artefacts produced by the secondary sector - repair and maintenance, goods transport, building services, wholesale and retail trade;
people - health and education services, hospitality and consumer services such as hairdressing, public transport;
symbols - entertainment; communication; consultancy; professional services; finance
LESS ABOUT MATERIAL PRODUCTION OF TANGIBLE ARTEFACT
MORE PRODUCTION OF “SERVICE”: SUPPLIER - CLIENT INTERACTION
OPERATIONS ON PHYSICAL, HUMAN AND SYMBOLIC PROCESSES TO CHANGE STATES
VARIETY OF TYPES OF, AND PARTIES TO, INTERACTIONS
The Rise of Services Three Sector and Continuous Models Multi Sector and Discontinuous Models Post-Industrial Theory (Services as Advanced) Service Economy Theory (Services as Backward) Deindustrialisation Theory (Services as Parasitic) Information Society Theory (Some Services as Vanguard) Demand change Centrality of Knowledge New sectors IT revolution debate Productivity Differences Price Changes Unproductive Services Externalisation & outsourcing
Services across the Economy Sectors Sectors Occupations Occupations Service sectors grow as a share of the whole economy; Service occupations grow as a share of most sectors
OECD Service Employment
“ Producer Service” Sector Growth source: T Elfring, "An International Comparison of Service Sector Employment Growth" UNECE Discussion Papers, vol. 2 (1992) no 1 Personal and Collective Services: an International Perspective (UN Economic Commission for Europe)
Services and IT
Services are major investors in IT equipment - c 80% - major users of IT labour (c 50% of software staff)
This is uneven - financial services very IT intensive, consumer services not.
IT as “industrial revolution” in services.
New IT services - software, computer services, telematics services, new media...
Services as Innovative Laggards
Discounted in Innovation Analysis
IT use forces rethink
R&D and innovation surveys: services as active innovators, as agents of innovation across economy
Attempts to explain, classify
Theories of Service Innovation
Richard Barras - reverse product cycle
Soete & Miozzo
Service Firms in an Innovation Taxonomy Science-based firms; Scale-intensive firms; Specialised equipment producers; Supplier-dominated firms Supplier dominated sectors (a) Production-intensive scale-intensive sectors (b) network sectors Specialised technology suppliers and science-based sectors Pavitt Soete & Miozzo
“ Peculiarities” of Services
SERVICE PRODUCTION Technology and Plant; Labour; Organisation of Labour Process; Features of Production; Organisation of Industry
SERVICE PRODUCT Nature of Product; Features of Product; Intellectual Property
SERVICE CONSUMPTION Delivery of Product; Role of Consumer; Organisation of Consumption
SERVICE MARKETS Organisation of Markets; Regulation; Marketing
Influences on Services Innovation? Shape strategies of Services Innovation? Convergence in Manufacturing and Services?
"Pure Services" "Pure Manufacturing" Manufacturing Sectors Service Sectors
Services and Information Society
Varieties of Knowledge
New Technology Based services
Rise of KIBS
Beyond KIBS? KICS??
Modes of Governance
Roles of IT
Services as Users, as Sources, and as AGENTS of Innovation...
Knowledge-Intensive Business Services (KIBS)
Rely heavily upon professional knowledge. Employment structures heavily weighted towards scientists, engineers, experts of all types. Tend to be leading users of Information Technology to support their activities.
Either supply products which are themselves primarily information and knowledge resources; Or use their knowledge to produce intermediate inputs to their clients' knowledge generating and information processing activities.
Have as their main clients other businesses (including public services and the self-employed).
Accounting and bookkeeping
Specific building services (e.g. architecture, surveying, construction engineering, etc.)
Facility management services
Technical engineering services
Research and development services; R&D consultancy services