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2. Software

2. Software






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    2. Software 2. Software Presentation Transcript

    • B.A. (Mahayana Studies) 000-209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 - March 2006 2. Software
      • What is software? What are the main types of software? Are there alternatives to expensive commercial software?
      • Your computer's operating system (OS).
    • Overview
      • 1. What is Software?
      • 2. Choosing Software
      • 3. Types of Application Software
        • office, educational, network, financial, entertainment, groupware, utilities
      • 4. What is a Software License?
      • 5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
        • shareware and freeware
      • 6. The Operating System
        • your computer's manager
      • 7. Types of OSes
        • desktop and server
      • 8. Multimedia Applications
    • 1. What is Software?
      • Software is the instructions and its data, stored in electronic form, that tell the computer how to do a task.
      • Software is a computer program .
      • Application software helps the user carry out his tasks
        • e.g. word processing, games, business
      • System software helps the computer carry out its tasks.
        • e.g. draw the GUI, print, manage files
        • the operating system is the main systems software on a computer
          • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X, DOS
      Types of Software
      • A computer program is a set of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out some task.
      • A computer program is written in a computer programming language .
      • Example programming languages:
        • Visual Basic, C, C++, Java, Pascal
      What is a Computer Program?
    • A Pascal Program
      • Decide on the type of software you want.
      • Make sure the software is written for your computer
        • e.g. it works on a PC or Macintosh
      • Make sure the software will work with your operating system.
        • e.g it works on Microsoft XP or Mac OS X
      • Choose between commercial software, shareware, or freeware.
      2. Choosing Software software compatibility
      • To be compatible, software must be:
        • written for the type of computer you use
        • written for your computer’s operating system
      • System requirements list operating system and hardware needs for the software to work
        • they will be listed somewhere in the software package (e.g. on the box)
      Software Compatibility
    • 3. Types of Application Software
      • There are many types:
        • office, educational, network, financial, entertainment, groupware, utilities, etc.
      • Application software costs money and usually requires the user to sign/agree to a user license.
    • Office Software
      • Office software package several applications together. They often include:
        • Word processing, spreadsheets, databases, slides, drawing e-mail, etc.
        • e.g. Microsoft Office
    • Educational Software
      • There is educational and training software for people of all ages.
      • C onnect your computer to your local network/Internet/Web:
        • e-mail software
        • Web browsers
      Network Software
      • The Internet is the world’s computer network.
        • connects millions of computers, in 100+ countries
        • provides many services, (e-mail, file transfer), but the most popular is the World Wide Web, or Web
      • Started as the ARPANET in 1969
        • a military network academic research network commercial network.
      The Internet
    • The Web
      • The Web presents the user with documents, called Web pages, which can include:
        • text, images, video, animation, sound
      • A Web page can contain links (URLs) to other pages.
      • A user can follow a link to another page ("surf") by using a Web browser.
    • Financial Software
      • Personal finance software helps with:
        • bank accounts, investments, credit card balances
      • Some packages also support online banking:
        • downloading transactions, transferring funds, paying bills
    • Entertainment Software
      • Each year, worldwide computer and video game software sales exceed $15 billion.
    • Groupware Software
      • Groupware allows a group of users on a network to work together on a project.
      • Groupware may provide services for communicating (such as e-mail), group document development, scheduling, and tracking.
      • Documents can include text, images, or other types of data.
      • Groupware products include:
        • Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Novell GroupWise, Netscape SuiteSpot, Team Talk, NetMeeting
    • Utility Software
      • Utilities are system software that extends the basic operating system.
        • e.g. print more easily, change/extend the GUI, fix damaged files, and virus protection
      • A software license is a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use the software.
      • Opening the software CD's wrapping means that you agree to the software license
        • sometimes called a shrink-wrap license
      4. What is a Software License?
      • A single-user license limits the use of the software to only one user at a time. Most commercial software is distributed with a single-user license.
      • A multiple-user license allows more than one person to use a particular software package.
      • A concurrent-use license allows a certain number of copies of the software to be used at the same time.
      • A site license allows the software to be used on all computers at a specific location.
      Types of Licenses
    • 5. Alternatives to Commercial Software
      • Almost every type of commercial software has shareware/freeware alternatives:
        • programs that do the same things, but..
          • cost much less, or nothing
          • do not have complex license agreements
      • Shareware is software that you can try before you buy it.
        • use the software for a certain amount of time for free
        • if you want to continue using it, you must pay a registration fee
      • Freeware is software that costs nothing
        • it may be freely copied and distributed
      Shareware and Freeware
    • Where to get Shareware/Freeware?
      • There are many Web sites that list them.
        • tucows, http://www.tucows.com/
        • CNET Download.com, http://www.download.com
      • Downloadable software is usually stored in a self-extracting file
        • a single file that holds all of the modules for the software
        • download sites include instructions for downloading
        • once on your machine, you usually double-click on the file to extract the software
    • Other Free Sites
      • The Web (Internet) is a source of free software.
      • Be careful.
      • Strange software can do nasty things to your machine.
      • Make sure you trust the software site.
      • An operating system (OS) controls/manages all the activities in a computer.
        • Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and DOS
      • The operating system helps the application software and the hardware talk to each other.
      6. The Operating System (OS)
    • OS Diagram The OS helps the application software and hardware talk to each other.
      • External services
        • help users start programs, manage data, and maintain security
      • Internal services
        • help the computer system function efficiently
      • A system resource is part of a computer system.
        • e.g. disk drive space, memory, processor time
      OS Services
      • Desktop OSes
        • for single-user micros
        • e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X
      • Server OSes
        • for computers that provide storage and communication for networks and Web sites
      7. Types of OSes
      • Microsoft Windows supports lots of application software and peripherals.
      • Current versions of Windows include Windows XP, 2000, Me, 98
      MS Windows
      • DOS stands for disk operating system.
        • a command line OS without a GUI
        • the first Microsoft OS
        • is now part of Windows
      What is (was) DOS?
    • Mac OS X
      • An operating system with a GUI developed by Apple Computers, based on UNIX.
      • Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS operating system for Macintosh computers.
    • Linux
      • A free Unix-type operating system, originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers around the world.
      • A mixed GUI and command line interface.
    • UNIX
      • A free, multi-user, multitasking operating system that is widely used in workstations and servers.
      • It was developed by AT&T in 1969, and was very important in the development of the Internet.
      • There are now many versions of UNIX, made by different companies, universities, and individuals
        • e.g Linux, FreeBSD, Knoppix
      • Three popular server OSes are
        • Microsoft Windows NT Server
        • Windows 2000 Server.
        • Novell NetWare
      • Linux and UNIX are also used as server OSes.
        • they are free
      Servers OSes
      • A multimedia application combines many types of computer-based media:
        • text, graphics, sound, animation, photos, video
      • This requires more complex (expensive) hardware.
      8. Multimedia Applications
    • Multimedia Hardware
      • Multimedia requires sound and graphics capability.
      • A sound card lets the computer record and play sounds.
        • connect speakers, headphone, microphone
      Multimedia Requirements continued
      • A graphics card takes data from the OS and draws it onto the screen.
      • A graphics card usually requires special software, called a device driver.
      • A device driver helps the OS control peripherals, such as a graphics card, sound card, printers, modems, etc.