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Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

Computer Fundamentals

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Computer
Data
Information
Data Processing
How computer works?
Overview of Comp...
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“It is an electronic device that processes data,
converting it into information that is us...
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Personal Computers (PCs) – Used by only
one person at a time
Also known as microcompu...
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Data
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The collection of raw facts
and figures
It may be in the form of
characters, digit...
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A set of names and addresses written on
student’s admission form
A telephone convers...
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The sorted data for those students in admission form which
have taken computer sub...
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Process

Output

Input

Data
Collection

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Processing has various operations
 Calculation
 Analysis
 Comparison
 Manipulation

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Input

Process

Output

• Data is put into the information system. (INPUT)
• The data is proc...
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We are all used to using manual
information systems.
An example of a manual informa...
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Input

Process

Output

• Have the name and address. (INPUT)
• Look up the name and address. ...
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Computerised information systems have
several advantages over manual
information system...
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DVLA – Driver Vehicle Licensing
Authority
The DVLA has a computerised database
about...
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A single computer can store all the
information needed.
By using several terminals...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

As the computer is also a device similar to
the way in which the human brain
functions, the p...
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Processing
(Brains)

Input
Output
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Let us assume we are interested in calculating the
sum of 5 and 10.

Processing
5

10

5 + 10...
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Output Device

CPU
(Brains)

Input Device
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Central
Processing
Unit

Primary storage
area for programs
and data that are
in active use

C...
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Secondary memory
Central
devices provide
Processing
long-term storage
Unit

Hard disks
Floppy...
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Monitor
Keyboard
Monitor screen
Keyboard
Mouse
Joystick
Bar code scanner
Touch screen

Centra...
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Six primary types:
1.
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Desktop Computers
Workstations
Notebook Computers
Ta...
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Desktop computer – a PC designed to sit on
a desk/table
Most common type of compute...
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Used to
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Communicate
Produce music
Edit photographs and videos
Play sophisticat...
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Two common designs
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Horizontally oriented design
Vertically oriented design

27
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Specialized, single user computer
Has more power and features as compared to deskto...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Approximate shape – 8.5 by 11 inches
Easily fits in a brief case
Also known a...
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Newest development with following features
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Portable
Full-featured computer
Ligh...
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Small devices – Small enough to fit in your
hand
Example: PDA (Personal Digital Assi...
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Hybrid of cell phone and PDA
Cellular phones with advanced features like:
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Web and e...
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35
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Computers that can handle the needs of
many users at the same time
Used by
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Organizat...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Types of organizational computers:
1.
2.
3.
4.

Network Server
Mainframe computers
Minicom...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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A powerful PC with special software and equipment
that enable it to function as primary co...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Used in large organizations
Where many people frequently need to use
the same data
Te...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Large, powerful special purpose computers
Can handle processing needs of thousands
of...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Mini – Small size
Called midrange computers
Capabilities somewhere between tho...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Most powerful computers
Physically largest
Can process huge amount of data – tri...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

A technician monitors IBM's ASCI White in 2000, then the world's fastest supercomputer, that
...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

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Uses Computing with high speed communication links to
spread information fro...
Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar

Thank You Very Much

47
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Session No1

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Introduction of Computing, What is computer, what is input and output.

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  1. 1. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Computer Fundamentals 1
  2. 2. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar        Computer Data Information Data Processing How computer works? Overview of Computer Parts Types of Computer 2
  3. 3. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar  “It is an electronic device that processes data, converting it into information that is useful to people.” 3
  4. 4. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar    Personal Computers (PCs) – Used by only one person at a time Also known as microcomputers Considered to be among the smallest computers created for people to use 4
  5. 5. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Data   The collection of raw facts and figures It may be in the form of characters, digits and symbols Information   The processed and organized form of data. Reprocessed data to get more result. 5
  6. 6. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar    A set of names and addresses written on student’s admission form A telephone conversation converted to electrical signals to be sent down the wires A song written in sheet music so that it can be played 6
  7. 7. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar      The sorted data for those students in admission form which have taken computer subject. Listening the songs Reading a map from one place to other What does the number 29061996 mean? Is it:      A A A A birthday? (29th June 1996) bank account number? club membership number? telephone number? Without processing or more information this data is meaningless. 7
  8. 8. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Process Output Input Data Collection 8
  9. 9. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Processing has various operations  Calculation  Analysis  Comparison  Manipulation 9
  10. 10. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Input Process Output • Data is put into the information system. (INPUT) • The data is processed. (PROCESS) • Information comes out of the information system. (OUTPUT) 10
  11. 11. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar     We are all used to using manual information systems. An example of a manual information system is a telephone directory. All we need to know to find a person’s telephone number in the telephone book is their name and address. (INPUT) We look up the name and the address (PROCESS), and we find their telephone number. (OUTPUT) 11
  12. 12. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Input Process Output • Have the name and address. (INPUT) • Look up the name and address. (PROCESS) • Find the telephone number. (OUTPUT) 12
  13. 13. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar   Computerised information systems have several advantages over manual information systems. These include:   Greater flexibility Speed 13
  14. 14. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar    DVLA – Driver Vehicle Licensing Authority The DVLA has a computerised database about every driver and vehicle in the country. This database can be used to find information about a vehicle or driver even if the data is incomplete. 14
  15. 15. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar     A single computer can store all the information needed. By using several terminals different people can access information at the same time. Information is not duplicated. Information can be transferred to other computer systems easily. 15
  16. 16. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar As the computer is also a device similar to the way in which the human brain functions, the process of calculating the sum of two values can also be easily performed by the computer. = 16
  17. 17. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Processing (Brains) Input Output 17
  18. 18. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Let us assume we are interested in calculating the sum of 5 and 10. Processing 5 10 5 + 10 = 15 15 Input Output 18
  19. 19. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Output Device CPU (Brains) Input Device 19
  20. 20. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar 20
  21. 21. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Central Processing Unit Primary storage area for programs and data that are in active use Chip that executes program commands Intel Pentium 4 Main Memory Synonymous with RAM 21
  22. 22. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Secondary memory Central devices provide Processing long-term storage Unit Hard disks Floppy disks ZIP disks Writable CDs Writable DVDs Tapes Information is moved between main memory and secondary memory as needed Hard Disk Main Memory Floppy Disk 22
  23. 23. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Monitor Keyboard Monitor screen Keyboard Mouse Joystick Bar code scanner Touch screen Central Processing Unit I/O devices facilitate user interaction Hard Disk Main Memory Floppy Disk 23
  24. 24. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar  Six primary types: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Desktop Computers Workstations Notebook Computers Tablet Computers Handheld computers Smart phones 24
  25. 25. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar     Desktop computer – a PC designed to sit on a desk/table Most common type of computer Used in schools, homes and offices Enable people to do their tasks with greater ease and efficiency 25
  26. 26. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar  Used to      Communicate Produce music Edit photographs and videos Play sophisticated games Used by  Everyone from Preschoolers to Nuclear Physicists 26
  27. 27. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar  Two common designs   Horizontally oriented design Vertically oriented design 27
  28. 28. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar     Specialized, single user computer Has more power and features as compared to desktop PC Workstations have  Large, high resolution monitors  Accelerated graphics handling capabilities Used by people requiring system with greater-thanaverage speed and power  Scientists  Engineers  Animators 28
  29. 29. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar        Approximate shape – 8.5 by 11 inches Easily fits in a brief case Also known as laptops Operate on alternating current or batteries Are light weight devices – generally less than eight pounds Portable devices – mobile computers Docking Stations 29
  30. 30. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar  Newest development with following features      Portable Full-featured computer Lighter than Notebooks Capable of accepting input from stylus or digital pen Also capable of accepting input from microphone via special software 30
  31. 31. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar 31
  32. 32. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar     Small devices – Small enough to fit in your hand Example: PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) Capable of connecting to exchange data with large computers Input via pen, built-in keyboards, microphone 32
  33. 33. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar 33
  34. 34. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar   Hybrid of cell phone and PDA Cellular phones with advanced features like:   Web and email access Special Software   Personal Organizers Special Hardware    Digital Cameras Music Players At times built-in keyboards 34
  35. 35. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar 35
  36. 36. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar   Computers that can handle the needs of many users at the same time Used by  Organizations    Businesses Schools Commonly found at the heart of organization’s network 36
  37. 37. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar  Types of organizational computers: 1. 2. 3. 4. Network Server Mainframe computers Minicomputers Supercomputers 37
  38. 38. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar  A powerful PC with special software and equipment that enable it to function as primary computer in a network      Clusters or Server Farms Blades All other computers connect Provides access to network resources Often simply a powerful desktop 38
  39. 39. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar    Used in large organizations Where many people frequently need to use the same data Terminal – Device through which user accesses the mainframe’s resources   Dumb Terminal Intelligent Terminal 39
  40. 40. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar 40
  41. 41. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar    Large, powerful special purpose computers Can handle processing needs of thousands of users Lack flexibility – can perform limited number of tasks 41
  42. 42. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar        Mini – Small size Called midrange computers Capabilities somewhere between those mainframes and personal computers Can handle much more input and output than PCs can Can serve dozens or hundreds of users at a time Used in smaller organizations Users access through a terminal 42
  43. 43. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar 43
  44. 44. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar      Most powerful computers Physically largest Can process huge amount of data – trillions calculation per second Ideal for handling large, highly complex problems Found in research organizations 44
  45. 45. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar A technician monitors IBM's ASCI White in 2000, then the world's fastest supercomputer, that is capable of 12 trillion calculations per second. The Department of Energy uses ASCI White to analyze and protect the nation's nuclear weapons stockpile. 45
  46. 46. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar         Uses Computing with high speed communication links to spread information from one place to other. All types of equipment or programs that are used in processing information World has become a global village Information can be communicated in any shape such as Photographs Movies Text Digital diagrams 46
  47. 47. Prepared by: Saif Ullah Dar Thank You Very Much 47
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