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Organic farming

Organic farming

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  • 1. Submitted by – SAHIL SINGH RATHORE Roll no. -10AG32014
  • 2. 1. Introduction 2. Objectives 3.Work plan 4.Results 5.Discussion and Suggestion
  • 3. As we all know, food security & human health has became a topic of major concern in today’s time. Through this project, my aim is to determine & emphasise that how organic farming & sustainable agriculture can be used in a better way to boost farmer’s income along with promoting better health for both the human & the environment. 
  • 4. What is Organic Farming? Organic farming is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people by reducing or eliminating external agricultural inputs, especially synthetic ones. Organic farming relies on techniques such as crop rotation, green manure, compost and biological pest control. Organic farming excludes or strictly limits the use of Chemical fertilizers, insecticides & pesticides. With organic farming, farmers:  Can sell their produces in a higher price  Need not to spend on synthetic chemical fertilizers and pesticides  Environment could be healthier from not being harmed by pesticides and insecticides.
  • 5. Why Organic farming? Organic farming is preferred over conventional(inorganic) farming because it :  Uses less energy  Employs Multiple cropping  Do not create pollution  Balance soil nutrients & replenishes soil fertility  Increases soil productivity  Improves the quality of the product.
  • 6. Worldwide production of organic farming • More than 120 countries has been practicing organic farming. • 33 million hectares (mio ha) of organic land with 633,891 farms. 23 % 38 % 1% Global organic land by continent 6
  • 7. 7
  • 8. Case study: Organic Farming in Cambodia • For examining the feasibility of project, we have gone through a case study of Revolution of organic farming in Cambodia. • Cambodia is a country located in Southeast Asia with tropical climate & soil condition similar to that exists in India. In recent times Cambodia displayed a revolution in rice production system with the use of organic farming. • Presently rice occupies 90% of the total cultivated (3.9 million ha) and shares 50.4 percent of total farmers’ income in Cambodia. 8
  • 9. Revolution of rice farming system in Cambodia • No agrochemicals • Low costs of production • Low productivities • Unstable food security • Agrochemical used • Higher productivities • More stable food security Conventional farming Traditional farming 1980 -1989 1990 -2003 • Alternative farming system ? • Balancing goals of productivity, costs, and environment? Organic farming 2004 - Present Impact of Conventional System • Higher production costs • Health impacts • Environmental impacts Source: Author, 2008 9
  • 10. Trend of organic rice farming in Cambodia • Organic rice production has been increasing steadily in Cambodia from 10 tons in 2005 to 1450 tons in 2011. 500 1600 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 farms 400 300 200 100 0 2005 2007 Organic rice farms 2009 tons Number of organic farms and organic rice production 2011 Organic rice production Source: CEDAC, 2007 (Unpublished data) 10 • CEDAC: Cambodian Center for Agricultural Studies and Development
  • 11. Key differences in organic and conventional farms Organic farm (OF) Average yield (ton per ha) Conventional farm (CF) OF-CF Percentage 2,59 2,46 0,13 5% 950 850 100 12% Gross revenue (riel) 2 460 059 2 087 214 372 845 18% Cost of fertilizers (riel) 0 - 78 002 124 794 -46 792 -37% 87,4 65,1 22,30 34% 8,5 1,2 7,30 608% 19,2 3,8 15,40 405% price per kg (riel) Labour used (man-day) - Nutrient management (md) - Manual weeding (md) Source: Author, 2008 11
  • 12. Cultivation practices of organic rice Land preparation - Plough at least 2 or 3 times - Apply compost and residue of previous crop Transplanting Threshing and storage - Storage with 12-13 % of moisture contained inside the grains - Pulling of seedling in 12-15 days from the nursery bed - Transplanting 1 seedling per hole - 20x30 cm between each line and row - Separately from the conventional rice Harvesting Weed control - 25-35 days after the flowering stage - Two weeks after the transplantation - Tools: hand with the sickle - Application of farm yard manure - Tools: hoe and hand Source: Author, 2008 12
  • 13. 1) To analyse Carbon and Nitrogen dynamics in soil under organic and inorganic nutrient management. 2) To optimize Nitrogen uptake and use efficiency of rice through best suitable combination of organic and inorganic nutrient management.
  • 14.   Four treatments of different fertilizer input were taken with 3 replica of each, where paddy was grown. Soil sample from these plots were taken at different stages of crop growth for chemical analysis. The chemical analysis of soil sample includes finding out soil pH, electrical conductivity, availability of nitrogen and organic carbon content in soil due to various combination of organic and inorganic fertilization at different crop growth stages.
  • 15.  By doing plant chemical analysis we will estimate the plant nitrogen uptake due to organic and inorganic fertilizers at different stages & will try to figure out their optimum combination for developing synchrony between the nutrients released in soil & their crop uptake. Treatments : T1 – Control  T2 - 100% RDF through Chemical fertilizers  T3 - 100% RDF through Vermicompost  T4 - 50% RDF through Vermicompost+ 50% through chemical fertilizers (RDF- Recommended dosage of fertilizer) 
  • 16. Sampling for soil samples:   Soil samples were collected at 20 cm and 40 cm depth using soil auger at centre and towards four corners of each plot. Soil sampling is being done at intervals of 0, 30, 60, 90 days.
  • 17.    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is the seat of nitrogen in soil & its determination is often carried out as an index of nitrogen availability. Estimation: Method used for estimating SOC was Titration method (Walkey & Black method). Reagants used : Pottassium dichromate, Conc. Sulphuric acid, Ferrous ammonium sulphate, Diphenylamine indicator, Orthophoshoric acid or sodium flouride.
  • 18.   More than 90% of soil N exists as a constituent of complex organic compounds, which the plants cannot use directly. Only a minute fraction, usually 2% gets mineralised due to microbial activity in a growing season. Plants uptake it in the form of nitrate & ammonium ions. Estimation Method: We used permanganate method of Subbiah and Asija for available nitrogen estimation using kjheldal apparatus. Reagents used in kjheldahl’s apparatus were KMno4, NaOH, Mixed Indicator, Boric acid, HCl.
  • 19. Organic carbon (%) in soil = (10*(B-S)/B) * 0.003 * 100/wt. of sample(gm)  Where B & S stand for the titre values(mL) of blank & sample respectively.
  • 20. Available N (%) in soil = {(0.00014* normality of acid* 100* titre (sample-blank)}/{mass of soil (gm.)* 0.01}
  • 21. Treatment Soil pH Electrical Conductivity (mmho/cm) Soil organic carbon (%) Available nitrogen (%) T1(Control) 4.58 0.025 0.23 0.0065 T2(100% RDF by chemical fertilisers) 4.62 0.038 0.31 0.0074 T3(100% RDF by Vermicompost) 4.85 0.037 0.34 0.0074 T4(50% C.F + 50% Vermicompost) 4.76 0.042 0.33 0.0069
  • 22. Treatment Soil pH Electrical Conductivity (mmho/cm) Soil organic carbon (%) Available nitrogen (%) T1(Control) 4.56 0.027 0.19 0.0063 T2(100% RDF by chemical fertilisers) 4.59 0.042 0.30 0.0108 T3(100% RDF by Vermicompost) 4.86 0.036 0.37 0.0089 T4(50% C.F + 50% Vermicompost) 4.75 0.041 0.34 0.0099
  • 23. 4.9 4.85 4.8 4.75 4.7 4.65 4.6 4.55 4.5 4.45 4.4 Day 0 Day 30
  • 24. 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 Day 0 Day 30
  • 25. 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Day 0 Day 30
  • 26. DISCUSSION & SUGGESTION: 1. How to improve weaknesses of organic farming? 2. How to cope with threats in organic farming? 27
  • 27. Improve the weaknesses of organic farming Weaknesses • Strategies Require more • Adopt the preventive methods for weed labours (in weed control) management – crop rotation (rice –soybean), – selected variety which is competitive against weeds – biological control (e.g. ducks) • Conflicts with conventional farms. • Try to convince farmers to convert conventional farms into organic farms. • Leave some buffer space between their farms and conventional farms (security space). 28
  • 28. Improve the threats of organic farming Threats • Small market opportunities Strategies • Develop organic market by the investment in the agro-industry sector and certificating institutes • • Poor infrastructure • promoting for consumers’ awareness Build more canals, road and bridges in the rural area • Unsustainable fund of NGOs Collaboration with international agencies for more sustainable technical and financial aids. projects 29
  • 29. Outcomes : 30
  • 30. Outcomes:  Introducing organic practices to farmers in the study site has been evidenced as improving farmers’ income and leads to a more stable and balanced ecosystem without water pollution and soil degradation  Organic rice farming has high potentials to be pushed as the key development strategy for smallholder rice farmers (less than 0.75 ha) occupying a significant percentage of the farms in this country  The action plans need to be created by all stakeholders to overcome the constraints. 31
  • 31.           SP. Palaniappan, K.Annadurai; Organic Farming, Theory & Practice. Perera, Andrea. 2008. Food on the table and savings on hand. Oxfam America website. October 20. Alam, Anwar and Wani Shafiq, A. (2003) Status of organic agriculture worldwide–An overview, In: Proceedings of National Seminar on Organic Products and their Future Prospects, Sher-e-Kashmir, University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology, Srinagar, pp. 95-103. J. Anthofer et al. 2005. Evaluation of the System of Rice Intensification in Cambodia. Available: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ Badgley, C. et al. 2006. Organic Agriculture and the Global Food Supply. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, 1-24. DEFRA. May, 2003. An Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Organic Farming. Elm Farm Research Centre and IGER. Available at http://www.defra.gov.uk/farm/organic/policy/research/pdf/env-impacts2.pdf Dufey, A. 2006. Agricultural Economics Research Review Vol. 23 July-December 2010 pp 343358 ,seminar on 12 June 2009.Organic Farming: Status, Issues and Prospects – A Review; B. Suresh Reddy ;Research Unit for Livelihoods and Natural Resources (RULNR). Subbiah B.V and C.L. Asija 1956. A rapid procedure for the estimation of available nitrogen in soils. Current Sci.25:259-260.
  • 32. Thanks for your attention ! 33