use of
both direct and indirect
st...
• Oh(2003) investigated the relationship
between the use of LLSs and the proficiency
level of 1006 English for Academic Pur...
MOTIVATION
• More motivated students
tended to use more
strategies than less
motivated students, and the
particular reason...
• McIntyre and Noels (1996) examined the
relationship between LLSs and motivational
level among undergraduate foreign lang...
LEARNING STYLE
• Learning style (general approach to
language learning) often
determined the choice of L2
learning strateg...
• Extroverts, for example, show a
strong preference for social
strategies, while introverts use
metacognitive strategies m...
GENDER
• The effect of gender on strategy
use has been thoroughly
investigated along with other
variables (Ehrman and Oxfo...
AGE AND L2 STAGE
• Students of different ages and
stages of L2 learning used
different strategies, with
certain strategies...
• Ok (2003) investigated the effect of school
years on LLS use but found no evidence that
learners’ LLS use in all six cat...
REFERENCES
• Chang, S.J. 1990. A study of language learning behaviors of Chinese students at the
University of Georgia and...
THANK YOU
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FIVE FACTORS AFFECTING LLS

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FIVE FACTORS AFFECTING LLS

  1. 1. GE6533 LANGUAGE LEARNING STRATEGIES INSTRUCTIONS PROF DR MOHAMED AMIN EMBI S A K I L A D E V I P 66501 FIVE FACTORS AFFECTING LLS
  2. 2. LEVEL OF PROFICIENCY • A high level of proficiency has been associated with an increased use of both direct and indirect strategies (Chang, 1990). • Chen (1990), in a study on the relationship between communication strategies and the proficiency level of L2 learners found that low- proficiency students employed more communication strategies
  3. 3. • Oh(2003) investigated the relationship between the use of LLSs and the proficiency level of 1006 English for Academic Purposes students in eight different majors in Hong Kong. • The results of the study showed significant correlations between strategy use and proficiency level. • Cognitive and metacognitive strategies showed very high correlations with the proficiency level of the participants and were used by high- proficiency learners.
  4. 4. MOTIVATION • More motivated students tended to use more strategies than less motivated students, and the particular reason for studying the language (motivational orientation, especially as related to career field) was important in the choice of strategies.
  5. 5. • McIntyre and Noels (1996) examined the relationship between LLSs and motivational level among undergraduate foreign language learners. • They reported that, compared with less motivated learners, those who were substantially motivated, tended to adopt more learning strategies and used them more frequently.
  6. 6. LEARNING STYLE • Learning style (general approach to language learning) often determined the choice of L2 learning strategies. For example, analytic-style students preferred strategies such as contrastive analysis, rule-learning, and dissecting words and phrases, while global students used strategies to find meaning (guessing, scanning, predicting) and to converse without knowing all the words (paraphrasing, gesturing).
  7. 7. • Extroverts, for example, show a strong preference for social strategies, while introverts use metacognitive strategies more frequently (Ehrman and Oxford, 1990); learners who favour group study are shown to use social and interactive strategies, such as working with peers or requesting clarification.
  8. 8. GENDER • The effect of gender on strategy use has been thoroughly investigated along with other variables (Ehrman and Oxford, 1990). • In the majority of these studies, females have consistently been reported as using LLSs more frequently than males (Hashim and Salih, 1994).
  9. 9. AGE AND L2 STAGE • Students of different ages and stages of L2 learning used different strategies, with certain strategies often being employed by older or more advanced students.
  10. 10. • Ok (2003) investigated the effect of school years on LLS use but found no evidence that learners’ LLS use in all six categories increased during a certain school year. • Third-year students had higher mean scores than first-year students in two strategy groups, namely, compensation and memory. • In contrast, the mean scores of first-year students were higher in the other four strategy groups, i.e., metacognitive, cognitive, affective and social strategies
  11. 11. REFERENCES • Chang, S.J. 1990. A study of language learning behaviors of Chinese students at the University of Georgia and the relation of these behaviors to oral proficiency and other factors. Doctoral dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, GA • Chen, S.-Q. 1990. A study of communication strategies in interlanguage production by Chinese EFL learners. Language Learning, 40, pp. 155–187. • Oh, J. 1992. Learning strategies used by university EFL students in Korea. Language Teaching, 1, pp. 3–53. • McIntyre, P.D. and K. Noels. 1996. Using social-psychological variables to predict the use of language learning strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 29, pp. 373–386. • Ehrman, M. and R. Oxford. 1990. Adult language learning styles and strategies in an intensive training setting. Modern Language Journal, 74, pp. 311–326. • Hashim, R.A. and S.A. Sahil. 1994. Examining learners’ language learning strategies. RELC Journal, 25, pp. 1–20 • Ok, L.Y. 2003. The relationship of school year, sex and proficiency on the use of learning strategies in learning English of Korean junior high school students. Asian EFL Journal, 5,3, pp. 1–36.
  12. 12. THANK YOU

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