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  • 1. 1
  • 2. 2
  • 3. INTERNSHIP REPORTSajjad Ashraf BET-FA09-027 Bachelor of Engineering in Textile 3
  • 4. Dedications I dedicate this report to my loving parents whose prays, affection andsupport are always a source of encouragement for me to reach at thisdestination and a humble icon for others in future. My parent and teacherswho give me real eyes that help me to leads myself and others in the darkand cruel world. 4
  • 5. Acknowledgement The credit for the completion of report goes to a number of peoples.First of all I thankful to Allah Almighty, for providing me strength andresources to carry out the research. Then I want to thank my parents who provided me with unconditionallove and moral support so I became able to do this in an efficient way. I wishto thank all who helped me in making this report. I am very thank full to Mr. ‘Sadaqat Rasool’ the General Manger ofHR department in KAY & EMMS Faisalabad, who made KAY & EMMSaccessible for me. I am thankful to Mr. ‘Waseem Safdar’ the Manger ofPPC & I.E who helped me and guided my efforts in the right direction. I amalso very thankful to all people who helped me and worked with me in KAY& EMMS. 5
  • 6. Abstract Through critical and deep study, this report examines the types ofproduction systems that are used in apparel industry of Pakistan. It showsthe analysis and comparison of production systems with respect to cost,quality and productivity. Since the function of sewing department mainlydepends on the type of production system, its selection needs to be donecarefully. This study is based on the analysis of the handling time required tocomplete the operations of a polo shirt, as the needle time is constant in alltypes of systems. This thesis also focuses on the positive and negativeaspects of production systems. It demonstrates that the industry has madesignificant progress towards comprehending the necessity of properproduction system which has implications on the overall productivity of anapparel mill. 6
  • 7. Introduction Established in 1990, today Kay &Emms (Pvt) Ltd is one of theleading manufacturers of knitted apparel in Pakistan. With the experience ofmore than21 years in the industry, Kay & Emms have served severaldifferent major brands and labels in the US and Europe. Kay & Emms is capable of producing different styles of men, ladiesand children from basic to high fashion with extensive embellishments. Kay& Emms deals in 100% cotton and cotton-blended fabrics. Fleece,interlocks, Ribs and cotton-spandex fabrics are strengths of Kay & Emmsand several other programs like Jerseys, Piques and thermals are alsomanufactured every year. The vertically integrated operations help Kay & Emms to achieveshorter lead times and greater flexibility to cater to the customers’ demandand their satisfaction. As a business we can produce 70,000 pieces per week.The factories are producing a range of knitted jersey tops and bottoms withheavy embellishments for Children’s, Ladies and Menswear. 7
  • 9. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is a process through which products are planned, developed,executed and presented to the buyer. It includes directing and overseeing thedevelopment of product line from start to finish. Marketing and merchandisingdepartment: A team of merchandisers and markets work together under a profit controlshead. Merchandisers handle the foreign buyers. The teams are make according toi thebuyers being handled.Two types of merchandising done in garment exports  Marketing merchandising.  Product merchandising.Marketing MerchandisingMain function of market merchandising is Product Development Costing Ordering Marketing merchandising is to bring orders costly products development and it hasdirect contact with the buyer.Product Merchandising Product merchandising is done in the unit. This includes all the responsibilitiesfrom sourcing to finishing i.e. first sample onwards, the products merchandising workstart and ends till shipment.Merchandisers key responsibilities are as follows:- Product Development Market and product Analysis Selling the concepts Booking order Confirming Deliveries Costing Raw Material 9
  • 10. Flow Monitoring Production Follow Ups Payments FollowsSampling Sampling is the Research and Development section of the garment industry. Inthis department the replicas of the bulk is produced. The samples are produced accordingto the spec sheet in single size and sent for buyer approval; the sample is therepresentative of the whole bulk. This initiates the actual production. Sampling process isresponsible to monitor quality at minimum cost. The samples garment is prepared in thesampling department with great care because these samples represent the capability of thecompany and in order to procure orders to the company. This is done very cautiouslychecking every minute thing getting the sample to perfection as per the buyer’srequirements in the spec sheet.Types of samplesDeveloping stage of style It is the own developing of size with respect to the sample given by the buyer.Proto sample 1) This is the first sample being prepared contain only substitute fabric. 2) Only in one size is been prepared and sent. 3) This sample is sent to buyer agent if not in some cased to buyer itself. 4) The pattern prepared for proto sample does not contain seam allowances. 5) This sample is prepared for just to get the garment outlook and size.Fit approval 1) In this sample stitch construction is mentioned. 2) The grain cutting direction is mentioned as per buyer. 3) The procurement of trims4.the stitching instructions of the different parts of garment 4) The accurate dimensions of the garment are specified. 10
  • 11. Sales men sample 1) In this type sample of 4-6 pieces in each size sent to buyer. 2) The buyer will have certain buying houses or showrooms where the samples are sent, if the samples are fast moving then the order been placed. 3) The pattern prepared for salesmen sample, will contain seam allowances as lay is been made for cutting above thirty pieces. 4) Fabric being original with all accessoriesRed seal sample 1) This sample is not been prepared in reference to all buyers. Only certain buyers do ask for Red Seal Samples. 2) The sample is been sent with full accessories and details. 3) One sample is been sent in all sizes.Size set samples 1) This sample is been prepared in order to check perfect fit to the garment. 2) In all sizes one sample is sent to the buyer to check the fit. 3) Based on this sample the buyer sends comments regarding the size fit if any. 4) In certain cases the fabric may be of substitute fabric.Pilot run sample 1) Here about 30-50 pieces is been prepared. 2) In each size and in each colour one garment is been produced.Pre-production samples 1) In this sample all accessories and fabric being original. 2) The Q.C. in the production selects one sample and sends it to the Merchandiser; the latter checked and then sends it to the buyer. 11
  • 12. Top samples 1) This is the sample is been prepared in the production line during production hours. 2) One or two samples being sent to the buyer to give the knowledge of the garment how is being stitched in the production line. 3) Only certain buyers do ask for TOP samples.Shipment sample 1) Here one or two samples to be sent to the buyer to give knowledge of what is being sent to the buyer through shipment. 2) Certain buyers do ask for this type of samples though this sample is not sent usually.Counter sample 1) For all samples there should be preparation of one or two samples, which is for our reference.Costing Costing includes all the activities like purchase of raw materials and accessories,knitting fabrics, processing and finishing of fabrics, sewing and packing of garments,transport and conveyance, shipping, over heads, banking charges and commissions, etc.The method of making costing will vary from style to style. As there are many differentstyles in garments, it is not possible here to discuss about all the styles. Hence let us takesome following styles as examples which are in regular use. Men’s Basic T-Shirts, Men’s Printed Polo Shirts, Ladies Hood, Men’s Trouser,To make the garment costing, we have to find out following things. Fabric consumption. Gross weight of other components of garment. Fabric cost per kg. Fabric cost per garment. Other charges (print, embroidery, etc.) Cost of trims (labels, tags, badges, twill tapes, buttons, bows, etc.) 12
  • 14. PRODUCTION PLANNING AND CONTROL Production Planning and Control (PPC) department is one of the most importantdepartments of the manufacturing organizations. What I have seen during my visit toIndustries that many of them do not have PPC department. Instead of it, I think theremight be someone appointed for the planning work with a different profile name. In most of the small size factories the owner or director himself or herself doesthe planning. It has both positive and negative impact on the lead time, on on-timeprocess completion and job responsibilities of the employees. Many times, delays start inplanning stage and work allocation to the respective employees. In this situationemployees can’t do anything as because Mr. Director is responsible for the delay in thebeginning. Few companies have complete set up of PPC department but they have no powerto put pressure on pre-production departments, like merchandising and fabric sourcing,instead of just keeping records and doing planning on paper and in their computers. Manytimes, it was also seen that PPC personnel don’t aware about the actual happenings on theshop floor. This is because production team do not committed to provide them real timeinformation. It results poor re-planning and shuffling of newer orders. This also affect incomputing of actual available capacity for the coming weeks. More than that the PPCpersonnel sometime don’t even aware what product is running in linesTwo important principle of getting work done on time is as following. While you delegating any work to somebody it is your responsibility to tell them exactly what outcome you want and when you want it. Tell them, show them and check their understanding whether they understand your requirement or not. Similarly when you are taking any work from others you should ask for when they want work.BenefitsProduction planning and control can facilitate the small entrepreneur in the followingways 1) Optimum Utilization of Capacity With the help of Production Planning and Control (PPC) the entrepreneur canschedule his tasks and production runs and thereby ensure that his productive capacitydoes not remain idle and there is no undue queuing up of tasks via proper allocation oftasks to the production facilities. No order goes unattended and no machine remains idle. 14
  • 15. 2) Inventory control Proper PPC will help the entrepreneur to resort to just- in- time systems andthereby reduce the overall inventory. It will enable him to ensure that the right suppliesare available at the right time. 3) Economy in production time PPC will help the entrepreneur to reduce the cycle time and increase the turnovervia proper scheduling. 4) Ensure quality A good PPC will provide for adherence to the quality standards so that quality ofoutput is ensured. To sum up we may say that PPC is of immense value to theentrepreneur in capacity utilization and inventory control. More importantly it improveshis response time and quality. As such effective PPC contributes to time, quality and costparameters of entrepreneurial success.Production Management Production system is a system whose function is to convert a set of inputs into aset of desired outputs. Production system is depicted under with help of chart. Inputs Conversion Process Outputs Control 15
  • 17. INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERINGWhat is Industrial Engineering? It is consists of Work Study and some other applications such as Designing ofPlant’s and its components, Introduce and maintain new mechanical and electricalsystems, Designing of various production processes, Planning of production andmachinery to improve the plant efficiency.This department deals with:  Work study  Production  Productivity  Efficiency  SMV (standard minute value)  Consumption  Elastic, thread, lace, etc, checking.  Operation breakdown  Balancing  Layout making  Method analysis  Cost Reduction  Automation  Work aids and attachments  Process rate calculation  Loss minutes monitoring  Capacity (plan) 17
  • 18. SMV (standard minute value)  Man power planning  Capacity booking  Machine quality  Delivery planning  BalancingWhat is work study? Work study is a management service based on those techniques, particularlyMethod Study and Work measurement, which are used in the examination of humanwork in all its contexts, and which lead to the systematic investigation of all the resourcesand factors which affect the efficiency and economy of the situation being reviewed, inorder to effect improvement. It is a precise science of which Work measurement and method study are the twomain branches; a management technique, the main weapon of attack on the goal ofincreasing productivity. It is the examination of human work in all in its contexts, leadingsystematically to the investigation of all the factors which affect the efficiency andeconomy of the situation being reviewed in order to effect improvement.What is Standard Minute Value (SMV)? It is the time (standard time) taken for standard (skilled) operator to complete onespecific task. This time is normally measured in minutes.What is time study? Time study is a tried and tested method of work measurement for setting basictimes and hence standard times for carrying out specified work. The aim of time study is to establish a time for a qualified worker to performspecified work under stated conditions and at a defined rate of working.The requirements for taking a time study are quite strict.Conditions:  the observer must be fully qualified to carry out Time Study,  the person performing the task must be fully trained and experienced in the work, 18
  • 19.  the work must be clearly defined and the method of doing the work must be effective  the working conditions must be clearly definedBefore starting a time studyMake sure, Method study has been done Method should produce the required quality For new methods plenty of time to settle down Operator can be rate between 60% to 130% Inform the supervisor before start Operator not be disturbed during study Ensure operator has enough supply Stand diagonally behind the operator about 1.5 – 2.0 meters Take more and more observations Record relevant details about the method and machinesStandard Minute ValueS.M.V = Basic Time + Allowance 19
  • 20. Line BalancingThere are two aspects of balancing in a clothing factory. The first includes setting up or rearranging a line to a manufacture each new typeor style of garments as the previous one is completed and is therefore seen only in thosefactories which make fashion garments. It may require anything from the change of onemachine or machinist, to a complete rearrangement of the section. The second occurs as a matter of routine in every factory, involving themovement of operators from one operation to another to maintain a smooth flow ofproduction, and to correct for absentees, machine breakdown or small differences in theoutput of the operations on the line.In both cases, the objective is to deploy whatever machines and operators are available soas to achieve the optimum level of output.Balancing is made easy by;  Reducing the number of operations on the section.  Increasing the number of operators on each operation.  Increasing the work in progress  Increasing the versatility of the operators  Reducing the proportion of operations which require specialized machines  Increasing the number of spare machines.In addition, a section can be balanced much more reliably if standard times for eachoperation are available in advance and if the performance of individual operators can beaccurately predicted. 20
  • 21. Efficiency of an organization Efficiency is the ratio between total produced minutes and total working minutes.Total produced minutes is the multiplication of total SMV of the product and totalnumber of garments produced. Total working minutes is the multiplication of totalnumber of the workers in the line and no of working minutes per operator. This ratiodirectly gives the efficiency of the factory.Efficiency of the plant =No of garments produced in day *SMV of the product*100 No of working minutes per day * No of operators in plantHow do we use I.E technique to improve the efficiency of an organization?As we noticed in above efficiency equation, to increase efficiency we have two things, 1) To increase nominator 2) Or decrease the denominatorTo increase nominator, Total SMV of a product is a constant which can not be increased. But we canincrease no of produced garments.To decrease the denominator, It must be reduced no of working minutes and total number of the operators. Inother way we should keep optimum manpower in the plant. That means we should reduceman to machine ratio as much as possible and minimum no of working hours per day. Simply to increase the efficiency of the plant it required to get optimumproduction with optimum no of operators with limited time duration.To get better output by using optimum output following factors should be considered. 1) Lost hours should be minimized. 2) Induction time should be minimized 3) Production should be planned properly. 4) Frequent style changes should be avoided. 21
  • 22. Lost hour calculation Especially in a garment factory lost hour calculation is very important. Thisshould be done daily basis and should be send all the management staff including G.M,Directors/ CEO. Hence automatically we can reduce the lost hours (delays) due tosupporting department. Normally these lost hours will appear when the factory has poorplanning department.Importance of lost hour calculations 1) Can be identified the real bottle necks. 2) By analyzing lost hours direct solutions to the problems can be given. 3) Can be calculated lost pieces due to lost hours 4) Planning department can be improved.How to minimize the lost hoursLost hours can be minimizing with proper planning. How to plan? 1) Before starting the work order trial run should be completed and evaluating 2) Before starting the work order pre production meeting should be arranged. 3) Before starting the work order line layout and required machines should be completed 4) Before starting the work order all the accessories should be available 5) Before starting the work order manpower allocation should be planned for the new style. 6) After starting the work order spare machines should be available to replace out of order machines. 7) To avoid the long learning time mechanical, IE, and Quality staff must 100% attend to the production line when the line is feeding. 22
  • 23. How to control waste in garment industry?There are several factors to be noticed when controlling the waste in the garment factory. 1) To reduce (control) the defective garments 2) To reduce the cutting wastage 3) Control the extra working time (Overtime) 4) Power saving (Electricity, fuel, etc.) 5) Controlling of paper wastage 6) Other wastages 23
  • 25. FABRIC INSPECTION The first step to be carried out when received from the supplier is to inspect thefabric. In the fabric inspection department four point system is been used for bales, rolls& Piece Goods Inspection.Procedure As soon as the fabric received, the fabric inspection department inspects the fabric. From the supplier the fabric is received in the form of Rolls. According to the order placed, they place 5% extra order to the supplier to meet the requirement. Fabric received in the form of Takas may be of length usually 100 meters, but it can be 45 or 65 meters also. Every fabric has to be inspected 100% incase 15% with the consent of concerned merchandiser approvals. Then the Takas or Rolls are inspected in full width on the table or machine under the good light for defects analyses. They are following Four Point System, in which total 100 meters of fabric is inspected and, if the points allotted for 100 meters are Less than (<) 40 points is Accepted More than (>) 40 points is Rejected Check the fabric length & width & compare against the length declared by the supplier. Fabric width 1½’’ to 2’’ tolerance of specified width is accepted. For every lot / every fabric order keep 1mts of fabric for lab testing & for quality standard reference. Inspection reports are produced. Copies of the report are presented to concerned merchandiser & department. 25
  • 26. Grading of fabric depending on points Points Grading Color Up to 44 Standard fabrics Green 44 to 60 Sub standard fabric Yellow Above Defect fabric Red (reject)Shade segregation 100% shade segregation is done. 1/4th meters strip is cut across the width of each roll or takas. Color matching is done by using, PARAMOUNT color matching cabinet. Shade band of 10 * 10 swatches is prepared. Shade bands are sending to concerned merchandiser, sourcing & cutting department for approval. Then they are sort for the shades and the Takas or rolls are sorted according to the shade variation. They ensure that same shade is been loaded to cutting. After inspection fabric is packed in bundle form as per the shades and width, and then issued to the cutting departmentPiece goods quality inspection report Supplier name Fabric code / color Po no Style Group of fabric Acceptable points 26
  • 27. Inspection dateMeter age receivedMeter age acceptedTotal Accept 27
  • 28. CUTTING 28
  • 29. CUTTING Cutting is the very first process in garment manufacturing. The cutting departmentreceives the fabric from the fabric department after inspection.Objectives of the department  Cutting according to the master patterns with 100% accuracy.  Ensuring 100% quality in cutting.  100% issue of all the parts to sewing section. The cutting floor is a combined unit for spreading, cutting, ticketing and bundling.The work of cutting department starts right from the point of order being received fromthe buyer by the merchandising department. The CAD department prepares the marker using the patterns prepared by theSampling Department. It also prepares the CAD-Consumption Worksheet and makesestimation for the consumption of the fabric for that particular order. The results are thencommunicated to merchandiser. Manual spreading is done here. Cutting department also has straight knife and bandknife. Band knife is used to cut small components like moon patch, placket, sleeves etc.Types of cutting 1) Auto cutting 2) Manual cuttingAuto Cutting Automation is justified only if it is used to the fullest extent. The intention is tode-skill and increase production, and wherever possible economize on cost. All the threepurposes should be achieved; otherwise the advantage of automation may not be onehundred percent. Use laser for cutting, cutting is done by machines, using commandsystem.Manual Cutting Here cutting and spreading is done by manual method, skill level is mostimportant factor in the manual cutting and spreading. 29
  • 30. The procedure followed in manual cutting The fabric is inspected for shade The fabric consumption ratio is calculated The lay record is prepared The lay is spread according to the lay record The lay marker is spread over it The size labels are placed on the marked parts. The straighter cutting is been carried out Then it is sent to band knife cutting for accuracy in shape The numbering of parts is done based on sizes & lay The stripes and check fabrics are sent for relaying where the proper alignment of stripes & checks of different parts for matching. Pinning is done for pockets and darts for proper alignment Edge cutting is done for stripe & check fabrics The interlinings are also cut After cutting the shade checking is done Then it goes to auditing Re cutting is doneCutting Tools 1) Powered Scissors These are used for cutting one or two plies and are often used in the sampling room. ‘ 2) Round Knife 30
  • 31. This is a very fast machine, excellent for cutting the straight lines or gradual curves.Blade sizes range from 4 cm to 20 cm in diameter and the effective cutting height isabout 40% of the blade diameter. 3) Straight Knife The workhorse of most of the cutting rooms, the straight knife, if correctly used isversatile and accurate enough for most of the purposes. 4) Band Knife The narrow blade of this machine allows the finest of the shapes to be cut veryaccurately. Some band knife machines have air flotation tables which support the blockof work on a fine air cushion, enabling the cutter to man oeuvre the work during cuttingwith the minimum disturbance to the plies.Round Knife Straight Knife Band Knife 31
  • 32. Cutting procedureMarker Making  Marker making is the process of determining the most efficient method of placing pattern pieces for a specified style.Types of Markers  Manual/Master Patterns  Computerized/GGT Patterns  Open Marker  Closed MarkerMarker efficiency  Marker efficiency is determined by fabric utilization, the percentage of total fabric that is actually used in garment part. Total area of the component patterns in a layout * 100 (Total width of the layout) *(total length of layout)Splice marks  Splice marks are the point in markers where fabric can be cut and next piece overlapped to maintain a continuous spread.Dimensions of MarkersDimension of marker shows the marker specific areaSo that we can adjust it according to the plan width and length Fabric StoresReceiving of fabrics Fabric comes to stores directly from knitting house. For every particular batchsamples comes with audit report from audit department in process house of knits. Auditreport contains all information regarding the fabric and trims of that particular batch. 32
  • 33. Storing of fabric Fabric is stored according to the buyer’s name. Every buyer is allocated a specificrack in storeroom, so batch for that particular buyer is stored in that rack.There is no further segregation in the warehouse area.Issuing of Fabric Cut plan department sends the required of fabric with other data to the storeincharge. Required fabric is then allocated to cutting room from the stores. Fabric rolls are received in trolley. It is ensured that all fabric rolls are loadeduniformly. One trolley carries a max of 15 rolls.Easing Of the Fabric (Relaxation) After the issue of fabric if fabric is single jersey it is taken for relaxation process.Here fabric is simply unrolled by the manual.In this section handling of fabric is done manually bare handed.Marker planning and marker making Marker planning is done in other unit. In this unit, just arrangement of marker isdone according to the width of the fabric and gsm of the fabric. New marker is thenuploaded in the cam machine.Lay planning Lay planning is done in data-entry department according to the marker plan andthe order of the customer.Types of fabric laying Face to face alternative plies: For symmetrical pattern pieces, and fabric which is stable spread face to face, the fabric can be spread along face up and immediately back again face down. Face up alternative plies: For asymmetrical as well as symmetrical pattern pieces and fabric which is stable spread all the same way up, the fabric can be spread along and immediately back again. Face up all plies in the same direction: For asymmetrical as well as symmetrical pattern pieces and fabric which is stable all the same way up, the spreader spreads in one direction only. 33
  • 34. Face to face all plies in the same direction: For symmetrical pattern pieces, and fabric, which is stable face to face, the spreader spreads in one direction only.Spreading The main objective of spreading is to spread the fabric lay accurately as per thelength of the maker with minimum waste at end of a lay.Types of Spreading 1) Automatic spreading 2) Manual spreadingAutomatic Spreading Automatic spreading is done for the solid dyed fabric only. After relaxation offabric; fabric is kept on the spreading tables. From here they are loaded on automaticspreader.Manual Spreading Manual spreading is done for the yarn died fabric and for the fabric that has to besent for washing. After the fabric is issued from warehouse, it is first blocked, then twopersons lay fabric according to the length of marker.Generally lay is of length of one full piece of t-shirt. A layer of 65-100 pieces is madeaccording to the cut plan. During spreading all the plies are matched stripe to stripe onboth the sides by workers.A separate room is allotted to stripe spreading, cutting and bundling the fabrics whichwere yarn dyed.Following are the factors causing delay in cutting department Spreader stoppage because of nap direction Defect marks Splicing Utilizing end bits Paper work Measure length and width of ply 34
  • 35. Material flowIssue of fabric from knits store Spreading RelaxationLaying of patterns (if manual spreading) Cutting Sorting & Sticker pasting Bundling CPI (cut panel inspection)Issue to the sewing department 35
  • 36. INDUCTION 36
  • 37. Induction  After cutting 100% inspection of cut panels is done.  Rejected pieces are replaced so that it may not disturb stitching  In induction quantity of the cut panels is make sure  In induction quality of cut panels is checked to reduce human errors  In induction bar codes are generated against related work order.  Re-bundling is done according to work order detail 37
  • 38. STITCHING 38
  • 39. STITCHINGWhat is Stitching? This is the main assembly stage of the production process, where sewers stitchfabric pieces together, and a garment is assembled.What is Machine? Combination of different mechanical parts, which reduces the human effort toachieve target.There are several types of machines for stitching but usually use. . . 1) Flat Lock 2) Over Lock 3) Lock StitchMore discussion about these machinesFlat Lock The machine in which we can use three or multi needles, mostly we use three-needle machine. There are two lopper, spreader set lower lopper. Here we use fivethreads. It can be run without cloth and complete the stitch but in other machines, this isnot possible. 39
  • 40. Practical Work I learned about threading. Tension between every stitch dialer must be accurate.After the threading we must be know machine proper working. For this, we run themachine and check the stitch. If there is any missing it is clear from the stitch.During threading Machine should be off Needles must be downErrors There is no proper setting of threading Sometime when threading any machine needles are up due these needles can break.Efficiency Proper oil supply Clean the machines after closing work. There must be operators are trained. Proper maintenanceFaults We must know about needle number Oil staining Needle hole 40
  • 41. Over Lock An over lock stitch sews over the edge of one or two pieces of cloth for edging,hemming or seaming. Usually an over lock sewing machine will cut the edges of thecloth as they are fed through (such machines are called ‘sergers’ in North America),though some are made without cutters. The inclusion of automated cutters allows overlock machines to create finished seams easily and quickly. An over lock sewing machine differs from a lockstitch sewing machine in that ituses loppers fed by multiple thread cones rather than a bobbin. Loppers serve to create thread loops that pass from the needle thread to the edgesof the fabric so that the edges of the fabric are contained within the seam. Over lock sewing machines usually run at high speeds, from 1000 to 9000 rpm,and most are used in industry for edging, hemming and seaming a variety of fabrics andproducts.Practical Work Over lock stitches are traditionally used for edging and light seaming. Otherapplications include: Sewing netting, edging emblems, rolled hemming, decorativeedgingI learned about threading. Tension between every stitch dialer must be accurate.After the threading, we must know machine proper working. For this, we run the machineand check the stitch. If there is any missing it is clear from the stitch. 41
  • 42. During threading Machine should be off Needles must be downErrors There is no proper setting of threading Sometime when threading any machine needles are up due these needles can break.Efficiency Proper oil supply Clean the machines after closing work. There must be operators are trained. Proper maintenanceFaults We must know about needle number Oil staining Needle hole Needle Number 42
  • 43. Lock Stitch A lock stitch sewing machine binds cloth together with two spools of thread and aneedle with the eye at its base. Distinct from a chain stitchmachine, a lockstitch sewingmachine makes strong, straight seams. It was the first kind of commercial sewing machine to secure a patent, entermanufacturing, and place automatic sewing in the hands of millions of households.The machine in which we can use single needle, there is no lopper. Here we use shuttlefor other thread. In the shuttle, there is bobbin. It may be double needle but mostly we use single needle lock stitch machine.Here we use two thread one for needle and other from shuttle. Stitch of this machine isstrong from the other machines.Practical Work The first spool sits on top of the machine. Its thread runs through a tension arm tofeed it smoothly. Then it threads into a needles eye, located at its base. The needleattaches to a foot that can press the fabric against a feed. The second thread, on anotherbobbin, is hidden in a compartment beneath the foot.This thread gets pulled on a shuttle to loop around the thread from above. The needlestitches up and down either by a manual foot treadle or a motor controlled by pedal.During threading Machine should be off Needles must be down 43
  • 44. Errors There is no proper setting of threading Sometime when threading any machine needles are up due these needles can break.Efficiency Proper oil supply Clean the machines after closing work. There must be operators are trained. Proper maintenanceFaults We must know about needle number Oil staining Needle holeConclusion These types of machines cannot be used for normal purpose. But for making acomplete garment their importance cannot be denied. Special care and sufficientknowledge is necessary for proper working. Otherwise faulty sewing may be done. I would like to give special thanks to ourteacher. I am also grateful to our instructors. I think this will be very helpful in my futurelife. 44
  • 45. Quality Control (Q.C)Introduction Quality means customer needs is to be satisfied. Failure to maintain an adequatequality standard can therefore be unsuccessful. But maintaining an adequate standard ofquality also costs effort. From the first investigation to find out what the potentialcustomer for a new product really wants, through the processes of design, specification,controlled manufacture and sale. There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry isbased such as - performance, reliability, durability, visual and perceived quality of thegarment. Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular framework of cost.Objectives To maximize the production of goods within the specified tolerances correctly the first time. To achieve a satisfactory design of the fabric or garment in relation to the level of choice in design, styles, colors, suitability of components and fitness of product for the marketQuality Control Quality is of prime importance in any aspect of business. Customers demand andexpect value for money. As producers of apparel there must be a constant endeavor toproduce work of good quality. The systems required for programming and coordinating the efforts of the variousgroups in an organization to maintain the requisite quality". As such Quality Control isseen as the agent of Quality Assurance or Total Quality Control. In the garment industry quality control is practiced right from the initial stage ofsourcing raw materials to the stage of final finished garment. For textile and apparelindustry product quality is calculated in terms of quality and standard of fibers, yarns,fabric construction, color fastness, surface designs and the final finished garmentproducts. However quality expectations for export are related to the type of customersegments and the retail outlets.Quality control and standards are one of the most important aspects of the content of anyjob and therefore a major factor in training. 45
  • 46. Quality Assurance Quality Assurance is similar to quality control. The fundamental principal is thatmanufacturers and suppliers wish to maintain control over the quality of their clothing,fabric, footwear, fashion accessories etc. In order to manufacturer high quality garments, companies involved inmanufacturing need to maintain some sort of quality assurance or quality control plan andprocedures. The QA activities should include factory monitoring, testing, inspections,audits etc.Below are only a few issues that are relevant to the quality assurance of clothing:  Fabric Defects  Quality Control Managers  Piece Goods Inspection  Cutting Room Quality Control  In-Process Quality ControlQuality Related Problems in Garment Manufacturing  Sewing defects  Color effects  Sizing defects  Garment defectsSewing defects Like open seams, wrong stitching techniques used, same color garment, but usageof different color threads on the garment, miss out of stitches in between, creasing of thegarment, erroneous thread tension and raw edges are some sewing defects that couldoccur so should be taken care of.Color effects Color defects that could occur are - difference of the color of final producedgarment to the sample shown, accessories used are of wrong color combination andmismatching of dye amongst the pieces. 46
  • 47. Sizing defects Wrong gradation of sizes, difference in measurement of a garment part fromother, for example- sleeves of XL size but body of L size. Such defects do not occur hasto be seen too.Garment defects During manufacturing process defects could occur like - faulty zippers, irregularhemming, loose buttons, raw edges, improper button holes, uneven parts, inappropriatetrimming, and difference in fabric colors. 47
  • 49. FINISHING & PACKING Finishing is done before packing. It is been carried out before or after washing asper the buyer requirement or dependent on the fabric. The garments from the productionsection are sent for washing by segregating them on the basis of sizes, shades. The mainobjective of finishing is to finish the garment as per buyer requirement and present moreeffectively. Packing is the final stage of garment industry for shipment of goods. Themain objective of packing is easy transportation of goods. It is also done to maintain thequality norms of the garment. Packing of the garment is done depending on the buyerrequirement. In-process flow in finishing Unwashed Garments Garments received from the batch audit Quality and measurement inspection Button section Segregation Trimming Thread sucking Rough ironing Final quality and measurement check Final ironing Presentation checking Folding as per the buyers specifications Packing Pack audit Shipment 49
  • 50. Washed GarmentsGarments received from the batch audit Quality and measurement inspection Button section Dispatching (as per size) Washing Trimming Thread sucking Rough ironing Final quality and measurement check Final ironing Presentation checkingFolding as per the buyers specifications Packing Pack audit Shipment 50
  • 51. List of major Defects Brand, care or size label missing Shading Wrong color Fabric flaw defect Hole in fabric Damage Conspicuous repair Poor construction Conspicuous soilage (inside or outside) Conspicuous abrasion marks from wash process High/ low pockets Exposed zipper tape Buttons, snap defect Button hole raveling, incomplete, not cut properly/ miss aligned Sizing problem Poorly trimmed garment threads Broken stitches Skipped stitches Open seam 51
  • 52. CONCLUSION After critical and deep study of all types of production systems that are used inapparel industry and comparison of production systems with respect to productivity werealized the importance of a good production system in sewing unit. An efficientproduction system can be used to reduce the off standard performance and increase the onstandard performance. Since the function of sewing department mainly depends on thetype of production system, its correct choice cannot be further emphasized. Handlingtime is the major part of sewing operation which can be minimized as the needle timeremains constant in all types of systems. Production systems are the key success factor for every company to reduce thecost and boost the efficiency and productivity of sewing unit. 52