To the instructor: This presentation attempts to cover every term in the text, sometimes via a slide, sometimes via the Notes page. Additional material beyond what is in the text is presented via: Occasional “FACTOID” notations on the Notes page, and; Occasional hyperlinks in the slides themselves. ScreenTip text has been added to each hyperlink allowing you to see in advance of selecting the hyperlink where that link will take you. In addition, the last ~20 slides are questions covering the material just presented. They can be used to increase interaction between the instructor and students at the end of each lecture, to ensure students understand the material just presented, etc. Finally, some of the Notes pages include “Discussion questions” for use in encouraging student interaction during the lecture.
Key Questions (from the text): 3.1 What are five ways of obtaining application software, tools available to help you learn to use software, three common types of files, and the types of software? 3.2 What are some common features of the graphical software environment? 3.3 What can you do with word processing software that you can’t do with pencil and paper? 3.4 What can you do with an electronic spreadsheet that you can’t do with pencil and paper and a standard calculator? 3.5 What is database software, and what is personal information management software? 3.6 What are the principal uses of specialty software such as presentation graphics, financial, desktop publishing, drawing and painting, project management, computer-aided design, and video/audio editing software?
Copyright - the exclusive legal right that prohibits copying of intellectual property without the permission of the copyright holder. Example of freeware: Netscape Navigator & Microsoft Internet Explorer Software license - a contract you sign in which you agree not to make copies of the software to give away or for resale. FACTOID: < Show the students the software license for a Web browser. (For Internet Explorer, you can find this in the Help window. For Netscape Navigator, this can be found in the “About Communicator” page. The actual location on your computer may vary depending on which version of browser you are running.) Scroll down so that they can get an idea of the amount of “legalese” involved in a software license.> Pirated software - software obtained illegally, as when you make a copy of software that your friend has purchased. Discussion question: How serious an offense do you think it is to install software from a CD that your friend purchased and installed on his or her computer?
File - a named collection of (1) data or (2) a program that exists in a computer’s secondary storage. Document files - files created by word processing programs, which consist of documents such as reports, letters, memos, and term papers. Worksheet files - files created by electronic spreadsheets, which usually consist of collections of numerical data such as budgets, sales forecasts, and schedules. Database files - files created by database management programs, which consist of organized data that can be analyzed and displayed in various useful ways. Importing - getting data from another source and then converting it into a format compatible with the program in which you are currently working. Exporting - transforming data into a format that can be used in another program and then transmitting it to that program.
Office suite - several applications bundled together into a single large package, such as Microsoft Office, which includes: Word (word processing) Excel (spreadsheet) Access (database) PowerPoint (presentation graphics) FACTOID: Appleworks is the office suite provided with the Macintosh OS. Appleworks includes word-processing, spreadsheet, drawing, painting, database, and presentation applications. Groupware - online software that allows several people to collaborate on the same project. Discussion question: While computers can help us to work more efficiently, they can also be profoundly frustrating and unproductive. Have computers and IT really improved productivity?
GUI is pronounced as “gooey.” FACTOID: The Association for Computing Machinery ( ACM ) is the world’s first educational and scientific computing society. Founded in 1947, the ACM is organized into several SIGs—Special Interest Groups. One of these is called SIGCHI —Special Interest Group for Computer-Human Interaction. SIGCHI members are people working in the field of user interfaces.
Pop-up menu - a list of command options that can “pop up” anywhere on the screen when you click the menu button of your mouse. FACTOID: <Demonstrate a pop-up menu using the browser, by selecting the menu button on the mouse when the mouse is positioned over the background of a webpage.>
Taskbar - the toolbar graphic at the bottom of the screen, which shows the applications that are running in Microsoft Windows. FACTOID: Macintosh OS also has a graphic at the bottom of the screen. However, it is called a “Control Strip” as it contains many of the “Control Panels” used to change various settings of the computer and desktop. Window - a rectangular frame on the computer display screen, through which you can view a file of data or an application program. Do not confuse “windows” (multiple rectangular frames) with “Windows,” Microsoft’s operating system for PCs.
Word processing software - software which allows you to create, edit, format, print, and store text material, among other things.
Macro - a single keystroke or command--or a series of keystrokes or commands--used to automatically issue a longer, predetermined series of keystrokes or commands.
FACTOID: <Demo each of these operations using MS Word, Appleworks Word Processing, or whatever other word processing software may be present on the instructor’s computer.> Spelling checker - word processing feature which tests for incorrectly spelled words. Grammar checker - word processing feature which highlights poor grammar, wordiness, incomplete sentences, and awkward phrases. Thesaurus - word processing feature which presents you with the appropriate word or alternative words.
FACTOID: Your word processing software may provide a wizard feature but use a different name for it. For example, Microsoft Word has an “Office Assistant” instead of a wizard. Similarly, Appleworks provides “Assistants” rather than wizards. The concept is the same – only the name varies.
Two-column spacing used in many magazines and books. Many-column spacing used in newspapers. Justification - to align text evenly between left and right margins, as in most newspaper columns. Left-justification - to align text evenly on the left, leaving a “ragged-right” margin, as in business letters.
Header - common text (such as a date or document name) printed at the top of every page. Footer - the same thing printed at the bottom of every page. Clip art - collections of ready-made pictures and illustrations available online or on CD-ROM disks. Default settings - the settings automatically used by a program unless the user specifies otherwise, thereby overriding them. Saving - storing, or preserving, a document as an electronic file permanently.
Spreadsheet software - program which allows users to create tables and financial schedules by entering data and formulas into rows and columns arranged as a grid on a display screen. FACTOID: The two main players in the spreadsheet business are Microsoft Excel and IBM’s Lotus 1-2-3 . According to the U.S. Business Reporter , Excel has 65% of the market and Lotus 1-2-3 has 35%.
A cell pointer, or spreadsheet cursor, indicates where data is to be entered. FACTOID: When all 26 letters of the alphabet have been used up for column headings, spreadsheets start over with two-letter column headings, AA, AB, AC…AZ, BA, BB, BC…BZ, etc. Hence, a cell address of AB5 would be in the 5 th row and the 28 th column.
What-if analysis - allows the user to see how changing one or more numbers changes the outcome of the recalculation.
Redundancy - repetition of the same piece of information in several different files. Integrity - the accuracy and currency of the information. FACTOID: Many academic institutions offer certificate programs in various database topics. One example is UCD (University of California at Davis) Extension’s Certificate Program in Database Design, Development, and Management .
Relational database - the most widely used form of database on PCs, which organizes data into tables. FACTOID: MySQL is a very popular relational database management system. It is also an “open-source” program, which means that anyone can download and use it for free.
The most common key field in the U.S. is the Social Security number.
This lecture is being presented via presentation graphics software--namely, Microsoft PowerPoint. Well-known presentation graphics software: Microsoft PowerPoint Corel Presentations Lotus Freelance Graphics PowerPoint has several “views”: Slide View - for creating and modifying the slides themselves. Outline View - for entering text to be automatically formatted. Notes Page View - for entering text to be used as Speaker’s Notes. Sorter View - for viewing and reordering miniatures of each slide. Slide Show View - for viewing the slides as the audience will see them.
Personal-finance managers - let you keep track of income and expenses, write checks, do online banking, and plan financial goals. FACTOID: When the phrase “personal-finance software” is mentioned, most people immediately think of Quicken created by Intuit . Fortune magazine has named Intuit to its prestigious “100 Best Companies to Work For” list; Intuit is ranked 46 th .
Characteristics of DTP: Mix of text with graphics Varied type and layout styles Use of files from other programs
Vector image - image created from mathematical calculations. Raster image - image created from many little dots.
Web page design/authoring software - used to create web pages with sophisticated multimedia features. Video/audio editing software - allows you to modify a section of video, which is called a clip. Project management software - a program used to plan and schedule the people, costs, and resources required to complete a project on time. Computer-Aided Design (CAD) software - programs intended for the design of products, structures, civil engineering drawings, and maps. Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing - software that allows products designed with CAD to be input into an automated manufacturing system that makes the products.
Using Information Technology <ul><li>Chapter 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Application Software </li></ul>
Application Software: Tools for Thinking & Working More Productively 3.1 Application Software: Getting Started 3.2 Common Features of Software 3.3 Word Processing 3.4 Spreadsheets 3.5 Database Software 3.6 Specialty Software
3.1 Application Software: Getting Started <ul><li>Commercial software - copyrighted and must be paid for </li></ul><ul><li>Public-domain software - not copyrighted </li></ul><ul><li>Shareware - copyrighted and free but you should pay for continued use </li></ul><ul><li>Freeware - copyrighted and free </li></ul><ul><li>Rentalware - copyrighted and leased </li></ul>
Tutorials & Documentation <ul><li>Tutorial - an instruction book or program that helps you learn to use the product by taking you through a prescribed series of steps </li></ul><ul><li>Documentation - a user guide or reference manual that provides a narrative and graphical description of a program </li></ul>
Files of Data--& the Usefulness of Importing & Exporting <ul><li>Three well-known types of data files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Document files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worksheet files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Database files </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Exchanging files between programs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exporting </li></ul></ul>
Types of Software <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>Word processing </li></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets </li></ul><ul><li>Database managers </li></ul>Productivity software - software whose purpose is to make users more productive at particular tasks
3.2 Common Features of Software <ul><li>User interface - the user-controllable display screen that allows you to communicate, or interact, with the computer </li></ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) - allows you to use a mouse or keystrokes to select icons and commands from menus </li></ul><ul><li>Pointer - on-screen object that responds to mouse movements; it changes shape depending on the application </li></ul>
Desktop, Icons & Menus <ul><li>Desktop - the system’s main interface screen, which displays pictures that provide quick access to programs and information </li></ul>
Desktop, Icons & Menus <ul><li>Pull-down menu - a list of options that pulls down from the top of the screen </li></ul>Menu - a list of options to choose from--a list of commands for manipulating data
Desktop, Icons & Menus <ul><li>Fly-out menus - menus that seem to explode out to the right </li></ul>
Desktop, Icons & Menus <ul><li>Pull-up menu - a list of options that pulls up from the bottom of the screen </li></ul>
Documents, Toolbars, & Windows <ul><li>Toolbar - a bar across the top of the display window, which displays menus and icons representing frequently used options </li></ul>
The Help Command <ul><li>Help command - a command generating a table of contents, an index, and a search feature that can help you locate answers </li></ul>
3.3 Word Processing Features of the Keyboard <ul><li>Special-purpose keys - used to enter, delete, and edit data, and to execute commands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>End </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ctrl </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Del </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Home </li></ul></ul>
Features of the Keyboard <ul><li>Function keys - keys labeled F1, F2, etc., positioned along the top or left side of the keyboard, which are used to execute commands specific to the software being used </li></ul>
Creating Documents <ul><li>Cursor - the movable symbol on the display screen that shows you where you may next enter data or commands </li></ul>
Creating Documents <ul><li>Scrolling - moving quickly upward, downward, or sideways through the text or other screen display </li></ul>
Editing Documents <ul><li>Insert and delete </li></ul><ul><li>Find and replace </li></ul><ul><li>Cut/Copy and paste </li></ul><ul><li>Spelling checker </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar checker </li></ul><ul><li>Thesaurus </li></ul>
Formatting Documents with the Help of Templates & Wizards <ul><li>Formatting - determining the appearance of a document </li></ul><ul><li>Template - a preformatted document that provides basic tools for shaping a final document </li></ul><ul><li>Wizard - answers your questions and uses the answers to lay out and format a document </li></ul>
Formatting Documents <ul><li>Font - typeface and type size </li></ul><ul><li>10 point </li></ul><ul><li>Times New Roman </li></ul><ul><li>14 point </li></ul><ul><li>Arial Black </li></ul><ul><li>16 point </li></ul><ul><li>Courier </li></ul><ul><li>32 point </li></ul><ul><li>Arial </li></ul>
3.4 Spreadsheets The Basics: How Spreadsheets Work <ul><li>How a spreadsheet is organized: </li></ul><ul><li>Lettered column headings across the top </li></ul><ul><li>Numbered row headings down the left side </li></ul><ul><li>Labels - descriptive text </li></ul>
The Basics: How Spreadsheets Work <ul><li>Where columns and rows meet: </li></ul><ul><li>Cell - the place where a row and a column intersect </li></ul><ul><li>Cell address - position of a cell, such as A2 </li></ul><ul><li>Value - a number or date entered in a cell </li></ul>
The Basics: How Spreadsheets Work <ul><li>Why the spreadsheet has become so popular: </li></ul><ul><li>Formulas - instructions for calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Functions - built-in formulas </li></ul><ul><li>Recalculation - process of recomputing values </li></ul><ul><li>What-if analysis </li></ul>
The Basics: How Spreadsheets Work <ul><li>Analytical graphics - graphical forms that make numeric data easy to analyze </li></ul>
3.5 Database Software <ul><li>Database - a collection of interrelated files </li></ul><ul><li>Database software - a program that sets up and controls the structure of a database and access to the data </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of Database Software: </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced redundancy </li></ul><ul><li>Increased integrity </li></ul>
The Basics: How Databases Work <ul><li>How a relational database is organized: </li></ul><ul><li>Tables of rows and columns </li></ul><ul><li>Row (record) - example: a person’s address </li></ul><ul><li>Column (field) - example: the person’s last name </li></ul>
The Basics: How Databases Work <ul><li>How various records can be linked: </li></ul><ul><li>Key field - a field that can be used as a common identifier because it is unique </li></ul><ul><li>Finding what you want: </li></ul><ul><li>Querying - locating and displaying records </li></ul>
Personal Information Managers <ul><li>Personal information manager ( PIM ) - software to help you keep track of and manage information you use on a daily basis, such as addresses, telephone numbers, appointments, to-do lists, and miscellaneous notes </li></ul>
3.6 Specialty Software <ul><li>Presentation graphics software - uses graphics, animation, sound, and data or information to make visual presentations </li></ul>PowerPoint outline view
Financial Software <ul><li>Financial software - a growing category that ranges from personal-finance managers to entry-level accounting programs to business financial-management packages </li></ul>Quicken software
Desktop Publishing <ul><li>Desktop publishing (DTP) - mixing text and graphics to produce high-quality output for commercial printing, using a microcomputer and mouse, scanner, laser or ink-jet printer, and DTP software </li></ul>
Drawing & Painting Programs <ul><li>Drawing program - graphics software that allows users to design and illustrate objects and products </li></ul><ul><li>Painting program - graphics program that allows users to simulate painting on screen </li></ul>Vector image Raster image