Civics Education

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Civics Education

  1. 1. STATE BOARD OF EDUCATION – TOPIC SUMMARY Topic: Civics Education Standards: History and Process Date: February 19-20, 2009 Staff/Office: Helen Maguire, Andrea Morgan/Office of Educational Improvement and Innovation Action Requested: Information only Policy Adoption Policy Adoption/Consent Calendar ISSUE BEFORE THE BOARD: Continued discussion of issues regarding Civics Education brought to the Board in January 2009 by the Civics and Financial Education Task Force. BACKGROUND: The Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century was the change agent for Oregon school course requirements. Based on the use of academic content standards, Oregon no longer requires particular courses for students, but students must instead have the opportunity to meet the academic content standards (OAR 329.465.3d). Therefore, three units of Social Studies credit are needed for a diploma (more, if the individual district requires), and students must have the opportunity to meet the standards in history, geography, civics, and economics (including personal finance). History of Civics Requirements in Oregon A ½ unit credit course in Civics and Government was required for graduation from Oregon high schools until 1997. Most school districts taught the course to high school seniors, although a few districts required the course for sophomores. The move to standards-based education removed the course requirement and replaced it with the requirement that instruction be provided to students that aligned to the Oregon Academic Content Standards. The shift was from requiring particular courses of certain length to specifying what students should know and be able to do after instruction. Since 1961, courses in Constitution and history of United States have been required by Oregon Revised Statute (ORS 336.057). In 2007, the Oregon State Board of Education adopted Essential Skills for the Oregon Diploma. Students must demonstrate proficiency in Civic and Community Engagement in order to receive a diploma, although the assessment method for this Essential Skill has not yet been determined. This Essential Skill is scheduled for final implementation in 2012. Current Status of Social Sciences Standards Social Sciences Content Standards: Provides statements describing what Oregon students should know and be able to do in Civics, Economics, Geography, History, and Social Science Analysis at four benchmarks, Grades 3, 5, 8, and high school. These standards are currently being reviewed and revised in preparation for submission to the Oregon State Board for adoption in 2010. Current Status of Essential Skill: “Demonstrate civic and community engagement” This skill includes all of the following: Apply knowledge of local, state, and U.S. history and government to explain current social and political issues. Perform the civic and community responsibilities essential to living in a representative democracy. POLICY QUESTIONS: The recent Civics and Financial Education Task Force recommended: 1. Conducting a comprehensive Survey of Enacted Curriculum, or other appropriate measure, for Social Studies 2. Ensuring teachers of civics education are adequately trained in content and best practice strategies in civics and government 3. Emphasizing Civics Education as a basic component throughout K-12 education. STAFF RECOMMENDATION: The attached information is provided for the Board to use as it desires when considering the recommendations of the Civics and Financial Education Task Force. Page 1 of 12
  2. 2. Civics Education Standards: History and Process The Oregon Education Act for the 21st Century was the change agent for Oregon school course requirements. Based on the use of academic content standards, Oregon no longer requires particular courses for students, but students must instead have the opportunity to meet the academic content standards (OAR 329.465.3d). Therefore, three units of Social Studies credit are needed for a diploma (more, if the individual district requires), and students must have the opportunity to meet the standards in history, geography, civics, and economics (including personal finance). History of Civics Requirements in Oregon A ½ unit credit course in Civics and Government was required for graduation from Oregon high schools until 1997. Most school districts taught the course to high school seniors, although a few districts required the course for sophomores. The move to standards-based education removed the course requirement and replaced it with the requirement that instruction be provided to students that aligned to the Oregon Academic Content Standards. The shift was from requiring particular courses of certain length to specifying what students should know and be able to do after instruction. Since 1961, courses in Constitution and history of United States have been required by Oregon Revised Statute (ORS 336.057). In 2007, the Oregon State Board of Education adopted Essential Skills for the Oregon Diploma. Students must demonstrate proficiency in Civic and Community Engagement in order to receive a diploma, although the assessment method for this Essential Skill has not yet been determined. This Essential Skill is scheduled for final implementation in 2012. Challenges to Civics and Financial Education: • Increased funding for professional development for teachers in best practices for Civics instruction and assessment. The $160,000 budgeted in the 2007-2009 biennium (some of which may be decreased to meet current budget shortfalls) is not sufficient to meet the state need. • Support from school administrators/teachers, in light of federal No Child Left Behind mandates for performance and testing in reading, mathematics, and science. Teachers report decreases in instructional time and materials for all Social Studies areas. • Funding for student activities • Need for an accurate inventory of schools aligning curriculum to state standards/providing instruction to state standards. • Need for assessments to determine the quality of instruction and the level of student achievement in Civics and Financial Education. • Support for Civics and Economics/Personal Finance instruction in No Child Left Behind. • Competition from other Social Sciences (history, economics, and geography) and other core curriculum areas (language arts, mathematics, science) for resources and time. Current Status of Social Sciences Standards, Diploma Requirements & Statewide Assessment Social Sciences Content Standards: Provides statements describing what Oregon students should know and be able to do in Civics, Economics, Geography, History, and Social Science Analysis at four benchmarks, Grades 3, 5, 8, and high school. http://www.ode.state.or.us/teachlearn/real/documents/ss.pdf Page 2 of 12
  3. 3. Oregon’s Civics and Government Standards: “Understand and apply knowledge about government and political systems, and the rights and responsibilities of citizens.” • Aligned to National Assessment of Education Progress (NAEP) Framework • Aligned to national standards from Center for Civics Education http://www.civiced.org/index.php • Report of Findings (2001) available at: http://www.ode.state.or.us/teachlearn/subjects/socialscience/curriculum/seipsumdraft.pdf Oregon Social Sciences Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (Social Sciences OAKS) • Assessment became fully operational in 2003-2004 • Performance Standards established in November 2003. Information available at http://www.ode.state.or.us/asmt/socialsciences/socscistandards.pdf http://www.ode.state.or.us/asmt/socialsciences/socscistandardfaq.pdf • HB 2744 in 2005 made Social Sciences a Certificate of Initial Mastery Subject Area Endorsement. This made Social Sciences assessment optional to districts. (Assessments in Mathematics, English/Language Arts, and Science continued to be required for the Certificate of Initial Mastery, and they continue to be required for No Child Left Behind accountability.) Review and Revision of the Social Sciences Academic Content Standards The review and revision of the Social Sciences standards began with a meeting of the Social Sciences Content and Assessment Panel on February 2-3, 2009. The final draft is expected to be completed and to the State Board of Education by December 2010. Instructional materials for Social Sciences are schedules to be adopted in 2011. It is expected that grades K-5 standards will be have some increase in expected instruction/content above current requirements to reflect national standards and best practice. Supports for Civics Education Civics Education Partners’ Programs and Activities • Civic Mission of Schools Grant: federal grant administered by Classroom Law Project • Supported by Oregon Community Foundation, Oregon Business Council • Summer Institute June 22-23, Lewis and Clark College, Portland • Submitted testimony to initial State Board of Education white paper on diploma requirements. • Support from 2007 Oregon State Legislature appropriation of $150,000.00 for the 2007-2009 biennium. Programs: • Classroom Law Project o We the People o Project Citizen o Youth Summit o Mock Trial o Street Law® o Law Day Conference o Summer Institute (teacher professional development) • Boys and Girls State (American Legion and American Legion Auxiliary) • Model United Nations Page 3 of 12
  4. 4. • United Nations Pilgrimage for Youth (Oddfellows and Rebekahs) • Model Presidential Nominating Convention • Youth and Legislature (YMCA) • Mock Election (League of Women Voters/Oregon Secretary of State) • Service Learning projects • Distance Learning Opportunities • Oregon Public Affairs Network (OPAN) • Videoconferencing • CORE Project (local government) from Oregon City/County Manager Association • Interest and support • Oregon Secretary of State’s Office, • Oregon State Legislature, • League of Women Voters, • SOLV, • Other civic organizations • Service Learning organizations and grants Materials: Adopted* textbooks support civics and financial education instruction *not all districts use the state adoptions; some use independent adoptions Page 4 of 12
  5. 5. CIVICS AND GOVERNMENT: Understand and apply knowledge about governmental and political systems, and the rights and responsibilities of citizens. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals Understand the Understand the Identify essential Identify essential Understand the Understand the Understand the origins, purposes, purposes of ideas and values ideas of our purposes of purpose of laws and philosophy and and functions of U.S. government and the expressed in national republican form of government as stated government, principles upon government, basic constitutional symbols, heroes, and government as in the Constitution provisions to limit including the principles of the patriotic songs of the expressed in the and the specific power, and the which the structure and United States United States. Declaration of provisions that limit ability to meet government of meaning of the U.S. republican form of Independence and the power of changing needs as the United Constitution. government. the Constitution. government in order essential ideas of the States is based. to protect the rights Constitution. of individuals. Know the concept of Distinguish the Understand the “rule of law.” purposes of “supremacy clause” government as stated of the U.S. in the Preamble. Constitution as a means of resolving Understand how the conflicts between power of government state and federal is limited in the law. United States. Understand the Recognize the concept of judicial provisions of the Bill review as a means of of Rights resolving conflict (Amendments 1-10) over the that protect interpretation of the individual rights. Constitution and the actions of government. Understand how to amend the U.S. Constitution and the Oregon Constitution, including how amendments may be introduced, what is required for 5
  6. 6. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals passage, and how the process accommodates changing needs and the preservation of values and principles. Understand the Understand the Identify the primary Identify and Understand the Apply organization, responsibilities and functions of federal, distinguish how interrelationship understanding responsibilities, and interrelationships of state, and local powers and between local, state, of the interrelationships of local, state, and governments. responsibilities are and federal local, state, and national government distributed and government. interrelationship federal governments in the U.S. balanced among the s among the in the United States. federal, state, and structures and local levels. functions of the U.S. Constitution. Identify public Identify the power Understand the safety, and/or responsibility primary function of transportation, of each level of federal, state, and education, and government. local levels of recreation as government and how Understand how responsibilities of the actions of one laws are made and local governments. influence the enforced at the workings of the Know how laws are federal, state, and others. made. local levels. Understand how federalism creates shared and reserved powers at each level of government. Understand the roles Understand the roles Understand the roles Understand the Understand how the of the three branches and powers of the and responsibilities powers of each branches of of government and executive, of the three branches branch of government have 6
  7. 7. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals explain how their legislative, and of government. government as stated powers and powers are judicial branches. in the Constitution. limitations. distributed and shared. Name and Understand the Understand how distinguish the basic idea of checks laws are developed primary function of and balances of each and applied to each branch of branch of the federal provide order, set government at the government. limits, protect basic federal and state rights, and promote Identify the levels. the common good. legislative, executive, and Understand the judicial institutions process by which at each level of laws are developed government. at the federal level, and key differences Understand the between how laws powers and are developed at the responsibilities of federal level and in the executive branch Oregon. of government. Identify and Understand how understand the courts are organized powers and limits to by level and power of the jurisdiction, and that Presidency. law is divided into Constitutional Law, criminal law, and civil law. Understand personal Understand the roles, Identify rights that Identify the rights of Understand citizens’ Understand the role Apply and political rights of rights, and people have in their U.S. citizens. rights and how the of the courts and of understanding citizens in the United responsibilities of communities. Constitution protects the law in protecting of the U.S. States. citizens in the United those rights. the rights of U.S. States. citizens. government’s political system and citizen responsibilities as informed, ethical 7
  8. 8. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals participants. Identify basic rights Identify and Understand how the that are given to understand the Bill of Rights offers citizens of the United rights of citizens protection of States. guaranteed under individual rights and the Bill of Rights. how rights are limited for the benefit of the common good. Understand the role of due process in the protection of individuals. Understand how the rights of citizens have been augmented by case law decisions. 8
  9. 9. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals Understand Understand the Identify ways that Understand how Understand how Understand the civic participatory participatory people can citizens can learn citizens can make responsibilities of responsibilities of obligations of U.S. participate in their about public issues. their voices heard in U.S. citizens and citizens in the citizens. communities and the the political process. how they are met. community responsibilities of (voluntarism) and in participation. the political process (becoming informed about public issues and candidates, joining political parties/interest groups/associations, communicating with public officials, voting, influencing lawmaking through such processes as petitions/initiatives). Identify and give Identify and give Identify the examples of examples of ways responsibilities of resources that that citizens can let citizens in the United provide information their opinions be States and about public issues. known in the understand what an political process. individual can do to meet these responsibilities. Understand how Understand how Identify and give Identify and give Understand how government is individuals, groups, examples of how examples of how government policies influenced and and international individuals can groups and and decisions have changed by support organizations influence the actions organizations can been influenced and and dissent of influence of government. influence the actions changed by individuals, groups, government. of government. individuals, groups, and international and international organizations. organizations. 9
  10. 10. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals Identify and give Identify and give Understand how examples of actions examples of how U.S. political parties citizens can take to groups and have influenced influence organizations can government policy government policy influence and decisions. and decision- government policy Understand the making. or decisions and causes, course, and describe how these impact of the civil actions can lead to rights/equal rights such influence. movements. Understand the Constitutional changes that resulted from major events in the 20th century. Understand how Understand how the Distinguish local and Recognize and give Understand how Understand the nations interact with United States world issues. examples of how actions of the U.S. purposes and each other, how government relates nations interact with government affect functions of major events and issues in and interacts with one another through citizens of both the international other countries can other nations. trade, diplomacy, United States and organizations and the affect citizens in the cultural contacts, other countries. role of the United United States, and treaties, and States in them. how actions and agreements. concepts of democracy and individual rights of the United States can affect other peoples and nations. Know how the Know how the U.S. Understand and give United States makes government affects examples of how treaties with other citizens of other international nations, including countries. organizations Indian nations. influence policies or Know how U.S. decisions. Know how nations government actions demonstrate good with other nations Understand the 10
  11. 11. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals will toward other affect citizens of the purposes and nations in a variety United States. functions of the of ways. United Nations, and the role of the United States in the United Nations. Understand the purpose and function of international humanitarian agencies and special interest advocacy groups, and how the United States interacts with people in other nations through these organizations. Analyze major Understand that there Understand that there Understand various Understand how political systems of are different ways are different ways forms of various forms of the world. for governments to for governments to government. government function be organized and to be organized. in different hold power. situations. Recognize that Compare and Compare and governments are contrast various contrast how various organized in forms of government forms of government different ways. to the United States’ function in similar government. and different situations. Analyze the concepts of political power, authority, conflict, and conflict 11
  12. 12. Common Content Benchmark 1 Benchmark 2 Benchmark 3 CIM PASS Criteria Curriculum Standards (Grade 3) (Grade 5) (Grade 8) Goals management. 12

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