Chapter 3


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  • Chapter 3

    1. 1. <ul><li>Software consists of computer programs and data files that work together to provide a computer with the instructions and data necessary for carrying out a specific type of task </li></ul>What is software? 4 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    2. 2. <ul><li>Software includes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A computer program is a set of detailed, instructions that tells a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Executable files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support modules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data files </li></ul></ul>What kinds of files are included in a typical software product? 5 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    3. 3. <ul><li>Computer programmers write the instructions for the computer programs </li></ul><ul><li>Software publishers distribute the software, they specialize in packaging, marketing, and selling commercial software </li></ul>Programmers and Programming Languages: Who creates computer software? 6 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    4. 4. <ul><li>Most software is designed to provide a task-related environment </li></ul><ul><li>Programmer defines the properties for each element in the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Its height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Its label </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens when you click it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A computer language provides the tools that a programmer uses to create software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Source code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-level languages </li></ul></ul>How does a programmer “write” software? 7 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    5. 5. How does a programmer “write” software? 8 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    6. 6. <ul><li>A compiler translates all of the instructions in a program as a single batch </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting machine language instructions are called the object code </li></ul>How are instructions converted to machine language? 9 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    7. 7. <ul><li>Software is categorized as either application software or system software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Application software is designed to be used for a purpose such as drawing designs, creating documents, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>System software is designed to help the computer carry out the basic operating functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Operating systems, utilities, and drivers </li></ul></ul></ul>Application Software and System Software: How is software categorized? 12 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    8. 8. <ul><li>An operating system (OS) is the master controller for all of the activities that take place within a computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows XP, Mac OS, Linux, UNIX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The operating system also interacts with the application software. </li></ul>Operating System Overview: What does an operating system do? 14 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    9. 9. What does an operating system do? 15 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    10. 10. Why does an operating system need to manage memory? <ul><li>The OS must ensure that instructions and data from one area of memory don’t “leak” into an area allocated to another program </li></ul><ul><li>If it fails, data can get corrupted, programs can “crash” and your computer will display error messages </li></ul>16 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    11. 11. <ul><li>The OS acts as a filing clerk </li></ul><ul><li>It remembers the names and locations of all your files and keeps track of empty spaces where new files can be stored </li></ul>How does the OS keep track of storage resources? 17 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    12. 12. <ul><li>To ensure that they function correctly </li></ul><ul><li>OS controls peripherals to ensure input and output proceeds in an orderly fashion </li></ul>Why does the operating system get involved with peripheral devices? 18 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    13. 13. <ul><li>A user interface can be defined as the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Graphical user interface (GUI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Command-line user interface </li></ul></ul>How does the operating system affect the user interface? 19 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    14. 14. <ul><li>The OS’s small bootstrap program resides in ROM and provides the instructions to load the core parts into memory when system boots </li></ul><ul><li>This component is called the kernel </li></ul>Where is the operating system? 20 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    15. 15. <ul><li>Yes, typically through helpful tools called utilities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Launch programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Get help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Customize the user interface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Configures equipment </li></ul></ul>Do I ever interact directly with the OS? 21 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    16. 16. <ul><li>Developed several years before windows, it still has a GUI interface </li></ul><ul><li>Both have windows, icons, menus and pointers </li></ul>Is Mac OS similar to windows? 23 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    17. 17. Is Mac OS similar to windows? 24 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    18. 18. <ul><li>UNIX was developed in 1969 at AT&T’s Bell Labs </li></ul><ul><li>Linux was developed in 1991 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is distributed under the terms of a General Public License (GPL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Red Hat Linux, Caldera OpenLinux, and Debian GNU/Linux </li></ul></ul></ul>Are Unix and Linux the same? 25 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    19. 19. Are Unix and Linux the same? 26 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    20. 20. What are the options for PDA operating systems? <ul><li>Palm OS </li></ul><ul><li>Windows Mobile OS </li></ul>28 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    21. 21. <ul><li>Word processing software , such as Microsoft Word, is used for producing reports, letters, papers, and manuscripts </li></ul><ul><li>Desktop publishing software helps you use graphic design techniques to enhance the format and appearance of a document </li></ul><ul><li>Web authoring software helps you design and develop customized Web pages </li></ul>Document Production Software: How can my computer help me with my writing? 30 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    22. 22. How does document production software help me turn my ideas into sentences and paragraphs? 31 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    23. 23. <ul><li>The format for a document refers to the way that all the elements of a document are arranged on the page </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Font </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Point size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paragraph alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Line spacing (leading) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style </li></ul></ul>How do I get my documents to look good? 32 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    24. 24. <ul><li>Spreadsheet - numerical model or representation of a real situation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Checkbook </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To use spreadsheet software , you: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enter numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicate how the computer should manipulate those numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spreadsheet software is particularly useful for what-if analysis </li></ul>Spreadsheet Software: What is a spreadsheet? 37 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    25. 25. What does a computerized spreadsheet look like? 39 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    26. 26. What happens when I modify a worksheet? 43 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    27. 27. <ul><li>Statistical software </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematical modeling software </li></ul><ul><li>Money management software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal finance software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tax preparation software </li></ul>Aside from spreadsheets, what other “number crunching” software is available? 44 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    28. 28. <ul><li>Database software helps you to enter, find, organize, update and report information stored in a database </li></ul>Database Software: What is database software? 45 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    29. 29. What is database software? 46 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    30. 30. How do I locate specific data? 49 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    31. 31. <ul><li>You can do the following </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Export data to other programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert the data to other formats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmit data to other computers </li></ul></ul>How can I use search results? 50 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    32. 32. <ul><li>Graphics – refers to any picture, drawing, sketch, photograph, image or icon that appears on your computer screen </li></ul><ul><li>Graphics Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photo editing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D graphics software </li></ul></ul>Graphics Software: What kind of software do I need to work with drawings, photos, and other pictures? 51 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    33. 33. <ul><ul><li>CAD software (computer-aided design software) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slides </li></ul></ul></ul>What kind of software do I need to work with drawings, photos, and other pictures? 52 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    34. 34. <ul><li>Audio editing software – lets you make your own digital voice and music recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 Player </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CD ripper </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>MP3 encoding software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ear training software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Notation software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computer-aided software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Midi sequencing software </li></ul></ul></ul>Music Software: Why would I need music software? 53 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    35. 35. Music Software: Why would I need music software? 54 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    36. 36. <ul><li>Video editing software provides a set of tools for transferring video footage, editing video, adding special effects, and adding a sound track </li></ul>Video Editing Software: Is video editing software difficult to use? 55 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    37. 37. Software Suites: What is a software suite? <ul><li>A collection of application software sold as a single package </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Star Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open Office </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WordPerfect Office </li></ul></ul>56 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    38. 38. <ul><li>Educational software – helps you to learn and practice new skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MindTwister Math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3-D Froggy Phonics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GMAT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LSAT </li></ul></ul>Educational and Reference Software: How can I use my computer to learn new things? 57 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    39. 39. <ul><li>Reference software – provides you with a collection of information and a way to access that information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encyclopedias </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Encarta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grolier’s encyclopedia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comptons encyclopedia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>World Book </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Britannica </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dictionaries </li></ul></ul>What’s reference software? 58 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    40. 40. <ul><li>Over $6 billion of computer and video games are sold each year in the U.S. alone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>90% are people 18 and older </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13% are people over 50 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 43% are women </li></ul></ul>Entertainment Software: What’s the best-selling entertainment software? 59 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    41. 41. <ul><li>Computer games </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Role-playing games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adventure games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Puzzle games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulation games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strategy games </li></ul></ul>What’s the best-selling entertainment software? 60 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    42. 42. <ul><li>Vertical market software </li></ul><ul><li>Horizontal market software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Payroll software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project management software </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Groupware </li></ul>Business Software: Do businesses use specialized software? 61 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    43. 43. <ul><li>The key ingredients necessary to install new software are the files that contain the programs, support modules, and data modules </li></ul><ul><li>Usually supplied on distribution disks </li></ul>Installation Basics: What’s included in a typical software package? 63 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    44. 44. <ul><li>System requirements specify the operating system and minimum hardware requirements necessary for a software product to work correctly </li></ul>How do I know if a software program will work on my computer? 64 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    45. 45. <ul><li>When you install software, the new software files are placed in the appropriate folders on your computer’s hard disk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Copies files from distribution disk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncompresses files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes computer’s resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzes hardware components and peripheral devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Looks for any system files and players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Updates necessary system files </li></ul></ul>Why is it necessary to install most software? 65 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    46. 46. <ul><li>A setup program guides you through the installation process </li></ul><ul><li>Following the program will make installation easy </li></ul>Installing from a Distribution Disk or CD: How do I install software from distribution media? 66 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    47. 47. <ul><li>Sometimes files are zipped , so they must be unzipped </li></ul><ul><li>Other types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-installing software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-executing zip file </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual download and install </li></ul></ul>Installing Downloaded Software: Is the installation process different for downloaded software? 67 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    48. 48. <ul><li>Installing an upgrade is similar to installing a full version </li></ul><ul><li>Update provides a setup file that checks to make sure that your computer contains a valid version of software to upgrade then it guides you through the rest of the upgrade process </li></ul>Is installing a software upgrade different from installing a full version? 68 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    49. 49. <ul><li>Uninstall routine deletes the software’s files </li></ul>Uninstalling Software: How do I get rid of software? 69 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    50. 50. <ul><li>A copyright is a form of legal protection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchaser has right to copy software to a computer’s hard disk in order to install it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchaser can make a backup copy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purchaser is allowed to copy and distribute sections of a software program for use in critical reviews and teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most software displays a copyright notice </li></ul>Software Copyrights: Is it legal to copy software? 70 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    51. 51. <ul><li>A software license is a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use a computer program </li></ul><ul><li>A shrink-wrap license goes into effect as soon as you open the packaging </li></ul>Software Licenses: What is a software license? 71 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    52. 52. <ul><li>An installation agreement is displayed on the screen when you first install the software </li></ul>What is a software license? 72 Chapter 3: Computer Software
    53. 53. <ul><li>Commercial software – typically sold in computers or a Web site </li></ul><ul><li>Shareware – copyrighted software that you “try before you buy” </li></ul><ul><li>Freeware – copyrighted software available for free </li></ul><ul><li>Open source software – makes the source code available to programmers </li></ul><ul><li>Public domain software – not copyrighted, and in public domain </li></ul>Are all software licenses similar? 73 Chapter 3: Computer Software
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