Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Irwin/McGraw-Hill © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2004 ...


Published on

Published in: Business, Technology

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Planning Your Tax Strategy Personal Finance C HAPTER 4 Kapoor Dlabay Hughes 7e 4-1
  • 2. Taxes and Financial Planning
    • About one-third of each dollar you earn goes to pay taxes.
    • An effective tax strategy is vital for successful financial planning.
    • Understanding tax rules and regulations can help you reduce your tax liability.
  • 3. Taxes and Financial Planning (continued)
    • To help you cope with the many types of taxes you should...
      • Know current tax laws as they affect you.
      • Maintain complete and appropriate tax records.
      • Make purchase and investment decisions that reduce your tax liability.
    • Your tax planning should be targeted toward paying your fair share but still taking advantage of tax benefits.
  • 4. Four Types of Taxes
    • Taxes on purchases.
      • Sales tax & excise tax.
    • Taxes on property.
      • Real estate property tax.
      • Personal property tax.
    • Taxes on wealth.
      • Federal estate tax.
      • State inheritance tax.
    • Taxes on earnings.
      • Income tax.
  • 5. What Tax Records to Keep
    • Current tax forms and instruction booklets.
    • Social security numbers.
    • Copy of previous year’s returns.
    • W-2 forms from employers.
    • 1099 forms (interest, self employment).
    • 1098 (mortgage interest paid).
    • Receipts and documentation for expenses.
    • Investment & business expense documents.
  • 6. Computing Your Tax Liability
    • Step 1: Determining adjusted gross income.
      • First identify taxable income - the net income, after deductions, on which income tax is computed. Types of income subject to taxation include…
        • Earned income which usually include wages, salary, commissions, fees, tips or bonuses.
        • Investment income is money received in the form of dividends, interest or rent from investments.
        • Passive income results from business activities in which you do not directly participate such as a limited partnership.
        • Alimony, awards, lottery winnings and prizes.
  • 7. Computing Your Tax Liability (continued)
      • Total income is affected by exclusions.
        • Exclusions are amounts not included in gross income.
        • Exclusions are also referred to as tax-exempt income, which is income not subject to federal income tax. An example is interest on most state and city bonds.
      • Total income is also affected by tax-deferred income. This is income that will be taxed at a later date, such as earnings from an traditional individual retirement account (IRA).
  • 8. Computing Your Tax Liability (continued)
      • Adjusted gross income is is gross income after certain reductions have been made. These reductions are called adjustments to income, and include the following.
        • Contributions to a traditional IRA or Keogh.
        • Alimony payments.
        • Tax-deferred retirement plans, such as a 401(k)or a 403(b)(7) are a type of tax shelter.
          • Tax shelters are investments that provide immediate tax benefits and a reasonable expectation of a future financial return.
  • 9. Computing Your Tax Liability (continued)
    • Step 2: Computing Taxable Income.
      • A tax deduction is an amount subtracted from adjusted gross income (AGI) to arrive at taxable income.
      • You can subtract the standard deduction from AGI or itemize your deductions;
      • Itemized deductions can include items such as...
        • Medical and dental expenses >7.5% of AGI.
        • Taxes, interest, contributions and theft loses.
        • Moving, job-related, and miscellaneous expenses.
  • 10. Computing Your Tax Liability (continued)
      • Next subtract exemptions from AGI.
        • An exemption is a deduction for yourself, your spouse and qualified dependents.
        • The amount of the exemption for the 2001 tax year was $2,900 per person but this amount increases slightly each year.
      • After deducting exemptions you have your taxable income.
  • 11. Computing Your Tax Liability (continued)
    • Step 3: Calculating taxes owed.
      • The percent rates are the marginal tax rates on the last dollars of taxable income.
        • For example, after deductions and exemptions, a person in the 28% tax bracket pays 28 cents in taxes for every dollar of taxable income in that bracket.
  • 12. Computing Your Tax Liability (continued)
    • A person’s average tax rate is based on the total tax due divided by taxable income. This rate is less than a person’s marginal tax rate.
        • For example, if a person with a taxable income of $30,000 has a total tax bill of $3,000, their average tax rate is 10%.
    • Subtract tax credits.
        • A tax credit is an amount subtracted directly from the amount of taxes owed, such as the earned income or child and dependent care credits.
  • 13. Tax Credit versus Tax Deduction 4-13 $100 Tax Credit Reduces Your Taxes by $100 $100 Tax Deduction Amount Your Taxes are Reduced is Based on Your Tax Bracket
  • 14. W-2 Form
    • Determine tax withheld
    Making Tax Payments - Withholding 4-14
  • 15. Filing Your Federal Income Tax Return
    • There are five filing status categories.
      • Single or legally separated.
      • Married, filing jointly.
      • Married, filing separately.
      • Head of household.
        • Unmarried individual or surviving spouse who maintains a household for a child or dependent relative.
      • Qualifying widow or widower (2 years).
    4-15 You must file if your gross income exceeds the allowed amount. This amount changes each year.
  • 16. Which Tax Form Should You Use?
    • This is the form for those with the least complicated situations. Quick and easy to file.
    • Single or married filing jointly, under age 65 and with no dependents.
    • Income consisted of wages, salaries, and tips, and no more than $400 of taxable interest.
    • Your taxable income is less than $50,000.
    • You do not itemize deductions, or claim any adjustments to income or any tax credits.
    1040EZ 4-16
  • 17. Decide Which Tax Form to Use
    • Taxable income less than $50,000.
    • Adjustments to income are allowed.
    • Tax credits for child care and dependent care are allowed.
    • Required to use this form if income is over $50,000. Use if you itemize deductions.
    • Used to amend a previously filed return.
    (continued) 1040A 1040 1040X 4-17
  • 18. Completing Your Federal Income Tax Return
    • In summary the steps to completing your return include:
      • Filing status and exemptions.
      • Income.
      • Adjustments to income.
      • Tax computation.
      • Tax credits.
      • Other taxes (such as from self-employment)
      • Payments (total withholding and other payments).
  • 19. Completing Your Federal Income Tax Return
      • Determine if you are due a refund or owe tax.
        • Refunds can be sent directly to your bank account.
      • Sign your return.
  • 20. Tax Information Sources
    • The IRS has methods of assistance.
      • Publications and forms 1-800-TAX-FORM.
      • Recorded messages 1-800-829-4477.
      • Phone hot line 1-800-829-1040.
      • Walk-in service at an IRS office.
      • CD-ROM the IRS sells that has forms and pubs.
    • Tax publications e.g. Ernst and Young Tax Guide .
    • The Internet.
      • Tax preparation software companies.
  • 21. Tax Information Sources
    • Electronic filing.
      • Currently over 45 million people file their returns this way.
      • Returns are generally received within three weeks.
      • Tax preparers charge between $15 and $70 to submit a return for electronic filing.
      • Telefile is a way to file by phone if you are using form 1040EZ.
    (continued) 4-21
  • 22. Tax Information Sources
    • Tax preparation services.
      • Range from a one-person office to large firms such as H & R Block.
      • Government-approved tax experts are called enrolled agents.
      • Accountants.
      • Attorneys.
      • If your professional tax preparer makes a mistake, you are still responsible for paying the correct amount, plus any interest and penalties.
    (continued) 4-22
  • 23. What if Your Return is Audited?
    • About 0.6% of all returns are audited.
    • If you claim large or unusual deductions you are more likely to be audited.
    • There are three types of audits.
      • Correspondence for minor questions.
      • Office audit takes place at an IRS office.
      • Field is the most complex, with an IRS agent visiting you at your home, your business or your accountant’s office.
    • You have audit rights, including time to prepare for the audit, and clarification.
  • 24. Tax-Planning Strategies
    • Practice tax avoidance.
      • Legitimate methods to reduce your tax obligation to your fair share but no more.
      • Financial decisions related to purchasing, investing, and retirement planning are the most heavily affected by tax laws.
    • Tax Evasion.
      • Illegally not paying all the taxes you owe, such as not reporting all income.
  • 25. Tax-Planning Strategies
    • To minimize taxes owed...
      • If you expect to have the same or a lower tax rate next year, accelerate deductions into the current year.
      • If you expect to have a lower or the same tax rate next year, delay the receipt of income until next year.
      • If you expect to have a higher tax rate next year, delay deductions since they will have a greater benefit.
      • If you expect to have a higher tax rate next year, accelerate the receipt of income to have it taxed at the current lower rate.
    4-25 (continued)
  • 26. Tax-Planning Strategies
    • Owning a home is one of the best tax shelters because you can deduct mortgage loan interest and property taxes when you itemize. This reduces your taxable income.
    • Use your home equity line of credit to buy a car or consolidate debt, since the interest you pay can be deducted when you itemize.
    • Job-related expenses may be allowed as itemized deductions.
    • Using tax-exempt investments, such as municipal bonds can help reduce your taxes.
    (continued) 4-26
  • 27. Tax-Planning Strategies (continued)
    • Long -term capital gains taxed at a lower rate.
      • Held more than one year.
    • Put money in tax-deferred investments.
      • Series EE U.S. Treasury bonds interest is exempt if used for tuition.
      • Tax-deferred annuities.
      • Take advantage of tax-deferred retirement plans.
        • 401(k) plans $12,000 maximum in 2003.
        • Establish a Keogh plan if self-employed.
  • 28. Tax-Planning Strategies (continued)
    • Long-term capital gains on the sale of a home are excluded from taxes up to a certain amount.
    • Owning your own business has tax advantages, such as deducting health/life insurance costs, but have to pay self-employment tax (Social Security).
    • Children’s investments and income shifting (<$1500)
    • Traditional IRA limit was $3,000 in 2002.
    • Roth IRA dollars are not taxed when withdrawn.
    • Education IRA savings - earnings are tax free.
    • 529 savings plans are state-run, tax-deferred.