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Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System
 

Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System

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    Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 10 Software of a Computer System 10.1 Application Software 172 10.2 System Software 174
    • 10.1 Application Software
      • Application software
        • also called applications
        • Programs that perform tasks for users
        • A set of tools for completing a specific type of job
      • 1. Productivity Software
      • 2. Graphic and Multimedia Software
      • 3. Home, Personal and Educational Software
      • 4. Communication Software
      Chapter 10 Software
    • Application Software 10.1.1 Productivity software
      • Productivity software
        • also called business software
        • Increases effectiveness/efficiency of routine clerical work
          • e.g. typing, calculation, charting, record handling, presentation and scheduling etc.
        • Including software for
          • Word processing
          • Spreadsheet
          • Accounting
          • Database
          • Presentation
          • Desktop publishing etc.
      10.1 Application Software
    • Application Software 10.1.2 Graphic and multimedia software
      • Graphic and multimedia software
        • Creating/editing multimedia elements
          • e.g. graphics, animation, sound and video
        • Including software for
          • computer-aided design
          • desktop publishing
          • vector/bitmap graphic editing
          • audio/video editing
          • multimedia authoring
          • Web page authoring etc.
      10.1 Application Software
    • Application Software 10.1.3 Home, Personal and Educational Software
        • Software for home users includes
          • home design
          • tax preparation
          • entertainment etc.
        • Software for personal use includes
          • personal finance
          • legal
          • personal information manager etc.
        • Software for educational use includes
          • CAI (computer-aided instruction)
          • CAL (computer-aided learning)
          • clip art/image gallery and encyclopedia etc.
      10.1 Application Software
    • Application Software 10.1.4 Communication Software
      • Communication software
        • Enable people to communicate and share information with others
        • Including
          • e-mail
          • Web browsers
          • chat rooms
          • newsgroups
          • instant messaging
          • FTP programs etc.
      10.1 Application Software
    • 10.2 System Software
      • System software includes three types:
      • 1. Operating System
      • 2. Utility Programs
      • 3. Driver Programs
      Chapter 10 Software
    • System Software 10.2.1 Operating System (1)
      • Operating system (OS)
        • A set of programs
        • Controlling the operation of a computer system
        • Managing resources
        • Providing an interface between users and hardware
      • Without an OS, the programmer have to
        • handle ALL basic functions
          • e.g. displaying text on a screen, sending output to a printer or writing disk files
      10.2 System Software
    • System Software 10.2.1 Operating System (2)
      • For the personal computers, the most popular operating systems are
          • Windows
          • MAC OS
          • Linux
          • IBM OS/2 etc.
      • Functions of an OS
        • 1. Controlling the operations of a computer system
        • 2. Managing resources
        • 3. Providing an user interface
        • 4. Other tasks
        • 5. Time-sharing
      10.2 System Software
    • Operating System 10.2.1.1 Functions of an OS (1)
      • 1. Controlling the operations of Hardware
        • An OS controls the operations of peripherals:
          • (1) recognizing input from keyboard;
          • (2) sending output to display;
          • (3) keeping track of files and directories;
          • (4) communicating with other computers.
        • An OS also controls the operation of CPU:
          • (1) scheduling of programs;
          • (2) allocating memory;
          • (3) loading of the programs;
          • (4) controlling program execution.
      10.2.1 Operating System
    • Operating System 10.2.1.2 Functions of an OS (2)
      • 2. Managing resources
        • An executing program is known as a process
        • Conflicts occur between processes
          • when two or more processes require the same resource (such as memory or printer)
          • Sometimes may lead to system crash
          • Solution: OS handles all the requests and allocates the resources in an orderly manner to avoid crash and improve efficiency.
        • Multi-tasking
          • Load more than one program and switch from one program to another.
          • Through clipboard, data can be transferred between applications
      10.2.1 Operating System
    • Operating System 10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (3)
      • 3. User interface
        • provide an environment for users to access various parts of the computer system easily
        • Two types of user interface:
        • 1. Command line interface
        • 2. Graphical user interface
      10.2.1 Operating System
    • Operating System 10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (4)
      • 1. Command line interface
        • Using text to give instruction to the OS
        • User need to memorise a lot of instructions
      • 2. Graphical User Interface (GUI)
        • Displays information in windows
        • User interacts with the interface using pointing device
        • Commands from users are issued by clicking
          • menu,
          • icons,
          • buttons or
          • other graphical objects.
      10.2.1 Operating System
    • Operating System 10.2.1.3 Functions of an OS (5)
      • The advantages of GUI are:
        • (1) Intuitive, easy to use;
        • (2) users need not learn a set of instructions to operate the system.
      • The disadvantages of GUI are:
        • (1) Resource demanding
          • uses a lot of processing power, memory, and disk space
          • requires a good graphical display device;
        • (2) Slow for the experienced users
      10.2.1 Operating System
    • Operating System 10.2.1.4 Functions of an OS (6)
      • Other tasks of an OS include:
        • Monitoring performance
          • e.g. The memory and CPU usage. OS may warn users if the resources in the computer system get low.
        • Maintaining security
          • e.g. Allowing only authorised users to log on the system
        • Controlling the network
          • e.g. A File server controls access to a network and provides centralised storage area.
        • Communicating with other OS
          • e.g. A Web server may respond to computers with Windows or MAC OS
      10.2.1 Operating System
    • Operating System 10.2.1.5 Functions of an OS (7)
      • 5. Time sharing
        • For large systems,
          • e.g. Mainframe/Minicomputer
        • Suppose there are 100 users,
        • each given a time slice of 0.01 s to interact with CPU
        • i.e. each user is served 0.01 s in every second.
        • However, all of them will think that they have sole use of the computer!
      10.2.1 Operating System
    • System Software 10.2.2 Utility programs (1)
      • Utility programs (or utilities)
        • Allowing users to manage devices and programs
        • Should be run regularly
        • Some come with the OS
      • Examples
      • File viewer , File compression utility , Diagnostic utility , Uninstaller , Disk scanner , File defragmenter , Backup utility , Screen saver , Anti-virus program
      10.2 System Software
    • System Software 10.2.2.1 Utility programs (2)
      • 1. File viewers
        • Displaying lists of directories and files in storage
        • Copying, deleting and renaming files
        • Example
          • File Explorer included in Windows.
      10.2.2 Utility Programs
    • System Software 10.2.2.2 Utility programs (3)
      • 2. File compression utilities
        • Reducing the size of a file
          • while keeping the content unchanged
        • So that
          • files take up less storage space
          • faster file transmission
        • Examples
          • WinZip and Stuffit
      10.2.2 Utility Programs
    • System Software 10.2.2.3 Utility programs (4)
      • 3. Diagnostic utilities
        • Diagnosing problems
        • Reporting errors
        • Suggesting course of action
        • Example
          • Dr. Watson (included in Windows)
      10.2.2 Utility Programs
    • System Software 10.2.2.4-6 Utility programs (5)
      • 4. Uninstallers
        • Removing applications
      • 5. Disk scanners
        • Detecting and correcting problems on disks
      • 6. File defragmenters
        • Reorganising files and unused space on a hard disk
        • to improve file access
      10.2.2 Utility Programs
    • System Software 10.2.2.7 Utility programs (6)
      • 7. Backup utilities
        • Copying selected files or entire hard disk
        • onto a removable storage medium, like a tape
        • The reverse of backup is restoring
      10.2.2 Utility Programs
    • System Software 10.2.2.8 Utility programs (7)
      • 8. Screen savers
        • Displaying a moving image/blank screen , if idle for a specified time
        • to prevent images permanently etched on the screen
        • Provide security
          • If the computer is idle for a certain period,
          • assume that the user has left his/her seat, then
          • lock the computer to prevent unauthorised access
      10.2.2 Utility Programs
    • System Software 10.2.2.9 Utility programs (8)
      • 9. Anti-virus programs
        • Search the memory, hard disk and incoming files for viruses and
        • remove them
        • Ensure that e-mail attachment with virus will not be saved or executed
        • (For e-mail, viruses mainly exist in the attachement)
        • Auto-update feature
          • Download profiles of new viruses
      10.2.2 Utility Programs
    • System Software 10.2.3 Driver Programs
      • Driver programs
        • also called device drivers
        • Add-on codes for extending an OS
          • Once installed, becomes part of the OS
        • Designed for peripherals devices
        • Providing facts about the devices
        • A driver program may
          • exist in the OS or
          • come with the device
      10.2 System Software