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2. Software


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  • 1. B.A. (Mahayana Studies) 000-209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 - March 2006 2. Software
    • What is software? What are the main types of software? Are there alternatives to expensive commercial software?
    • Your computer's operating system (OS).
  • 2. Overview
    • 1. What is Software?
    • 2. Choosing Software
    • 3. Types of Application Software
      • office, educational, network, financial, entertainment, groupware, utilities
    • 4. What is a Software License?
    • 5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
      • shareware and freeware
  • 3.
    • 6. The Operating System
      • your computer's manager
    • 7. Types of OSes
      • desktop and server
    • 8. Multimedia Applications
  • 4. 1. What is Software?
    • Software is the instructions and its data, stored in electronic form, that tell the computer how to do a task.
    • Software is a computer program .
  • 5.
    • Application software helps the user carry out his tasks
      • e.g. word processing, games, business
    • System software helps the computer carry out its tasks.
      • e.g. draw the GUI, print, manage files
      • the operating system is the main systems software on a computer
        • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X, DOS
    Types of Software
  • 6.
    • A computer program is a set of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out some task.
    • A computer program is written in a computer programming language .
    • Example programming languages:
      • Visual Basic, C, C++, Java, Pascal
    What is a Computer Program?
  • 7. A Pascal Program
  • 8.
    • Decide on the type of software you want.
    • Make sure the software is written for your computer
      • e.g. it works on a PC or Macintosh
    • Make sure the software will work with your operating system.
      • e.g it works on Microsoft XP or Mac OS X
    • Choose between commercial software, shareware, or freeware.
    2. Choosing Software software compatibility
  • 9.
    • To be compatible, software must be:
      • written for the type of computer you use
      • written for your computer’s operating system
    • System requirements list operating system and hardware needs for the software to work
      • they will be listed somewhere in the software package (e.g. on the box)
    Software Compatibility
  • 10. 3. Types of Application Software
    • There are many types:
      • office, educational, network, financial, entertainment, groupware, utilities, etc.
    • Application software costs money and usually requires the user to sign/agree to a user license.
  • 11. Office Software
    • Office software package several applications together. They often include:
      • Word processing, spreadsheets, databases, slides, drawing e-mail, etc.
      • e.g. Microsoft Office
  • 12. Educational Software
    • There is educational and training software for people of all ages.
  • 13.
    • C onnect your computer to your local network/Internet/Web:
      • e-mail software
      • Web browsers
    Network Software
  • 14.
    • The Internet is the world’s computer network.
      • connects millions of computers, in 100+ countries
      • provides many services, (e-mail, file transfer), but the most popular is the World Wide Web, or Web
    • Started as the ARPANET in 1969
      • a military network academic research network commercial network.
    The Internet
  • 15. The Web
    • The Web presents the user with documents, called Web pages, which can include:
      • text, images, video, animation, sound
    • A Web page can contain links (URLs) to other pages.
    • A user can follow a link to another page ("surf") by using a Web browser.
  • 16. Financial Software
    • Personal finance software helps with:
      • bank accounts, investments, credit card balances
    • Some packages also support online banking:
      • downloading transactions, transferring funds, paying bills
  • 17. Entertainment Software
    • Each year, worldwide computer and video game software sales exceed $15 billion.
  • 18. Groupware Software
    • Groupware allows a group of users on a network to work together on a project.
    • Groupware may provide services for communicating (such as e-mail), group document development, scheduling, and tracking.
    • Documents can include text, images, or other types of data.
  • 19.
    • Groupware products include:
      • Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Novell GroupWise, Netscape SuiteSpot, Team Talk, NetMeeting
  • 20. Utility Software
    • Utilities are system software that extends the basic operating system.
      • e.g. print more easily, change/extend the GUI, fix damaged files, and virus protection
  • 21.
    • A software license is a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use the software.
    • Opening the software CD's wrapping means that you agree to the software license
      • sometimes called a shrink-wrap license
    4. What is a Software License?
  • 22.
    • A single-user license limits the use of the software to only one user at a time. Most commercial software is distributed with a single-user license.
    • A multiple-user license allows more than one person to use a particular software package.
    • A concurrent-use license allows a certain number of copies of the software to be used at the same time.
    • A site license allows the software to be used on all computers at a specific location.
    Types of Licenses
  • 23. 5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
    • Almost every type of commercial software has shareware/freeware alternatives:
      • programs that do the same things, but..
        • cost much less, or nothing
        • do not have complex license agreements
  • 24.
    • Shareware is software that you can try before you buy it.
      • use the software for a certain amount of time for free
      • if you want to continue using it, you must pay a registration fee
    • Freeware is software that costs nothing
      • it may be freely copied and distributed
    Shareware and Freeware
  • 25. Where to get Shareware/Freeware?
    • There are many Web sites that list them.
      • tucows,
      • CNET,
  • 26.
    • Downloadable software is usually stored in a self-extracting file
      • a single file that holds all of the modules for the software
      • download sites include instructions for downloading
      • once on your machine, you usually double-click on the file to extract the software
  • 27. Other Free Sites
    • The Web (Internet) is a source of free software.
    • Be careful.
    • Strange software can do nasty things to your machine.
    • Make sure you trust the software site.
  • 28.
    • An operating system (OS) controls/manages all the activities in a computer.
      • Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and DOS
    • The operating system helps the application software and the hardware talk to each other.
    6. The Operating System (OS)
  • 29. OS Diagram The OS helps the application software and hardware talk to each other.
  • 30.
    • External services
      • help users start programs, manage data, and maintain security
    • Internal services
      • help the computer system function efficiently
    • A system resource is part of a computer system.
      • e.g. disk drive space, memory, processor time
    OS Services
  • 31.
    • Desktop OSes
      • for single-user micros
      • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X
    • Server OSes
      • for computers that provide storage and communication for networks and Web sites
    7. Types of OSes
  • 32.
    • Microsoft Windows supports lots of application software and peripherals.
    • Current versions of Windows include Windows XP, 2000, Me, 98
    MS Windows
  • 33.
    • DOS stands for disk operating system.
      • a command line OS without a GUI
      • the first Microsoft OS
      • is now part of Windows
    What is (was) DOS?
  • 34. Mac OS X
    • An operating system with a GUI developed by Apple Computers, based on UNIX.
    • Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS operating system for Macintosh computers.
  • 35. Linux
    • A free Unix-type operating system, originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers around the world.
    • A mixed GUI and command line interface.
  • 36. UNIX
    • A free, multi-user, multitasking operating system that is widely used in workstations and servers.
    • It was developed by AT&T in 1969, and was very important in the development of the Internet.
    • There are now many versions of UNIX, made by different companies, universities, and individuals
      • e.g Linux, FreeBSD, Knoppix
  • 37.
    • Three popular server OSes are
      • Microsoft Windows NT Server
      • Windows 2000 Server.
      • Novell NetWare
    • Linux and UNIX are also used as server OSes.
      • they are free
    Servers OSes
  • 38.
    • A multimedia application combines many types of computer-based media:
      • text, graphics, sound, animation, photos, video
    • This requires more complex (expensive) hardware.
    8. Multimedia Applications
  • 39. Multimedia Hardware
  • 40.
    • Multimedia requires sound and graphics capability.
    • A sound card lets the computer record and play sounds.
      • connect speakers, headphone, microphone
    Multimedia Requirements continued
  • 41.
    • A graphics card takes data from the OS and draws it onto the screen.
    • A graphics card usually requires special software, called a device driver.
    • A device driver helps the OS control peripherals, such as a graphics card, sound card, printers, modems, etc.