Intentional Modeling for 
Problem Solving in 
Enterprise Architecture 
Sagar Sunkle, Vinay Kulkarni, and Suman Roychoudhur...
 Quick Background 
 Modeling at Tata Consultancy Services and R&D 
 Early effort in Enterprise Modeling with ArchiMate ...
Motivation 
Cost of incorrect decisions in enterprise systems is 
prohibitively high 
 Multiple change drivers along busi...
Enterprise 
Model 
Basic Idea 
Model of Enterprise based 
on ArchiMate Metamodels 
Model of Strategic Intentions 
of the E...
Enterprise-Intentional 
Metamodel Mapping 
Enterprise 
Model 
Basic Idea 
Intentional 
Model 
ArchiMate 
i*Intentional Mod...
Enterprise-Intentional 
Metamodel Mapping 
Enterprise 
Model 
Basic Idea 
Intentional 
Model 
Devoid 
of Goals 
ArchiMate ...
Enterprise-Intentional 
Metamodel Mapping 
Enterprise 
Model 
Basic Idea 
Intentional 
Model 
Devoid 
of Goals 
Intentiona...
Mapping EA and Intentional 
Enterprise-Intentional 
Metamodel Mapping 
Enterprise 
Model 
Entities 
Intentional 
Model 
De...
Mapping EA and Intentional 
Enterprise 
Model 
Entities 
Intentional 
Model 
Devoid of 
Goals 
Enterprise-Intentional 
Met...
Problems in Enterprise Models as 
Goals in Intentional Model 
Enterprise-Intentional 
Metamodel Mapping
Problems in Enterprise Model as 
Goals in Intentional Model 
Enterprise-Intentional 
Metamodel Mapping 
Enterprise 
Model ...
As-is enterprise To-be enterprise 
Model-driven 
Developm 
ent Unit 
Intentional 
Model 
without 
goals 
Sub-teams of Solu...
As-is enterprise To-be enterprise 
Model-driven 
Developm 
ent Unit 
Intentional 
Model 
without 
goals 
Sub-teams of Solu...
Chosen alternative may result in adding 
further responsibilities to existing actor(s), 
or adding actor(s)- this is refle...
Resulting enterprise model shows who 
needs to do what and which resources 
are needed to achieve required goals-spanning ...
Key Issues 
Contribution 
 Metamodel mapping from enterprise model to 
intentional model enables automated derivation of ...
Key Issues 
Further Improvements 
 Representing goals in enterprise models, here, using 
ArchiMate motivation extension- ...
Conclusions 
 Apart from What and How, Whys of Enterprises must 
be addressed 
 Intentional models provide way to expres...
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Intentional modeling for problem solving in enterprise architecture (ICEIS 2013 Presentation)

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Taking and executing correct decisions is critical in enterprise systems which are characterized by rapid
changes along interconnected dimensions. Enterprise architecture (EA) frameworks offer holistic treatment
of enterprise systems but constitute only one part of the solution to problems arising due to organizational
changes. The other, less explored part is the ability to explicate and analyze the intentions behind major decisions. We investigate a step-by-step approach where intentional modeling is treated as a problem solving
technique. In our approach, an intentional model devoid of goals is obtained from the existing EA model via
mapping. It is expanded by representing the problems due to organizational changes as goals and soft goals
and alternative solutions to them. The final intentional model is transformed back to an actionable EA model
via the same mapping. In the case study, we re-imagine the evolution of our model-driven software development unit as an enterprise where two stages in its evolution are treated as as-is and to-be states and the journey
is captured in terms of intentional models. Initial explorations suggest that the mapping enables a clear path
from as-is to to-be states of an EA model while preserving the reasoning behind every alternative chosen.

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  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
    dynamic supply chains, mergers and acquisitions, globalization and regulatory compliances, etc.;
    along IT and infrastructure dimensions, we see changes brought about by cloud and
    mobile technology.
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • We ensure that the description of problem is holistic and the solution to the problem is prescriptive in terms of intentional models
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • Cost of fixing software defects increases 10-100 times from requirements analysis to post-release
  • SA conveys the choices
    of design strategies, architectural specifics and technology platforms to MDESp. could be audit, persistence, caching, attribute value handling etc., could be patterns of distributed architecture, middleware choices, message queuing mechanism etc., and could be combinations of various technologies and frameworks that are specific to platforms as well as customer preferred technologies. MDESp’s job is to accommodate these choices in the code generators using unified metamodel. MDESp sends templates in model-aware language Q++ to D who needs to write business logic and send the templates back to MDESp for full application generation.
  • For partitioning there could be functional modules, or components
    For distributed development there is also concurrent access via model repositories and model repositories are replicated in geographic sites and kept in sync using sync protocols
  • This would eliminate the intermediate step of deriving intentional model devoid of goals.
  • This would eliminate the intermediate step of deriving intentional model devoid of goals.
  • Intentional modeling for problem solving in enterprise architecture (ICEIS 2013 Presentation)

    1. 1. Intentional Modeling for Problem Solving in Enterprise Architecture Sagar Sunkle, Vinay Kulkarni, and Suman Roychoudhury Tata Consultancy Services, India
    2. 2.  Quick Background  Modeling at Tata Consultancy Services and R&D  Early effort in Enterprise Modeling with ArchiMate  Using Intentional Modeling [i*] for goal modeling  Motivation  Basic Idea  Details  Issues Agenda
    3. 3. Motivation Cost of incorrect decisions in enterprise systems is prohibitively high  Multiple change drivers along business, IT, and infrastructure dimensions  Holistic view provided by enterprise architecture frameworks- mainly what and how but not why  BMM by OMG, ArchiMate motivation extension provide blueprint treatment of reasons behind decisions- They are less actionable and also difficult to automate
    4. 4. Enterprise Model Basic Idea Model of Enterprise based on ArchiMate Metamodels Model of Strategic Intentions of the Enterprise Intentional Model Descriptive in nature Prescriptive in nature
    5. 5. Enterprise-Intentional Metamodel Mapping Enterprise Model Basic Idea Intentional Model ArchiMate i*Intentional Model
    6. 6. Enterprise-Intentional Metamodel Mapping Enterprise Model Basic Idea Intentional Model Devoid of Goals ArchiMate i*Intentional Model
    7. 7. Enterprise-Intentional Metamodel Mapping Enterprise Model Basic Idea Intentional Model Devoid of Goals Intentional Model Introduce Goals; Goals are problems to be solved ArchiMate Evaluate Goals, revise enterprise model i*Intentional Model
    8. 8. Mapping EA and Intentional Enterprise-Intentional Metamodel Mapping Enterprise Model Entities Intentional Model Devoid of Goals Active [Structure] Entities perform [Behavior] Entities using Passive Entities Actors perform Tasks using Resources ArchiMate i*Intentional Model
    9. 9. Mapping EA and Intentional Enterprise Model Entities Intentional Model Devoid of Goals Enterprise-Intentional Metamodel Mapping Active [Structure] Entities perform [Behavior] Entities using Passive Entities Actors perform Tasks using Resources ArchiMate i*Intentional Model To achieve goals
    10. 10. Problems in Enterprise Models as Goals in Intentional Model Enterprise-Intentional Metamodel Mapping
    11. 11. Problems in Enterprise Model as Goals in Intentional Model Enterprise-Intentional Metamodel Mapping Enterprise Model Intentional Model with Goals Represent the problems as goals To achieve goals ArchiMate i*Intentional Model Intentional Model Devoid of Goals
    12. 12. As-is enterprise To-be enterprise Model-driven Developm ent Unit Intentional Model without goals Sub-teams of Solution Architect, MDE Specialist, Developer working in MD way Case Study If development teams were distributed, how best to partition access to models and code and enable distributed development?
    13. 13. As-is enterprise To-be enterprise Model-driven Developm ent Unit Intentional Model without goals Sub-teams of Solution Architect, MDE Specialist, Developer working in MD way Case Study Distributed development as main goal, other requirements as sub-goals If development teams were distributed, how best to partition access to models and code and enable distributed development? Alternative chains of tasks performed by existing or more actors using existing or more resources to achieve geographically distributed development while enabling efficient implementation of performance intensive operations and synchronization
    14. 14. Chosen alternative may result in adding further responsibilities to existing actor(s), or adding actor(s)- this is reflected back into the enterprise model Distributed Development Enabled Intentional Model without goals Case Study Distributed development as main goals, other requirements as sub-goals
    15. 15. Resulting enterprise model shows who needs to do what and which resources are needed to achieve required goals-spanning business, IT, and infrastructure layers Distributed Development Enabled Intentional Model without goals Case Study Distributed development as main goals, other requirements as sub-goals
    16. 16. Key Issues Contribution  Metamodel mapping from enterprise model to intentional model enables automated derivation of intentional models from enterprise models  In the reverse direction, chosen alternatives for achieving goals are reflected into enterprise model  First steps toward expressing problems in enterprise systems in terms of goals to be achieved
    17. 17. Key Issues Further Improvements  Representing goals in enterprise models, here, using ArchiMate motivation extension- drivers, assessments, requirements and goals in ArchiMate motivation extensions may map to soft-goals and goals in i*  Diff between as-is enterprise model and the resultant to-be enterprise model with intentional analysis reflected in terms of changes in actors and their tasks so as to get a recipe of what needs to be done
    18. 18. Conclusions  Apart from What and How, Whys of Enterprises must be addressed  Intentional models provide way to express goals and evaluate alternatives to achieve same goals  BMM, ArchiMate can be used to further streamline capturing of enterprise goals in conjunction with intentional models

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