CSS: B ring the different social classes and groups together and thus promote the emergence of an egalitarian and integrated society. U niversal elementary education : U niversal Access, Universal Retention and Universal Achievement i.e., making education accessible to children, making sure that they continue education and finally, achieving goals.
National Advisory Council comments: Basic reading, writing, arithmetic, comprehension, and analytical skills as an essential outcome of elementary education: It is necessary to lay down in the law that basic reading, writing, and arithmetic skills including comprehension and analysis independent of textbooks, with defined levels at the end of primary and elementary level should be essential minimum outcomes of education.
Right to Education History Policy Implications Recent developments Shivakumar Jolad AID-Penn State
1950 : Constitution of India Article 45- Directive principles of state policy "The State shall endeavor to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.”
1968: Kothari commission- Education of equitable quality, Curriculum frame work, NCERT, recommended Common School System(CSS)
1976: Education a responsibility of both center and State
1986 : National policy on Education (NPE)- Universal elementary education, recommends Free and compulsory education upto 14 years(to be ensured before 21st century!), endorsed CSS
86th Constitution Amendment - Article 21A: Every child between the age of 6 and 14 years has the right to free and compulsory education. The RTE bill seeks to give effect (obligatory commitment by govt) to this Amendment .
The State shall ensure a school in every child's neighborhood . Every school shall conform to certain minimum standards defined in the Bill.
Private schools shall admit at least 25% of children from weaker sections; no fee shall be charged to these children. Screening tests at the time of admission and capitation fees are prohibited for all children.
Government schools managed by School Management Committees (SMC), mostly composed of parents. Teachers assigned to a particular school; there will be no transfers .
Bill will cost the exchequer : Rs 3,21,000 crore - Rs 4,36,000 crore over six years in addition to the current expenditure on education. This is estimated to be an increase of between 1.1% and 1.5% of GDP. Central government provide finacial assiatnce to states for implementing this bill
No proper frame work for a decentralized administration. [B]
Financial and structural (curriculum) autonomy needed for SMC. ‘government funded, locally managed autonomous neighborhood schools’
Retains centralized appointment of teachers [B] - (but doesn’t allow transfers[G]) Problem of corruption in appointments would remain as it is [B].
There is no talk of encouraging the communities or the private sector to set up school systems in rural India. There is a licensing tag on opening new schools preventing many interested people to set up schools. [B]
In July- Government decides to shelve RTE citing financial reasons. Instead it proposes Model bill to be passed by States
Education a concurrent subject: it’s a responsibility of both State and Central government. By not passing a Central legislation for Right to Education the Central government is abdicating its duties under the constitution.
By providing only a Model bill the central government is not obligated to provide any financial assistance to State governments for implementing the Fundamental Right.
It may run schemes like Sarva Shikshan Abhiyan which are not obligatory but voluntary.
Media reports: States which pass the RTE bill(model) will get 50% funds for the SSA scheme from the 11 th five year plan and States which don’t will get only 25% of funds from Center for SSA. SSA will still exist even if RTE bill is approved . [G]
Right to Education Bill is a step in the right direction to address the anomalies and disparities in elementary education.
Politics that recognizes education as a right of the citizen and that attempts to build organic links between educational institutions and the community is essential for improving our education system.