2. Software


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2. Software

  1. 1. B.A. (Mahayana Studies) 000-209 Introduction to Computer Science November 2005 - March 2006 2. Software <ul><li>What is software? What are the main types of software? Are there alternatives to expensive commercial software? </li></ul><ul><li>Your computer's operating system (OS). </li></ul>
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>1. What is Software? </li></ul><ul><li>2. Choosing Software </li></ul><ul><li>3. Types of Application Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>office, educational, network, financial, entertainment, groupware, utilities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. What is a Software License? </li></ul><ul><li>5. Alternatives to Commercial Software </li></ul><ul><ul><li>shareware and freeware </li></ul></ul>continued
  3. 3. <ul><li>6. The Operating System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>your computer's manager </li></ul></ul><ul><li>7. Types of OSes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>desktop and server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>8. Multimedia Applications </li></ul>
  4. 4. 1. What is Software? <ul><li>Software is the instructions and its data, stored in electronic form, that tell the computer how to do a task. </li></ul><ul><li>Software is a computer program . </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Application software helps the user carry out his tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. word processing, games, business </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System software helps the computer carry out its tasks. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. draw the GUI, print, manage files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the operating system is the main systems software on a computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X, DOS </li></ul></ul></ul>Types of Software
  6. 6. <ul><li>A computer program is a set of instructions that tells a computer how to carry out some task. </li></ul><ul><li>A computer program is written in a computer programming language . </li></ul><ul><li>Example programming languages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual Basic, C, C++, Java, Pascal </li></ul></ul>What is a Computer Program?
  7. 7. A Pascal Program
  8. 8. <ul><li>Decide on the type of software you want. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure the software is written for your computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. it works on a PC or Macintosh </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Make sure the software will work with your operating system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g it works on Microsoft XP or Mac OS X </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Choose between commercial software, shareware, or freeware. </li></ul>2. Choosing Software software compatibility
  9. 9. <ul><li>To be compatible, software must be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>written for the type of computer you use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>written for your computer’s operating system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System requirements list operating system and hardware needs for the software to work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they will be listed somewhere in the software package (e.g. on the box) </li></ul></ul>Software Compatibility
  10. 10. 3. Types of Application Software <ul><li>There are many types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>office, educational, network, financial, entertainment, groupware, utilities, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application software costs money and usually requires the user to sign/agree to a user license. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Office Software <ul><li>Office software package several applications together. They often include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word processing, spreadsheets, databases, slides, drawing e-mail, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Microsoft Office </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Educational Software <ul><li>There is educational and training software for people of all ages. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>C onnect your computer to your local network/Internet/Web: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e-mail software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web browsers </li></ul></ul>Network Software
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Internet is the world’s computer network. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connects millions of computers, in 100+ countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides many services, (e-mail, file transfer), but the most popular is the World Wide Web, or Web </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Started as the ARPANET in 1969 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a military network academic research network commercial network. </li></ul></ul>The Internet
  15. 15. The Web <ul><li>The Web presents the user with documents, called Web pages, which can include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>text, images, video, animation, sound </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A Web page can contain links (URLs) to other pages. </li></ul><ul><li>A user can follow a link to another page (&quot;surf&quot;) by using a Web browser. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Financial Software <ul><li>Personal finance software helps with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bank accounts, investments, credit card balances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some packages also support online banking: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>downloading transactions, transferring funds, paying bills </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Entertainment Software <ul><li>Each year, worldwide computer and video game software sales exceed $15 billion. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Groupware Software <ul><li>Groupware allows a group of users on a network to work together on a project. </li></ul><ul><li>Groupware may provide services for communicating (such as e-mail), group document development, scheduling, and tracking. </li></ul><ul><li>Documents can include text, images, or other types of data. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Groupware products include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lotus Notes, Microsoft Exchange, Novell GroupWise, Netscape SuiteSpot, Team Talk, NetMeeting </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Utility Software <ul><li>Utilities are system software that extends the basic operating system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. print more easily, change/extend the GUI, fix damaged files, and virus protection </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>A software license is a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use the software. </li></ul><ul><li>Opening the software CD's wrapping means that you agree to the software license </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sometimes called a shrink-wrap license </li></ul></ul>4. What is a Software License?
  22. 22. <ul><li>A single-user license limits the use of the software to only one user at a time. Most commercial software is distributed with a single-user license. </li></ul><ul><li>A multiple-user license allows more than one person to use a particular software package. </li></ul><ul><li>A concurrent-use license allows a certain number of copies of the software to be used at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>A site license allows the software to be used on all computers at a specific location. </li></ul>Types of Licenses
  23. 23. 5. Alternatives to Commercial Software <ul><li>Almost every type of commercial software has shareware/freeware alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>programs that do the same things, but.. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cost much less, or nothing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>do not have complex license agreements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Shareware is software that you can try before you buy it. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use the software for a certain amount of time for free </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>if you want to continue using it, you must pay a registration fee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Freeware is software that costs nothing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it may be freely copied and distributed </li></ul></ul>Shareware and Freeware
  25. 25. Where to get Shareware/Freeware? <ul><li>There are many Web sites that list them. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tucows, http://www.tucows.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CNET Download.com, http://www.download.com </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>Downloadable software is usually stored in a self-extracting file </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a single file that holds all of the modules for the software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>download sites include instructions for downloading </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>once on your machine, you usually double-click on the file to extract the software </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Other Free Sites <ul><li>The Web (Internet) is a source of free software. </li></ul><ul><li>Be careful. </li></ul><ul><li>Strange software can do nasty things to your machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure you trust the software site. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>An operating system (OS) controls/manages all the activities in a computer. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows, Mac OS, and DOS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The operating system helps the application software and the hardware talk to each other. </li></ul>6. The Operating System (OS)
  29. 29. OS Diagram The OS helps the application software and hardware talk to each other.
  30. 30. <ul><li>External services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help users start programs, manage data, and maintain security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internal services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>help the computer system function efficiently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A system resource is part of a computer system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. disk drive space, memory, processor time </li></ul></ul>OS Services
  31. 31. <ul><li>Desktop OSes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for single-user micros </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g. Windows XP, Mac OS X </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Server OSes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>for computers that provide storage and communication for networks and Web sites </li></ul></ul>7. Types of OSes
  32. 32. <ul><li>Microsoft Windows supports lots of application software and peripherals. </li></ul><ul><li>Current versions of Windows include Windows XP, 2000, Me, 98 </li></ul>MS Windows
  33. 33. <ul><li>DOS stands for disk operating system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a command line OS without a GUI </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the first Microsoft OS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is now part of Windows </li></ul></ul>What is (was) DOS?
  34. 34. Mac OS X <ul><li>An operating system with a GUI developed by Apple Computers, based on UNIX. </li></ul><ul><li>Mac OS X is the latest version of the Mac OS operating system for Macintosh computers. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Linux <ul><li>A free Unix-type operating system, originally created by Linus Torvalds with the assistance of developers around the world. </li></ul><ul><li>A mixed GUI and command line interface. </li></ul>
  36. 36. UNIX <ul><li>A free, multi-user, multitasking operating system that is widely used in workstations and servers. </li></ul><ul><li>It was developed by AT&T in 1969, and was very important in the development of the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>There are now many versions of UNIX, made by different companies, universities, and individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g Linux, FreeBSD, Knoppix </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Three popular server OSes are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microsoft Windows NT Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Windows 2000 Server. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Linux and UNIX are also used as server OSes. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>they are free </li></ul></ul>Servers OSes
  38. 38. <ul><li>A multimedia application combines many types of computer-based media: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>text, graphics, sound, animation, photos, video </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This requires more complex (expensive) hardware. </li></ul>8. Multimedia Applications
  39. 39. Multimedia Hardware
  40. 40. <ul><li>Multimedia requires sound and graphics capability. </li></ul><ul><li>A sound card lets the computer record and play sounds. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>connect speakers, headphone, microphone </li></ul></ul>Multimedia Requirements continued
  41. 41. <ul><li>A graphics card takes data from the OS and draws it onto the screen. </li></ul><ul><li>A graphics card usually requires special software, called a device driver. </li></ul><ul><li>A device driver helps the OS control peripherals, such as a graphics card, sound card, printers, modems, etc. </li></ul>