Chapter 1 Overheads

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Chapter 1 Overheads

  1. 1. Discuss what you will gain from the study of personal finance. <ul><li>Introduction to the subject of personal finance </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the key components of a financial plan, and </li></ul><ul><li>Outline the steps involved in developing your personal financial plan. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Step 1 Think back to your formative experiences with money and consider what these memories have taught you about who you were then and how they affect who you are today. Step 2 Replace your financial fears with new, positive, empowering messages (i.e. &quot;I have more money than I will ever need&quot;; &quot;I am in control of all my affairs&quot;; &quot;I have the power to put my money in good hands&quot;). Step 3 Be honest with yourself about your current financial status and decide how you want to start spending your money. Step 4 Be responsible to those you love by taking care of these &quot;must-do's&quot;wills, trusts, life insurance, durable power of attorney for health care, long-term-care insurance, and estate planning. Step 5 Respect yourself and your money by investing wisely in retirement plans, stocks, money market accounts, and mutual funds and by eliminating credit card debt. Your actions will give that respect meaning. Step 6 You must trust yourself more than you trust others. Pay attention to your inner voice it will tell you if how and in what you are investing is right for you. Step 7 Give a portion of your money to others. By releasing an anxious grasp on your money, you will open yourself to receive all that is meant to be yours. Step 8 Understand and accept the cycles of money. The setbacks you may have today or next year will not keep you from financial freedom. If you hold on to your goals and dreams, you will get there. Step 9 Learn to recognize true wealth. Money itself will not make you financially free. That comes as a result of only that powerful state of mind which tells us that we are worth far more than our money. “ . . . True financial freedom doesn’t depend on how much money you have. Financial freedom is when you have power over your fears and anxieties instead of the other way around.” -- Suze Orman, The 9 Steps to Financial Freedom, p.2
  3. 3. <ul><li>Financial literacy -- the vocabulary necessary to manage one’s personal finances </li></ul><ul><li>Personal finance -- the study of personal and family resources considered important in achieving financial success. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal financial planning – the process of planning your spending, financing, and investing to optimize your financial situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Financial success -- the achievement of financial aspirations that are desired, planned, or attempted. It is defined by the individual or family that seeks it. </li></ul>Discuss what you will gain from the study of personal finance.
  4. 4. <ul><li>Maximizing Earnings and Wealth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wealth -- an abundance of money, property, investments, and other resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Practicing Efficient Consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We use money for two purposes: consumption and savings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Finding Life Satisfaction </li></ul><ul><li>Reaching Financial Security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial Security -- the comfortable feeling that your financial resources will be adequate to fulfill any needs you have as well as most of your wants. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To reach financial security, first you need to set and prioritize your long-and short-term goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accumulating Wealth for Retirement and an Estate </li></ul>Describe five lifetime financial objectives of most people
  5. 5. Overview of Financial Plan Financial Planning Decisions Your Cash Inflow Your Cash Outflow - Your Net Cash Flows = Value of Your Assets Value of Your Liabilities Your Net Worth - = Use dollars to Increase assets Use dollars to Increase assets
  6. 6. How Financial Planning Affects Your Cash Flow 1. Budgeting and Tax Planning Your Cash Products and Service 5. Investing 4. Income and Asset Protection 2. Managing Liquidity (Cash and Credit Management) 3. Managing expenditures for major purchases $ Credit $ Deposit $ Loans $ Spending $ Investments $ Invest for Retirement $ Insurance $ Income 6.Retirement and Estate Planning
  7. 7. Note: Data are for workers 25 years of age and older. Statistics taken from www.bls.gov/opub/ted/2003/art04.htm
  8. 8. Understanding the Economic Environment of Personal Finance <ul><li>The State of the Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy is a system of managing the productive and employment resources of a country, community, or business. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth is a condition of increasing production and consumption in the economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business cycle (or economic growth) is a wavelike pattern of economic activity that includes temporary phases that undulate from boom to bust. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. 6 Steps of Personal Financial Planning
  10. 10. Phases of the Business (Economic Cycle) Expansion (Prosperity) Recession (or Depression) Recovery Average growth rate expected in economy Business Production and Retail Sales
  11. 11. <ul><li>Make sure the goal you are working for is something you really want, not just something that sounds good. </li></ul><ul><li>One goal cannot contradict any of your other goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop goals in the 6 areas of life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Family and Home. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial and Career </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spiritual and Ethical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical and Health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and Cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental and Educational </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Write your goal in the positive instead of the negative. </li></ul><ul><li>Express your goal in time and unit detail. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your goal is high enough. </li></ul><ul><li>Write your goals down. </li></ul><ul><li>Share your goals with people that will help you achieve them. </li></ul>Goal Setting
  12. 12. Understanding the Economic Environment of Personal Finance <ul><li>The State of the Economy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economy is a system of managing the productive and employment resources of a country, community, or business. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic growth is a condition of increasing production and consumption in the economy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Business cycle (or economic growth) is a wavelike pattern of economic activity that includes temporary phases that undulate from boom to bust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion occurs when production is at a high capacity, unemployment is low, retail sales are high, and prices and interest rates are low or falling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recession is generally a decline in business “a recurring period of decline in total output, income, employment, trade, usually lasting from six months to a year and marked by widespread contractions in many sectors of the economy.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression is a severe downward phase of the economic cycle where unemployment is very high, prices are very low, the level of living decreases sharply, and economic activity virtually ceases. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Understanding the Economic Environment of Personal Finance (cont.) <ul><li>Tracking at least two statistics may help understand the direction of the economy: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gross Domestic Product (GDP) -- the value of all goods and services produced by workers and capital located in the United States, regardless of ownership. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Impact of Inflation <ul><li>Inflation -- a steady rise in the general level of prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Deflation -- falling prices. </li></ul><ul><li>When prices are rising, an individual’s income also must rise to maintain its purchasing power , which is a measure of the goods and services that one’s income will buy. </li></ul><ul><li>Your real income reflects the actual buying power of your nominal income (also called money income .) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Personal Finance Calculations <ul><li>Percentage change in personal income - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(nominal income after raise/nominal income before raise -1) x 100 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For example, if Edward received a $1,600 raise to increase his annual salary from $37,000 to $38,600 during a year with annual inflation of 4%, his personal change in income would be calculated as follows: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>His nominal increase would be: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$ 38,600 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>37,000 = 1.043 -1 x 100 = 4.3% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>However, because inflation was 4%, his real increase was only .3% (4.3% nominal increase – 4% inflation = .3% real increase). In real dollars Edward’s increase would be calculated as follows: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Real income - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>nominal income after raise/1 + previous inflation rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Edward’s real income = </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$38,600 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 + 0.040 = $37,115 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. The Impact of Inflation <ul><li>Inflation -- a steady rise in the general level of prices. </li></ul><ul><li>Deflation -- falling prices. </li></ul><ul><li>When prices are rising, an individual’s income also must rise to maintain its purchasing power , which is a measure of the goods and services that one’s income will buy. </li></ul><ul><li>Your real income reflects the actual buying power of your nominal income (also called money income .) </li></ul><ul><li>Interest is the price of money. Savers make no money when the inflation rate is equal to or higher than their interest rate. In fact, they are worse off -- “going broke slowly.” </li></ul><ul><li>Federal fund rate -- the rate banks charge one another on overnight loans. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Economic Considerations That Affect Decision Making <ul><li>Opportunity Costs -- the value of the next best alternative that must forgone. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunity costs are hard to quantify because most involve personal tastes and preferences “[For many, the] biggest problems in life today . . . Are directly connected with their early, formative experience with money.” (9 Steps to Financial Freedom, p. 7). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utility -- the ability of a good or service to satisfy a human want. </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal Utility -- the extra satisfaction derived from having one more incremental unit of a product or service. </li></ul><ul><li>Marginal Costs -- the additional cost of one more incremental unit of some item. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Effect of Compound Interest
  19. 19. Income Taxes in Decision Making <ul><li>Marginal Tax Rate -- is the tax rate at which your last dollar earned is taxed. </li></ul>Assume Juanita has taxable income of $32,000 and receives a $1,000 bonus from her employer. Juanita’s federal tax rate is 28% and her state tax rate is 6%. What is Juanita’s effective marginal tax rate ? 1,000 x .28 = $280.00 Federal taxes 1,000 x .06 = $ 60.00 State taxes 1,000 x . 0765 = $ 76.50 Social Security Taxes Total Taxes .4165 $416.40
  20. 20. Tax Sheltered Returns Are Greater Than Taxable Returns
  21. 21. The Time Value of Money in Decision Making <ul><li>Time value of money is the idea that paying or receiving money over time is affected by the fact that money can earn a positive rate of return over time. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For example, if you were to win the lottery and be offered the choice to receive a lump sum of $1,000,000 now or payments of $60,000 per year for 20 years for a total of $1,200,000. The more favorable answer for you depends upon the interest rate you could earn on your investment. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Present value (or discounted value) is the current value of an asset that will be received in the future. </li></ul><ul><li>Future value is the valuation of an asset projected to the end of a particular time period in the future. </li></ul>Basic calculations: FV = (Present value of sum of money)( I + 1.0)(I + 1.0)(I + 1.0) . . . Or FV = (PV)(1 + I) n PV = (FV)(1 + I) -n (Calculation assumes compound interest)
  22. 22. The Time Value of Money in Decision Making <ul><li>Assume you have the option of two different investment options. First, a friend wanted to borrow $5,000 for three years and pay you back $6,000 in a lump sum. Second, you could invest the same $5,000 for three years in a government bond paying 7 percent annual interest. Which investment would be the best financial decision? </li></ul>FV = (PV)(1 + I) n = (5,000)(1+.07) 3 = 5,000 x 1.225043 = $6,125.22 You would earn $125.22 more by investing in the government bonds.
  23. 23. Future Value of $1 After a Given Number of Periods
  24. 25. The Difference Between Simple Interest and Compound Interest <ul><li>Simple Interest is the interest computed on principal only Interest = Principle x Rate x Time or I = P x R x T. </li></ul><ul><li>Compound Interest is the calculation of interest on interest as well as interest on the original investment. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Rule of 72 <ul><li>A handy formula to calculate the number of years it takes to double principal using compound interest is the Rule of 72 . You simply divide the interest rate the money will earn into the number 72. For example, if interest is compounded at a rate of 7 % per year, your principle will double every 10.3 years. If the rate is 6 %, it will take 12 years.The rule of 72 also works for determining how long it would take for the price of something to double given a rate of increase in the price. For example, if college tuition costs are rising 8 % per year, the cost of college education doubles in just over nine years. </li></ul>
  26. 27. How Work Decisions Affect Success in Personal Finance <ul><li>Fringe Benefit is compensation for employment that does not take form of wages, salaries, commissions, or other cash payments. Examples include paid holidays, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Some fringe benefits are tax-sheltered, such as a flexible spending accounts and retirement accounts. </li></ul>
  27. 28. How Work Decisions Affect Success in Personal Finance <ul><li>Fringe Benefit is compensation for employment that does not take form of wages, salaries, commissions, or other cash payments. Examples include paid holidays, health insurance, and a retirement plan. Some fringe benefits are tax-sheltered, such as a flexible spending accounts and retirement accounts. </li></ul>The Positive Effects of a Flexible Spending Account Without With Flexible Spending the Plan The Plan Account Monthly salary $2,500 $2,500 -- To FSA account -- (410) $410 Taxable salary $2,500 $2,090 Income tax* (248) (186) Social Security tax (191) (160) Salary after taxes $2,061 $1,744 Medical and/or Dependent care expenses (410) (410) Take home pay $1,651 $1,344 FSA reimbursement -- 410 (410) Effective take home pay $1,651 $1,744
  28. 29. 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Initial Goal Setting Home Purchase Insurance Planning Saving for Goals-Pay Yourself First Family Formation Age $ Tax and Estate Planning Reassessment of Retirement Goals Stage 1 Early years-A time of Wealth accumulation Stage 2 Approaching Retirement-The Golden Years Stage 3 The Retirement Years A Typical Individual’s Financial Life Cycle
  29. 30. Steps in Successful Management of Personal Finance Retirement and estate planning Investment planning Income and asset protection Managing expenditures Cash and credit management Financial planning Lifetime Financial Objectives Accumulate wealth for retirement Reach financial security Find life satisfaction Practice efficient consumption Maximize earnings and wealth Wealth
  30. 31. The Building Blocks of Financial Success Achieve Invest Handle Manage Establish Base Foundation Stocks and Bonds Mutual Funds Real Estate Installment Loans Education Costs Credit Cards Pension Plans Transportation Expenses Organized Financial Records Housing Expenses Insurance Expenses Savings Accounts Realistic Budget Short-Term Goals Long-Term Goals Contingencies Income Taxes Emergency Savings Fund Insurance Protection Employee Fringe Benefits Checking Account Savings Account Money Market Account Use of regular income to provide basic lifestyle and savings to meet emergencies Financially Successful Life
  31. 32. Good Debt vs. Bad Debt <ul><li>Debt incurred for consumption is bad debt . </li></ul>Bad Debt = Debt Danger Ratio Annual Income Debt Danger Ratio beyond 25% can spell trouble.

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