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Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System

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  • 1. Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System 10.1 Application Software 172 10.2 System Software 174
  • 2. 10.1 Application Software
    • Application software
      • also called applications
      • Programs that perform tasks for users
      • A set of tools for completing a specific type of job
    • 1. Productivity Software
    • 2. Graphic and Multimedia Software
    • 3. Home, Personal and Educational Software
    • 4. Communication Software
    Chapter 10 Software
  • 3. Application Software 10.1.1 Productivity software
    • Productivity software
      • also called business software
      • Increases effectiveness/efficiency of routine clerical work
        • e.g. typing, calculation, charting, record handling, presentation and scheduling etc.
      • Including software for
        • Word processing
        • Spreadsheet
        • Accounting
        • Database
        • Presentation
        • Desktop publishing etc.
    10.1 Application Software
  • 4. Application Software 10.1.2 Graphic and multimedia software
    • Graphic and multimedia software
      • Creating/editing multimedia elements
        • e.g. graphics, animation, sound and video
      • Including software for
        • computer-aided design
        • desktop publishing
        • vector/bitmap graphic editing
        • audio/video editing
        • multimedia authoring
        • Web page authoring etc.
    10.1 Application Software
  • 5. Application Software 10.1.3 Home, Personal and Educational Software
      • Software for home users includes
        • home design
        • tax preparation
        • entertainment etc.
      • Software for personal use includes
        • personal finance
        • legal
        • personal information manager etc.
      • Software for educational use includes
        • CAI (computer-aided instruction)
        • CAL (computer-aided learning)
        • clip art/image gallery and encyclopedia etc.
    10.1 Application Software
  • 6. Application Software 10.1.4 Communication Software
    • Communication software
      • Enable people to communicate and share information with others
      • Including
        • e-mail
        • Web browsers
        • chat rooms
        • newsgroups
        • instant messaging
        • FTP programs etc.
    10.1 Application Software
  • 7. 10.2 System Software
    • System software includes three types:
    • 1. Operating System
    • 2. Utility Programs
    • 3. Driver Programs
    Chapter 10 Software
  • 8. System Software 10.2.1 Operating System (1)
    • Operating system (OS)
      • A set of programs
      • Controlling the operation of a computer system
      • Managing resources
      • Providing an interface between users and hardware
    • Without an OS, the programmer have to
      • handle ALL basic functions
        • e.g. displaying text on a screen, sending output to a printer or writing disk files
    10.2 System Software
  • 9. System Software 10.2.1 Operating System (2)
    • For the personal computers, the most popular operating systems are
        • Windows
        • MAC OS
        • Linux
        • IBM OS/2 etc.
    • Functions of an OS
      • 1. Controlling the operations of a computer system
      • 2. Managing resources
      • 3. Providing an user interface
      • 4. Other tasks
      • 5. Time-sharing
    10.2 System Software
  • 10. Operating System 10.2.1.1 Functions of an OS (1)
    • 1. Controlling the operations of Hardware
      • An OS controls the operations of peripherals:
        • (1) recognizing input from keyboard;
        • (2) sending output to display;
        • (3) keeping track of files and directories;
        • (4) communicating with other computers.
      • An OS also controls the operation of CPU:
        • (1) scheduling of programs;
        • (2) allocating memory;
        • (3) loading of the programs;
        • (4) controlling program execution.
    10.2.1 Operating System
  • 11. Operating System 10.2.1.2 Functions of an OS (2)
    • 2. Managing resources
      • An executing program is known as a process
      • Conflicts occur between processes
        • when two or more processes require the same resource (such as memory or printer)
        • Sometimes may lead to system crash
        • Solution: OS handles all the requests and allocates the resources in an orderly manner to avoid crash and improve efficiency.
      • Multi-tasking
        • Load more than one program and switch from one program to another.
        • Through clipboard, data can be transferred between applications
    10.2.1 Operating System
  • 12. Operating System 10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (3)
    • 3. User interface
      • provide an environment for users to access various parts of the computer system easily
      • Two types of user interface:
      • 1. Command line interface
      • 2. Graphical user interface
    10.2.1 Operating System
  • 13. Operating System 10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (4)
    • 1. Command line interface
      • Using text to give instruction to the OS
      • User need to memorise a lot of instructions
    • 2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
      • Displays information in windows
      • User interacts with the interface using pointing device
      • Commands from users are issued by clicking
        • menu,
        • icons,
        • buttons or
        • other graphical objects.
    10.2.1 Operating System
  • 14. Operating System 10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (5)
    • The advantages of GUI are:
      • (1) Intuitive, easy to use;
      • (2) users need not learn a set of instructions to operate the system.
    • The disadvantages of GUI are:
      • (1) Resource demanding
        • uses a lot of processing power, memory, and disk space
        • requires a good graphical display device;
      • (2) Slow for the experienced users
    10.2.1 Operating System
  • 15. Operating System 10.2.1.4 Functions of an OS (6)
    • Other tasks of an OS include:
      • Monitoring performance
        • e.g. The memory and CPU usage. OS may warn users if the resources in the computer system get low.
      • Maintaining security
        • e.g. Allowing only authorised users to log on the system
      • Controlling the network
        • e.g. A File server controls access to a network and provides centralised storage area.
      • Communicating with other OS
        • e.g. A Web server may respond to computers with Windows or MAC OS
    10.2.1 Operating System
  • 16. Operating System 10.2.1.5 Functions of an OS (7)
    • 5. Time sharing
      • For large systems,
        • e.g. Mainframe/Minicomputer
      • Suppose there are 100 users,
      • each given a time slice of 0.01 s to interact with CPU
      • i.e. each user is served 0.01 s in every second.
      • However, all of them will think that they have sole use of the computer!
    10.2.1 Operating System
  • 17. System Software 10.2.2 Utility programs (1)
    • Utility programs (or utilities)
      • Allowing users to manage devices and programs
      • Should be run regularly
      • Some come with the OS
    • Examples
    • File viewer , File compression utility , Diagnostic utility , Uninstaller , Disk scanner , File defragmenter , Backup utility , Screen saver , Anti-virus program
    10.2 System Software
  • 18. System Software 10.2.2.1 Utility programs (2)
    • 1. File viewers
      • Displaying lists of directories and files in storage
      • Copying, deleting and renaming files
      • Example
        • File Explorer included in Windows.
    10.2.2 Utility Programs
  • 19. System Software 10.2.2.2 Utility programs (3)
    • 2. File compression utilities
      • Reducing the size of a file
        • while keeping the content unchanged
      • So that
        • files take up less storage space
        • faster file transmission
      • Examples
        • WinZip and Stuffit
    10.2.2 Utility Programs
  • 20. System Software 10.2.2.3 Utility programs (4)
    • 3. Diagnostic utilities
      • Diagnosing problems
      • Reporting errors
      • Suggesting course of action
      • Example
        • Dr. Watson (included in Windows)
    10.2.2 Utility Programs
  • 21. System Software 10.2.2.4-6 Utility programs (5)
    • 4. Uninstallers
      • Removing applications
    • 5. Disk scanners
      • Detecting and correcting problems on disks
    • 6. File defragmenters
      • Reorganising files and unused space on a hard disk
      • to improve file access
    10.2.2 Utility Programs
  • 22. System Software 10.2.2.7 Utility programs (6)
    • 7. Backup utilities
      • Copying selected files or entire hard disk
      • onto a removable storage medium, like a tape
      • The reverse of backup is restoring
    10.2.2 Utility Programs
  • 23. System Software 10.2.2.8 Utility programs (7)
    • 8. Screen savers
      • Displaying a moving image/blank screen , if idle for a specified time
      • to prevent images permanently etched on the screen
      • Provide security
        • If the computer is idle for a certain period,
        • assume that the user has left his/her seat, then
        • lock the computer to prevent unauthorised access
    10.2.2 Utility Programs
  • 24. System Software 10.2.2.9 Utility programs (8)
    • 9. Anti-virus programs
      • Search the memory, hard disk and incoming files for viruses and
      • remove them
      • Ensure that e-mail attachment with virus will not be saved or executed
      • (For e-mail, viruses mainly exist in the attachement)
      • Auto-update feature
        • Download profiles of new viruses
    10.2.2 Utility Programs
  • 25. System Software 10.2.3 Driver Programs
    • Driver programs
      • also called device drivers
      • Add-on codes for extending an OS
        • Once installed, becomes part of the OS
      • Designed for peripherals devices
      • Providing facts about the devices
      • A driver program may
        • exist in the OS or
        • come with the device
    10.2 System Software