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Survey research
 

Survey research

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creat by sir Naveed Iqbal

creat by sir Naveed Iqbal

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    Survey research Survey research Presentation Transcript

    • Survey Research(Special emphasis on Questionnaire) Naveed Iqbal Ch.
    • Surveys (A Thumbnail Introduction) “ A type of research to collect the data and facts bout some certain situation or issue from the target population existing in surroundings having relevance to the nature of study.” “ Survey research is the research strategy to study the relationships and characteristics.”
    •  “surveys are based on the desire to collect information (usually by questionnaire) about a well defined issue or situation (hypothesis) from the well defined population” Surveys are method of data collection in which information is gathered through oral or written questioning”
    •  “Data collection through survey involves persuasion of respondents and then on some level social interaction between the respondents and the research interviewer” A team effort of many people having diverse skills. surveys are now used in all areas of life. For example business, politics, agriculture, industry, education, media etc.
    • Why surveys? (Purpose & Uses) To provide someone with information (to describe the situations). To explain the situations (analytical surveys). Problem identification & solving. To measure the change. To study attitudes, behavior and habits.
    •  To examine the cause-effect relationship. To study the characteristics. To formulate a hypothesis. To test a hypothesis. Decision making.
    • Types Of Surveys: Descriptive Survey“A descriptive survey attempts to picture or document current conditions or attitudes that is, to describe what exists at the moment”Examples: Audience survey to determine the program taste. To study the changing values, life style by the effect of some special type of program.
    • Analytical Surveys “An analytical survey attempts to describe and explain WHY certain situations exist. Here we examine two, or more variable to test our research hypothesis”Examples: How life-style effects the t.v. viewing habits. Impact of war games on teenagers.
    • Some more types… 1- Factual surveys. (respondents act as reporters). 2- Opinion surveys. (respondents expresses his view point opinion). 3-Interpretative surveys. (interpretation ) Example: Why do you read newspapers?
    • Steps in the Process of Survey ResearchStep 1:- Develop Hypotheses. Decide on type of survey (mail, interview, telephone). Write survey questions. Decide on response categories. Design layout.
    • Step 2:- Plan how to record data. Pilot test survey instrument. Revise the instrument.
    • Step 3:- Decide on target population. Get sampling frame. Decide on sampling size. Select sample.
    • Step 4:- Locate respondents. Conduct interviews. Carefully record data.
    • Step 5 :- Enter data into computers. Recheck all data. Perform statistical analysis on data.
    • Step 6:- Describe methods and findings in research report. Present findings to others for critique and evaluation.
    • Three Methods of survey  Mailed questionnaire.  Personal interview.  Telephone interview.
    • The Mailed Questionnaire It is one of the most important data collection survey method. Mail survey involves sending a cover letter and a questionnaire to a specific person.
    • Advantages Low cost. Reduction in biasing errors. Greater anonymity. Accessibility. Less time & trained staff.
    • Disadvantages Requires simple questions. No probing opportunity. No control over WHO fills? Low response rate.
    • Personal InterviewsInterviewing is a form ofquestioning characterizedby the fact that it employsverbal questioning.Together with thequestionnaire , interviewsmake up the surveymethod, which is one of themost popular technique ofdata collection.
    • Advantages Flexibility in questioning. Control over the interview situation. High response rate. Collection of supplement data.
    • Disadvantages Higher cost. Interviewer bias. Respondent’s hesitation on sensitive topics. Greater staff requirement.
    • Telephone Interview Telephone interview demonstrates the same structural characteristics as standard interviewing technique, except that it is conducted by telephone.
    • Advantages Moderate cost. Less time consumption. Higher response rate. Quality ……(Supervision , Recording)
    • Disadvantages Hesitation to discuss sensitive topics. The “Broken-Off ”interviews. No supplement information.
    • Mailed Questionnaire Introduction Mail survey involves sending a cover letter and a questionnaire to a specific person. The cover letter states the purpose sponsor instructions and time of return. The questionnaire---- totally self explanatory, clear and simple.
    • Advantages of Questionnaire Less expensive (no need of interviewers). Quick results. Less opportunity for bias and errors. Wide coverage Respondents may use personal records. Collection of data about sensitive topics. Less time consumption. High response rate.
    • Disadvantages Many factors effect on response rate Low education. Disliking to write. Disliking to read. No interest in the topic. No further explanations Lack of understanding of respondents. We receive minimum amount of in formations against open ended questions.
    • Disadvantages No probing and clarification. No identity of the respondent.(some one else can also fill). No supervision- partial responses.
    • When to design? 1-The problem SOP PSM 2-Literature review. 3-Hypothesis (Variables, Operationalization) 4-Literature review. 5-Sampling. 6-Questionnaire construction
    • Sampling “The process of choosing some representative members from the target population”1- Probability Sampling.2- Non-Probability Sampling.
    • Probability Sampling Simple random sampling. Systematic sampling. Cluster sampling. Stratified random sampling. Multi phase sampling. Multi stage sampling. Panel studies. Spatial sampling.
    • Non-Probability Sampling Accidental sampling. Purposive sampling. Quota sampling. Snow ball sampling Etc etc…
    • Structure of the QuestionnaireThere are three main elements: The cover letter. The instructions. The main body.
    • The Cover Letter The cover letter must have the following details; The main objectives and social significance of the study; The research team and its sponsors; The reasons why the respondent should complete the questionnaire; Assurance of anonymity and confidentiality; Requirements for completion such as maximum time, conditions, etc; Issues related to ethics.
    • The Instructions How to fill the questionnaire? To remind the Ethics. To request the respondents not to please the researcher.
    • The Main Body It includes questions. Be careful with regard to; Content. Structure. Format. Wording. Flow.
    • Questionnaire Format It refers to the general model which provides guidelines on hoe the questions should be placed?  Logical Order  Transition and Flow
    • Questionnaire Formats Funnel Format Inverted Funnel Format Diamond Format X-Format Box Format Mixed Format
    • Steps in Questionnaire Construction The process of questionnaire construction goes through a number of interrelated steps as;Step 1: Preparation: Decision for the most suitable type of questionnaire. Determine the way how it will be managed? Literature Review. Proper Guidance from the Experts.
    • Step 2: Constructing the First Draft: Formulation of the material. Implementation of decided method of questionnaire. Secondary and tertiary questions.
    • Step 3: Self Critique:Testing of ;  Relevance  Symmetry  Clarity  Simplicity  Accordance with the basic rules.
    • Step 4: External Scrutiny: Expert’s inspection And suggestions. Addition…. Deletion…. Changing…
    • Step 5: Re-examination & Revision: After changing …Re-examination by the experts. Implementation of the final changes.
    • Step 6: Pre-testing: Selection of the small sample. Filling up of the questionnaire. Analysis of the data.
    • Step 7: Revision: Revision of the minor changes by the researcher himself. Revision of the major changes by the help of experts.
    • Step 8: Second Pre-test: Revised questionnaire filling. Data analysis. Adjustments & revision.
    • Step 9: Final Draft Formulation: Editorial work. Checking for spelling mistakes. Legibility. Instructions. Space for responses. Scaling issues General presentation.
    • Types of Questions Primary Questions  Directly related, as  “Who is boss in your home?” Secondary Questions  Provides info on secondary issues
    • Types of Questions Tertiary Questions  Padding Questions (Breather)  Probes (Stimulating) Direct Questions  Do you believe in god? Indirect Questions  Do u think that ppl of ur age and status believe in god?
    • Types of Questions Suggestive Questions Filter and contingency Questions Fixed alternative & Open ended
    • Response Format…should be  Accurate  Exhaustive  Mutually Exclusive  Uni-dimensional
    • Response Sets Numerical Responses Verbal Scale Increasing length scale Graphic responses Graphic-Numerical Responses Thermometer Scale Face Scale
    • Response Sets Ladder Scale Likert Scale Multiple Choice Options Semantic Differential Scale Ranking Scale Fill in the blanks Etc…..
    • Rules of Questionnaire Construction Well presented, easy to follow. Good response categories Clear instructions Space for answers Relevancy Ambiguity What not to ask? The language
    • Rules of Questionnaire Construction Logical progression Professional appearance Print and colors The size Ethics
    • Interviews
    • Types of Interviews Structured vs Non-structured Standardized vs Non-standardized Other vs self-administrated Unique vs Panel Hard vs Soft Personal vs non-personal
    • Types of Interviews Oral vs written Open vs guided Problem centered Clinical Biographical
    • Interview: The process Seeking respondents Asking & recording questions Field supervision and checks Completion and interpretation
    • The Interviewer’s Tasks Approaching the respondents Arranging Performing Controlling & recording Avoiding bias Establishing +ve relations.
    • Telephone Interviews Intro Questions Recording Ethics