Seizures disorder


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Seizures disorder

  1. 1. EIZURE DISORDER samrah
  2. 2. EIZURE DISORDER SEIZURES are episodes of abnormal motor, sensory, autonomic or psychic activity (or combination of these) that result from sudden excessive discharge from cerebral neurons.  Mostly occur in Americans .  For example : . 6000 people are in stadium ,in which 500 people are suffer from epilepsy
  3. 3. Rate of epilepsy most occur in age of 0 to 1 or occur in age 70
  4. 4. What is happening with a seizure? o Abnormal electrical activity in the brain causing a sudden uncontrolled event. o Seizures look different, depending upon what part of the brain they affect.
  5. 5. . It can be 2 hemispheres
  6. 6. It can be 4 lobes of the brain
  7. 7. The 4 lobes of the brain o Frontal lobes- planning and control of movements o Parietal lobes- deal with sensation o Temporal lobes- important for learning, memory and emotions o Occipital lobes- centers of brain that allow us to see
  8. 8. causes Causes divided in to two group
  9. 9. Brain injury
  10. 10. Chemical imbalance in brain
  11. 11. Causes of seizures in children Brain tumours Infection Congenital abnormalities High fever
  12. 12. Causes of seizures in middle years Head injuries Infections Alcohol Stimulant drugs Medication side effects
  13. 13. Causes of seizures in Elderly Brain tumours strokes
  14. 14. Some others causes Low blood sugar Low oxygen Low blood sodium Low blood calcium Kidney failure Liver failure
  15. 15. Diagnosis Neurological history Exam EEG MRI
  17. 17. Incidence of seizure types
  18. 18. Partial seizure A seizure in which benign at focus and remain localized and not generalized at rest of body. About 60% of peoples have partial seizures. Occur due to brain injury. 5% chances of genes.
  19. 19. Categorization of partial seizures Simple partial seizure (sps) Complex partial seizure(cps)
  20. 20. Partial Seizure
  21. 21. simple partial seizure o Not produce loss of consciousness o People retain awareness and ability to recall o motor or autonomic symptoms- movements of part of the body, nausea or upset stomach o sensory or psychic symptoms (aura)numbness, tingling, pain, smell ,etc. o Only finger or hand may shake
  22. 22. complex-partial seizures o Consciousness is reduced or lost o Occur most commonly in the temporal and frontal lobes o With sensory or motor symptoms ex)lip smacking, clear throat, fiddle with clothes, laugh, staring o Actions purposeless, look as if behaving strangely
  23. 23. Partial seizures with impairment of consciousness
  24. 24. Diagnosis of partial seizures Partial seizures can be difficult to diagnose with certainty because they vary so much from one person to another. It is helpful for the doctor to hear a detailed description from the person who is experiencing the events and from people who have seen them occur.
  25. 25. Electroencephalogram (EEG) o Brain's electrical activity pattern is tested with an electroencephalogram (EEG) to see if any areas of the brain are conducting electricity in an abnormal way. o If the EEG is abnormal, it can confirm suspicions that seizures are occurring.
  26. 26. Treatment Anti-epileptic drugs used for partial seizures Anti-epileptic treatment is associated with a small risk of suicidal thoughts and behaviour
  27. 27. Generalized seizures
  28. 28. Generalized seizures Seizure that begin over the entire surface of the brain are called generalized seizure. Convulsion start in generalized seizure because of the involvement of motor system.
  29. 29. Types of generalized seizure: Grand mal seizure Petit mal seizure Atonic mal seizure
  30. 30. Grand mal seizures A grand mal seizure also known as a tonic-clonic seizure involve loss of consciousness and violent muscle contractions. Convulsion involve in it Convulsion : uncontrolled movement of muscle .
  31. 31. Aura A sensation perceived by a patient that precedes a condition affecting the brain. An aura occurs before a seizure.  It may consist of flashing lights, a gleam of light, blurred vision, an odor, the feeling of a breeze, numbness, weakness, or difficulty in speaking.
  32. 32. Phases of grand-mal seizures Tonic phase: • • • • • • • Contraction of muscle start Rigidity of arm Duration 15 sec Person loss consciousness and fall down Saliva merge from the mouth Tongue biting Sweating increase
  33. 33. Clonic phase  Arm and leg jerk rapidly  After 30 sec or few minutes jerking slow down and end  Consciousness return slowly  Eye rolled  Show painful expressions  Than person falls, unresponsive sleep for 15 minutes  Than after awaking then sleep again for hours Clonic phase
  34. 34. Treatment of tonic and clonic seizures Treatment of tonic and clonic seizures There is no one treatment method for any patient with a seizure disorder. Each treatment plan is tailored to the individual patient based on their diagnosis and symptoms. Treatment options may include medical therapy, nerve stimulation, dietary therapy, or surgery, as appropriate. Clinical trials may also be a valuable treatment alternative.
  35. 35. Guidelines for Seizure Care
  36. 36. Electric recoding  During grand mal seizures neural firing starts at the focus causing aura than spread.  Firstly near areas than contralateral ----crossing corpus callosum --- to thalamus ,hypothalamus and various nuclei.  Excitation increases in subcortical region and symptoms start.  Neurons in motor system show activity than tonic phase start.  Than diencephalon structures (the hypothalamus, thalamus, pineal gland) start activity and send inhibitory messages to cortex.
  37. 37. . The inhibitory messages comes into brief burst that cause jerking movements that occur in clonic phase. So that muscles relax and than contract again. The inhibition become more and than jerks become slow. Than finally inhibition cause relaxation.
  38. 38. o An electroencephalogram (an EEG) is a recording of the brain's electrical activity. o About 20 small adhesive electrodes are placed on the scalp, and the brain's activity is recorded under normal conditions. o Then the person is exposed to various stimuli, such as bright or flashing lights, to try to provoke a seizure. .
  39. 39. oDuring a seizure, electrical activity in the brain accelerates, producing a jagged wave pattern. oSuch recordings of brain waves help identify a seizure disorder. Different types of seizures have different wave patterns.
  40. 40. oIt is also known as absence seizures that are type of generalized seizures. oPresent in children in which stop there activity and stare off at the distance, become unresponsive for few seconds. oIt can occur many times within day. oDue to miss diagnosis these children are considered as inattentive and less motivated.
  41. 41. Atonic mal seizure Atonic seizures are a type of generalized seizure. They involve a sudden loss of muscle tone, so that the child goes limp and falls to the ground. They are often present in children who also have other seizure types, such as tonic.  They occur in all age groups, but are more common in children.
  42. 42. Possible signs and symptoms of an atonic seizure include: Sudden loss of muscle tone The child goes limp and falls straight to the ground The child remains conscious or has a brief loss of consciousness Eyelids drop, head nods Jerking The seizure usually lasts less than 15 seconds , although some may last several minutes The child quickly becomes conscious and alert again after the seizure
  43. 43. Causes Can be due to any brain injury. Due to tumor Drugs and infections High fever Alcoholic and people who take barbiturates ,in these people after withdraw seizures can occur.(SUDDEN inhibitory effect stopped create excitation)
  44. 44. A series generalized seizures that occur without full recovery of consciousness between attacks. Electrical seizures (on EEG) lasting at least 30 minutes, even without impairment of consciousness. Considered a medical emergency. Status Epileptics produces: Cumulative effects. Vigorous muscular contractions impose a heavy metabolic demand; and Interfere with respirations.
  45. 45. Factors that precipitate Status Epilepticus: Withdrawal of antiseizure medication, Fever Concurrent infection.
  46. 46. Medical Management Stop the seizures as quickly as possible, Ensure adequate cerebral oxygenation, and Maintain the patient in a seizure-free state. An airway and adequate oxygenation are established. If the patient remains unconscious and unresponsive, a cuffed Endotracheal tube is inserted. Medications: Intravenous Diazepam (Valium), Lorazepam (Ativan), or Forphenytoin (Cerebyx)