An Assessment of Environmental Impact of Sugar Mills in District Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.
RYK. AT A GLANCE <ul><li>Bhong Mosque ( Sadiqabad, distt. R.Y.Khan) </li></ul>
RYK. AT A GLANCE
Introduction <ul><li>The exponential increase in population compelled man to increase industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li...
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES <ul><li>The study was structured to ascertain the impact of growing Sugar Industry on natural resource...
Materials and Methods <ul><li>Area of Study : </li></ul><ul><li>JDW Sugar Mills,  N 28.41.40.4″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 70.44....
JDW Sugar Mills
 
Sampling Sites  <ul><li>Water Sampling (site I, II, III, IV, V) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Sampling (site I, II, III, IV, V) <...
Saim- Nullah near Humza Sugar Mills
Disposal pond of Ettehad Sugar Mills
Sampling Duration and Analysis  <ul><li>May 2007 to April 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>S & W Testing Lab. Multan </li></ul><ul><...
RESULTS 1. WATER  ANALYSIS PARAMETERS: EC, Calcium, Magnesium, Available Na + ,  Bicarbonates, Available Na + ,  SAR, Chlo...
JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III 311-1443 u...
JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Ca++, Mg++ at site III  0.99-.08 mg/...
JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium  ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Na+ at site III  0.71 - 7.3 m...
JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO3 -): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of HCO­3- at site III  2.08 10.99 m...
JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of SAR at site III  0 .58 -...
JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides (Cl  - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Chlorides at site III  1.1- 6.3 meq...
HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis   <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III  4683 ...
HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Ca++, Mg++ at site III  15.2 - 33....
HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium  ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of available sodium at site II...
HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO 3   - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of HCO 3   –  at site III  4....
HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of SAR at site III  6.2 –...
HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides (Cl -): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Chlorides at site III  26.61- 54.65...
UNITED SUGAR MILLS:Water Analysis <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  1470 uS/...
UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  13.19 mg/l </li></...
UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium  ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  11.51meq/l ...
UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO 3   - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  4.8meq/l <...
UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  7.98me...
UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  17.09meq/l </li></ul><ul><...
ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  2023 u...
ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  15.24 mg/l </li><...
ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium  ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  13.3meq/l ...
ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO 3   - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  2.3meq/l ...
ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  3.7me...
ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides (Cl -): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  17.34meq/l </li></...
Soil Analysis <ul><li>Parameters studied: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil EC </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Reaction (pH) </li></ul><ul><li...
Soil Analysis: JDW Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III  0.15 ...
Soil Analysis: JDW Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of pH at site III    7.6 – 9.0  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Soil Analysis: JDW Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of S.S. % at site III  16 – 45  </li></u...
Soil Analysis: Humza Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III  2.1...
Soil Analysis: Humza Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of pH at site III  8.2 – 9.1  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Soil Analysis: Humza Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of soil saturation % (site III)  13.0 ...
Soil Analysis: United Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all min value   9.9  d...
Soil Analysis: United Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all min value  8.1  </li></ul><ul><li>Over all m...
Soil Analysis: United Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  18  </li></ul><ul><...
Soil Analysis: Ettehad Sugar Mills  <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  9...
Soil Analysis: Ettehad Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  8.6  </li></ul><ul><li>Over ...
Soil Analysis: Ettehad Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value  31.0  </li></ul><u...
Figure 3: Showing monthly variation of sodium in water at JDW Sugar Mills (Pvt.) Limited
Figure 3: Showing monthly variation of sodium in water at JDW Sugar Mills (Pvt.) Limited
Figure 4: Showing Monthly variation of Bi-carbonate in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
EC at 6” EC at 12” EC at 18” EC at 24” EC at 30” EC at 36” EC at 48” Figure 15: Graph showing monthly  depth wise (6” –  4...
Figure 5: Showing monthly variation of sodium absorption ratio (SAR) in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
Figure 6: Showing monthly variation of Chloride in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
Figure 7:  Showing monthly variation of EC in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
Figure 8: Showing monthly variation of Ca++, Mg++ in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
Figure 9:  Showing monthly variation of Chlorides in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
Figure 10: Showing Monthly variation of sodium in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
Figure 11: Showing monthly variation of SAR in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
Figure 12: Showing monthly variation of Bi-carbonates in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
Figure 13: Showing monthly variation of overall Parameters in water at United Sugar Mills.
Figure 14:  Showing monthly variation of overall water Parameters at Ettehad Sugar Mills.
Figure 15: Graph showing monthly  depth wise (6” –  48”) EC comparison  in soil samples taken from JDW Sugar Mills  efflue...
DISCUSSION <ul><li>Water  EC =Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Water Salinity  @   Calcium, Magnesium, Bi-carbonates, Chlorides,...
CONCLUSION <ul><li>Crop Replacement (Cotton to Sugar cane), </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat degradation, </li></ul><ul><li>Ecolo...
RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>It is evident from the results that effluents these sugar mills are polluting the nearby natural r...
QUESTIONS ?
 
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An assessment of environmental impact of sugar mills

  1. 1. An Assessment of Environmental Impact of Sugar Mills in District Rahim Yar Khan, Punjab, Pakistan.
  2. 2. RYK. AT A GLANCE <ul><li>Bhong Mosque ( Sadiqabad, distt. R.Y.Khan) </li></ul>
  3. 3. RYK. AT A GLANCE
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>The exponential increase in population compelled man to increase industrialization. </li></ul><ul><li>On one hand industrialization has solved the needs and problems of human, but on the other hand it has created a gigantic problem of pollution. </li></ul><ul><li>In Pakistan, 77 Sugar mills constitute the second most important industry sharing 16% in agricultural economy. </li></ul><ul><li>Of these 38 are in punjab,32 in Sindh,6 in NWFP 1 in AK. </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar mills use various chemicals during processing which include Calcium Hydroxide, polyelectrolyte, limestone, phosphoric acid, sulphur dioxide, caustic soda, HCl and Lead sub acetate etc. </li></ul><ul><li>It is high time to keep an eye on our habitat and assess whether some sort of pollution is being caused by sugar industry or not. </li></ul>
  5. 5. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES <ul><li>The study was structured to ascertain the impact of growing Sugar Industry on natural resources including soil and water. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Materials and Methods <ul><li>Area of Study : </li></ul><ul><li>JDW Sugar Mills, N 28.41.40.4″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 70.44.41.9″ </li></ul><ul><li>Humza Sugar Mills, N 28.41.40.5″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 70.44.42.1″ </li></ul><ul><li>United Sugar Mills, N 28.34.39.9″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 7019.18.7″ </li></ul><ul><li>Ettehad Sugar Mills, N 28.15.01.1″ </li></ul><ul><li>E 70.02.25.5″ </li></ul>
  7. 7. JDW Sugar Mills
  8. 9. Sampling Sites <ul><li>Water Sampling (site I, II, III, IV, V) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Sampling (site I, II, III, IV, V) </li></ul>
  9. 10. Saim- Nullah near Humza Sugar Mills
  10. 11. Disposal pond of Ettehad Sugar Mills
  11. 12. Sampling Duration and Analysis <ul><li>May 2007 to April 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>S & W Testing Lab. Multan </li></ul><ul><li>S & W Testing Lab. R Y KHAN </li></ul>
  12. 13. RESULTS 1. WATER ANALYSIS PARAMETERS: EC, Calcium, Magnesium, Available Na + , Bicarbonates, Available Na + , SAR, Chloride 2. SOIL ANALYSIS PARAMETERS: EC, pH, SAR
  13. 14. JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III 311-1443 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 311 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 1443 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit 1000 uS/cm </li></ul>
  14. 15. JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Ca++, Mg++ at site III 0.99-.08 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 0.9 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 8.0 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Ca++, Mg++ 200 mg/l </li></ul>
  15. 16. JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Na+ at site III 0.71 - 7.3 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 0.71 meq /l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 7.3 meq /l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit Na+ 200meq /l </li></ul>
  16. 17. JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO3 -): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of HCO­3- at site III 2.08 10.99 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 1.05 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site III) 10.99 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of HCO­3- 1.25-2.5meq/l </li></ul>
  17. 18. JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of SAR at site III 0 .58 -3.2 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 0.52 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site III) 3.2 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of SAR 7-10 meq/l </li></ul>
  18. 19. JDW Sugar Mills: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides (Cl - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Chlorides at site III 1.1- 6.3 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 1.1 meq /l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 6.3 meq /l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Chlorides 250 meq /l </li></ul>
  19. 20. HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III 4683 – 7768 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 4156 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 7768 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of EC 1000 uS/cm </li></ul>
  20. 21. HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Ca++, Mg++ at site III 15.2 - 33.46 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site III) 15.2 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site II) 42.4 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Ca++, Mg++ 200mg /l </li></ul>
  21. 22. HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of available sodium at site III 10- 31.7meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site III) 10 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site I) 40.3meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of available sodium 200meq/l </li></ul>
  22. 23. HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO 3 - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of HCO 3 – at site III 4.26- 7.97 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 3.8meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site II) 9.1meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit HCO 3 - 1.25-2.5meq/1 </li></ul>
  23. 24. HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of SAR at site III 6.2 – 13.07 meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 2.72meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site III) 13.07meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of SAR 7-10 meq/l </li></ul>
  24. 25. HUMZA SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides (Cl -): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of Chlorides at site III 26.61- 54.65meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 13.63meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum (site III) 54.65meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Chlorides 250meq/l </li></ul>
  25. 26. UNITED SUGAR MILLS:Water Analysis <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 1470 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 6024 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of EC 1000 uS/cm </li></ul>
  26. 27. UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 13.19 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 36.23 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Ca++, Mg++ 200mg/l </li></ul>
  27. 28. UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 11.51meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 27.7meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of available sodium 200meq/1 </li></ul>
  28. 29. UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO 3 - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 4.8meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 8.18meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit HCO 3 - 1.25-2.5meq/l </li></ul>
  29. 30. UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 7.98meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 15.24meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of SAR 7-10 meq/l </li></ul>
  30. 31. UNITED SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 17.09meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 33.23meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Chlorides 250meq/l </li></ul>
  31. 32. ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 2023 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 6634 uS/cm </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of EC 1000 uS/cm </li></ul>
  32. 33. ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Calcium-Magnesium: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 15.24 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 30.34 mg/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Ca++, Mg++ 200 mg/l </li></ul>
  33. 34. ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Available Sodium ( Na+): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 13.3meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 27.34meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of available sodium 200meq/l </li></ul>
  34. 35. ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Bicarbonates (HCO 3 - ): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 2.3meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 8.45meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit HCO 3 - 1.25-2.5meq/l </li></ul>
  35. 36. ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Sodium Absorption Ratio (SAR): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 3.7meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 9meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of SAR 7-10 meq/l </li></ul>
  36. 37. ETTEHAD SUGAR MILLS: Water Analysis <ul><li>Chlorides (Cl -): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 17.34meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 30.19meq/l </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of Chlorides 250meq/1 </li></ul>
  37. 38. Soil Analysis <ul><li>Parameters studied: </li></ul><ul><li>Soil EC </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Reaction (pH) </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Saturation % </li></ul>
  38. 39. Soil Analysis: JDW Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III 0.15 – 16.41 dSm-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all min value (site V) 0.12 dSm-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all max value (site I) 17.42 dSm-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of EC 4.1-8.1 dSm-1 </li></ul>
  39. 40. Soil Analysis: JDW Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of pH at site III 7.6 – 9.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 7.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site III) 9.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of pH 6.4 - 8.5 </li></ul>
  40. 41. Soil Analysis: JDW Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of S.S. % at site III 16 – 45 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all min value (site I) 14 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all max value (Site III) 45 </li></ul>
  41. 42. Soil Analysis: Humza Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Range of EC at site III 2.12 – 24.96 dSm- 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 2.0 dSm- 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site III) 25.67 dSm- 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of EC 4.1-8.1 dSm- 1 </li></ul>
  42. 43. Soil Analysis: Humza Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of pH at site III 8.2 – 9.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site I) 8.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site II) 10.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of pH 6.4 – 8.5 </li></ul>
  43. 44. Soil Analysis: Humza Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Range of soil saturation % (site III) 13.0 – 34.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value (site II) 13.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value (site V) 35.0 </li></ul>
  44. 45. Soil Analysis: United Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all min value 9.9 dSm-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all max value 82.36 dSm-1 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of EC 4.1-8.1 dSm-1 </li></ul>
  45. 46. Soil Analysis: United Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all min value 8.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all max value 8.7 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of pH 6.4 – 8.5 </li></ul>
  46. 47. Soil Analysis: United Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 18 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 44 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit 19 – 60 </li></ul>
  47. 48. Soil Analysis: Ettehad Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Electrical Conductivity (EC): </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 9.78 dSm- 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 22.45 dSm- 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of EC 4.1-8.1 dSm- 1 </li></ul>
  48. 49. Soil Analysis: Ettehad Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil pH: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 8.6 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 10.9 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit of pH 6.4 – 8.5 </li></ul>
  49. 50. Soil Analysis: Ettehad Sugar Mills <ul><li>Soil Saturation %: </li></ul><ul><li>Over all minimum value 31.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Over all maximum value 35.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Permissible limit 19 – 60 </li></ul>
  50. 51. Figure 3: Showing monthly variation of sodium in water at JDW Sugar Mills (Pvt.) Limited
  51. 52. Figure 3: Showing monthly variation of sodium in water at JDW Sugar Mills (Pvt.) Limited
  52. 53. Figure 4: Showing Monthly variation of Bi-carbonate in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  53. 54. EC at 6” EC at 12” EC at 18” EC at 24” EC at 30” EC at 36” EC at 48” Figure 15: Graph showing monthly depth wise (6” – 48”) EC comparison in soil samples taken from JDW Sugar Mills effluent sites. Depth wise Figure 15: Graph showing monthly depth wise (6” – 48”) EC comparison in soil samples taken from JDW Sugar Mills effluent sites.
  54. 55. Figure 5: Showing monthly variation of sodium absorption ratio (SAR) in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  55. 56. Figure 6: Showing monthly variation of Chloride in water at JDW Sugar Mills.
  56. 57. Figure 7: Showing monthly variation of EC in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  57. 58. Figure 8: Showing monthly variation of Ca++, Mg++ in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  58. 59. Figure 9: Showing monthly variation of Chlorides in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  59. 60. Figure 10: Showing Monthly variation of sodium in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  60. 61. Figure 11: Showing monthly variation of SAR in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  61. 62. Figure 12: Showing monthly variation of Bi-carbonates in water at Humza Sugar Mills.
  62. 63. Figure 13: Showing monthly variation of overall Parameters in water at United Sugar Mills.
  63. 64. Figure 14: Showing monthly variation of overall water Parameters at Ettehad Sugar Mills.
  64. 65. Figure 15: Graph showing monthly depth wise (6” – 48”) EC comparison in soil samples taken from JDW Sugar Mills effluent sites.
  65. 66. DISCUSSION <ul><li>Water EC =Salinity </li></ul><ul><li>Water Salinity @ Calcium, Magnesium, Bi-carbonates, Chlorides, Sodium &SAR </li></ul><ul><li>pH @ CO 2 , Bicarbonates, carbonates, hydroxyl ions, Calcium & Magnesium etc </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar Mills produce effluents CO 2 Bicarbonates, carbonates, hydroxyl ions, Calcium & Magnesium etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Water pollution >>>>seepage + irrigation>>> Soil Pollution. </li></ul>
  66. 67. CONCLUSION <ul><li>Crop Replacement (Cotton to Sugar cane), </li></ul><ul><li>Habitat degradation, </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological Imbalance, </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification. </li></ul>
  67. 68. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>It is evident from the results that effluents these sugar mills are polluting the nearby natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>NEQS must be enforced on the basis of “Acta non Verba” </li></ul>
  68. 69. QUESTIONS ?
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