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R K MOHANTY FACULTY MEMBER, SIR SPBT COLLEGE, CENTRAL BANK OF INDIA, MUMBAI
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Ratio-analysis is a concept or technique which is as old as accounting concept. Financial analysis is a scientific tool. It has assumed important role as a tool for appraising the real worth of an enterprise, its performance during a period of time and its pit falls. Financial analysis is a vital apparatus for the interpretation of financial statements. It also helps to find out any cross-sectional and time series linkages between various ratios. RATIO ANALYSIS
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Unlike in the past when security was considered to be sufficient consideration for banks and financial institutions to grant loans and advances, nowadays the entire lending is need-based and the emphasis is on the financial viability of a proposal and not only on security alone. Further all business decision contains an element of risk. The risk is more in the case of decisions relating to credits. Ratio analysis and other quantitative techniques facilitate assessment of this risk. RATIO ANALYSIS
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Ratio-analysis means the process of computing, determining and presenting the relationship of related items and groups of items of the financial statements. They provide in a summarized and concise form of fairly good idea about the financial position of a unit. They are important tools for financial analysis. RATIO ANALYSIS
Before looking at the ratios there are a number of cautionary points concerning their use that need to be identified :
The dates and duration of the financial statements being compared should be the same. If not, the effects of seasonality may cause erroneous conclusions to be drawn.
The accounts to be compared should have been prepared on the same bases. Different treatment of stocks or depreciations or asset valuations will distort the results.
In order to judge the overall performance of the firm a group of ratios, as opposed to just one or two should be used. In order to identify trends at least three years of ratios are normally required.
As Percentage - such as 25% or 50% . For example if net profit is Rs.25,000/- and the sales is Rs.1,00,000/- then the net profit can be said to be 25% of the sales.
As Proportion - The above figures may be expressed in terms of the relationship between net profit to sales as 1 : 4.
As Pure Number /Times - The same can also be expressed in an alternatively way such as the sale is 4 times of the net profit or profit is 1/4 th of the sales.
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Balance Sheet Ratio P&L Ratio or Income/Revenue Statement Ratio Balance Sheet and Profit & Loss Ratio Financial Ratio Operating Ratio Composite Ratio Current Ratio Quick Asset Ratio Proprietary Ratio Debt Equity Ratio Gross Profit Ratio Operating Ratio Expense Ratio Net profit Ratio Stock Turnover Ratio Fixed Asset Turnover Ratio, Return on Total Resources Ratio, Return on Own Funds Ratio, Earning per Share Ratio, Debtors’ Turnover Ratio,
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LIABILITIES ASSETS NET WORTH/EQUITY/OWNED FUNDS Share Capital/Partner’s Capital/Paid up Capital/ Owners Funds Reserves ( General, Capital, Revaluation & Other Reserves) Credit Balance in P&L A/c FIXED ASSETS : LAND & BUILDING, PLANT & MACHINERIES Original Value Less Depreciation Net Value or Book Value or Written down value LONG TERM LIABILITIES/BORROWED FUNDS : Term Loans (Banks & Institutions) Debentures/Bonds, Unsecured Loans, Fixed Deposits, Other Long Term Liabilities NON CURRENT ASSETS Investments in quoted shares & securities Old stocks or old/disputed book debts Long Term Security Deposits Other Misc. assets which are not current or fixed in nature CURRENT LIABILTIES Bank Working Capital Limits such as CC/OD/Bills/Export Credit Sundry /Trade Creditors/Creditors/Bills Payable, Short duration loans or deposits Expenses payable & provisions against various items CURRENT ASSETS : Cash & Bank Balance, Marketable/quoted Govt. or other securities, Book Debts/Sundry Debtors, Bills Receivables, Stocks & inventory (RM,SIP,FG) Stores & Spares, Advance Payment of Taxes, Prepaid expenses, Loans and Advances recoverable within 12 months INTANGIBLE ASSETS Patent, Goodwill, Debit balance in P&L A/c, Preliminary or Preoperative expenses
Assets other than Current Assets are Long Term Use of Funds
Installments of Term Loan Payable in 12 months are to be taken as Current Liability only for Calculation of Current Ratio & Quick Ratio.
If there is profit it shall become part of Net Worth under the head Reserves and if there is loss it will become part of Intangible Assets
Investments in Govt. Securities to be treated current only if these are marketable and due. Investments in other securities are to be treated Current if they are quoted. Investments in allied/associate/sister units or firms to be treated as Non-current.
Bonus Shares as issued by capitalization of General reserves and as such do not affect the Net Worth. With Rights Issue, change takes place in Net Worth and Current Ratio.
Current Ratio : It is the relationship between the current assets and current liabilities of a concern.
Current Ratio = Current Assets/Current Liabilities
If the Current Assets and Current Liabilities of a concern are Rs.4,00,000 and Rs.2,00,000 respectively, then the Current Ratio will be : Rs.4,00,000/Rs.2,00,000 = 2 : 1
The ideal Current Ratio preferred by Banks is 1.33 : 1
Net Working Capital : This is worked out as surplus of Long Term Sources over Long Tern Uses, alternatively it is the difference of Current Assets and Current Liabilities.
Current Assets : Raw Material, Stores, Spares, Work-in Progress. Finished Goods, Debtors, Bills Receivables, Cash.
Current Liabilities : Sundry Creditors, Installments of Term Loan, DPG etc. payable within one year and other liabilities payable within one year.
This ratio must be at least 1.33 : 1 to ensure minimum margin of 25% of current assets as margin from long term sources.
Current Ratio measures short term liquidity of the concern and its ability to meet its short term obligations within a time span of a year.
It shows the liquidity position of the enterprise and its ability to meet current obligations in time.
Higher ratio may be good from the point of view of creditors. In the long run very high current ratio may affect profitability ( e.g. high inventory carrying cost)
Shows the liquidity at a particular point of time. The position can change immediately after that date. So trend of the current ratio over the years to be analyzed.
Current Ratio is to be studied with the changes of NWC. It is also necessary to look at this ratio along with the Debt-Equity ratio.
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3. ACID TEST or QUICK RATIO : It is the ratio between Quick Current Assets and Current Liabilities. The should be at least equal to 1. Quick Current Assets : Cash/Bank Balances + Receivables upto 6 months + Quickly realizable securities such as Govt. Securities or quickly marketable/quoted shares and Bank Fixed Deposits Acid Test or Quick Ratio = Quick Current Assets/Current Liabilities Example : Cash 50,000 Debtors 1,00,000 Inventories 1,50,000 Current Liabilities 1,00,000 Total Current Assets 3,00,000 Current Ratio = > 3,00,000/1,00,000 = 3 : 1 Quick Ratio = > 1,50,000/1,00,000 = 1.5 : 1
DEBT EQUITY RATIO : It is the relationship between borrower’s fund (Debt) and Owner’s Capital (Equity).
Long Term Outside Liabilities / Tangible Net Worth
Liabilities of Long Term Nature
Total of Capital and Reserves & Surplus Less Intangible Assets
For instance, if the Firm is having the following :
Capital = Rs. 200 Lacs
Free Reserves & Surplus = Rs. 300 Lacs
Long Term Loans/Liabilities = Rs. 800 Lacs
Debt Equity Ratio will be => 800/500 i.e. 1.6 : 1
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5. PROPRIETARY RATIO : This ratio indicates the extent to which Tangible Assets are financed by Owner’s Fund. Proprietary Ratio = (Tangible Net Worth/Total Tangible Assets) x 100 T he ratio will be 100% when there is no Borrowing for purchasing of Assets. 6. GROSS PROFIT RATIO : By comparing Gross Profit percentage to Net Sales we can arrive at the Gross Profit Ratio which indicates the manufacturing efficiency as well as the pricing policy of the concern. Gross Profit Ratio = (Gross Profit / Net Sales ) x 100 Alternatively , since Gross Profit is equal to Sales minus Cost of Goods Sold, it can also be interpreted as below : Gross Profit Ratio = [ (Sales – Cost of goods sold)/ Net Sales] x 100 A higher Gross Profit Ratio indicates efficiency in production of the unit.
It is expressed as => (Operating Profit / Net Sales ) x 100
Higher the ratio indicates operational efficiency
NET PROFIT RATIO :
It is expressed as => ( Net Profit / Net Sales ) x 100
It measures overall profitability.
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9. STOCK/INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO : ( Average Inventory/Sales) x 365 for days ( Average Inventory/Sales) x 52 for weeks ( Average Inventory/Sales) x 12 for months Average Inventory or Stocks = (Opening Stock + Closing Stock) ----------------------------------------- 2 . This ratio indicates the number of times the inventory is rotated during the relevant accounting period
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10. DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO : This is also called Debtors Velocity or Average Collection Period or Period of Credit given . (Average Debtors/Sales ) x 365 for days (52 for weeks & 12 for months) 11. ASSET TRUNOVER RATIO : Net Sales/Tangible Assets 12. FIXED ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales /Fixed Assets 13. CURRENT ASSET TURNOVER RATIO : Net Sales / Current Assets 14. CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO : This is also called Creditors Velocity Ratio, which determines the creditor payment period. (Average Creditors/Purchases)x365 for days (52 for weeks & 12 for months)
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15. RETRUN ON ASSETS : Net Profit after Taxes/Total Assets 16. RETRUN ON CAPITAL EMPLOYED : ( Net Profit before Interest & Tax / Average Capital Employed) x 100 Average Capital Employed is the average of the equity share capital and long term funds provided by the owners and the creditors of the firm at the beginning and end of the accounting period.
EARNING PER SHARE : EPS indicates the quantum of net profit of the year that would be ranking for dividend for each share of the company being held by the equity share holders .
Net profit after Taxes and Preference Dividend/ No. of Equity Shares
19. PRICE EARNING RATIO : PE Ratio indicates the number of times the Earning Per Share is covered by its market price .
Market Price Per Equity Share/Earning Per Share
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20. DEBT SERVICE COVERAGE RATIO : This ratio is one of the most important one which indicates the ability of an enterprise to meet its liabilities by way of payment of installments of Term Loans and Interest thereon from out of the cash accruals and forms the basis for fixation of the repayment schedule in respect of the Term Loans raised for a project. (The Ideal DSCR Ratio is considered to be 2 ) PAT + Depr. + Annual Interest on Long Term Loans & Liabilities --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Annual interest on Long Term Loans & Liabilities + Annual Installments payable on Long Term Loans & Liabilities ( Where PAT is Profit after Tax and Depr. is Depreciation)
Quick Ratio : Quick Assets / C L = 200/300 = 0.66 : 1
LIABILITES ASSETS Capital 180 Net Fixed Assets 400 Reserves 20 Inventories 150 Term Loan 300 Cash 50 Bank C/C 200 Receivables 150 Trade Creditors 50 Goodwill 50 Provisions 50 800 800
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EXERCISE 2 1. Tangible Net Worth for 1 st Year : ( 300 + 140) - 50 = 390 2. Current Ratio for 2 nd Year : (170 + 30 +170+20+ 240 + 190 ) / (580+70+80+70) 820 /800 = 1.02 3. Debt Equity Ratio for 1 st Year : 320+150 / 390 = 1.21 LIABILITIES 2005-06 2006-07 2005-06 2006-07 Capital 300 350 Net Fixed Assets 730 750 Reserves 140 160 Security Electricity 30 30 Bank Term Loan 320 280 Investments 110 110 Bank CC (Hyp) 490 580 Raw Materials 150 170 Unsec. Long T L 150 170 S I P 20 30 Creditors (RM) 120 70 Finished Goods 140 170 Bills Payable 40 80 Cash 30 20 Expenses Payable 20 30 Receivables 310 240 Provisions 20 40 Loans/Advances 30 190 Goodwill 50 50 Total 1600 1760 1600 1760
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Exercise 3. 1. Debt Equity Ratio will be : 600 / (200+100) = 2 : 1 2 . Tangible Net Worth : Only equity Capital i.e. = 200 3. Total Outside Liabilities / Total Tangible Net Worth : (600+400+100) / 200 = 11 : 2 4. Current Ratio will be : (300 + 150 + 50 ) / (400 + 100 ) = 1 : 1 LIABIITIES ASSETS Equity Capital 200 Net Fixed Assets 800 Preference Capital 100 Inventory 300 Term Loan 600 Receivables 150 Bank CC (Hyp) 400 Investment In Govt. Secu. 50 Sundry Creditors 100 Preliminary Expenses 100 Total 1400 1400
What is the Current Ratio ? Ans : (1+125 +128+1) / (38+26+9+15)
: 255/88 = 2.89 : 1
Q What is the Quick Ratio ? Ans : (125+1)/ 88 = 1.43 : 11
Q. What is the Debt Equity Ratio ? Ans : LTL / Tangible NW
= 100 / ( 362 – 30)
= 100 / 332 = 0.30 : 1
Exercise 4. LIABILITIES ASSETS Capital + Reserves 355 Net Fixed Assets 265 P & L Credit Balance 7 Cash 1 Loan From S F C 100 Receivables 125 Bank Overdraft 38 Stocks 128 Creditors 26 Prepaid Expenses 1 Provision of Tax 9 Intangible Assets 30 Proposed Dividend 15 550 550
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Q . What is the Proprietary Ratio ? Ans : (T NW / Tangible Assets) x 100 [ (362 - 30 ) / (550 – 30)] x 100 (332 / 520) x 100 = 64% Q . What is the Net Working Capital ? Ans : C. A - C L. = 255 - 88 = 167 Q . If Net Sales is Rs.15 Lac, then What would be the Stock Turnover Ratio in Times ? Ans : Net Sales / Average Inventories/Stock 1500 / 128 = 12 times approximately Exercise 4. contd… LIABILITIES ASSETS Capital + Reserves 355 Net Fixed Assets 265 P & L Credit Balance 7 Cash 1 Loan From S F C 100 Receivables 125 Bank Overdraft 38 Stocks 128 Creditors 26 Prepaid Expenses 1 Provision of Tax 9 Intangible Assets 30 Proposed Dividend 15 550 550
What is the Debtors Velocity Ratio ? If the sales are Rs. 15 Lac.
Ans : ( Average Debtors / Net Sales) x 12 = (125 / 1500) x 12
= 1 month
Q. What is the Creditors Velocity Ratio if Purchases are Rs.10.5 Lac ? Ans : (Average Creditors / Purchases ) x 12 = (26 / 1050) x 12 = 0.3 months Exercise 4. contd… LIABILITIES ASSETS Capital + Reserves 355 Net Fixed Assets 265 P & L Credit Balance 7 Cash 1 Loan From S F C 100 Receivables 125 Bank Overdraft 38 Stocks 128 Creditors 26 Prepaid Expenses 1 Provision of Tax 9 Intangible Assets 30 Proposed Dividend 15 550 550
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Exercise 5. : Profit to sales is 2% and amount of profit is say Rs.5 Lac. Then What is the amount of Sales ? Answer : Net Profit Ratio = (Net Profit / Sales ) x 100 2 = (5 x100) /Sales Therefore Sales = 500/2 = Rs.250 Lac Exercise 6. A Company has Net Worth of Rs.5 Lac, Term Liabilities of Rs.10 Lac. Fixed Assets worth RS.16 Lac and Current Assets are Rs.25 Lac. There is no intangible Assets or other Non Current Assets. Calculate its Net Working Capital. Answer Total Assets = 16 + 25 = Rs. 41 Lac Total Liabilities = NW + LTL + CL = 5 + 10+ CL = 41 Lac Current Liabilities = 41 – 15 = 26 Lac Therefore Net Working Capital = C. A – C.L = 25 – 26 = (- ) 1 Lac
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Exercise 7 : Current Ratio of a concern is 1 : 1. What will be the Net Working Capital ? Answer : It suggest that the Current Assets is equal to Current Liabilities hence the NWC would be NIL ( since NWC = C.A - C.L ) Exercise 8 : Suppose Current Ratio is 4 : 1. NWC is Rs.30,000/-. What is the amount of Current Assets ? Answer : 4a - 1a = 30,000 Therefore a = 10,000 i.e. Current Liabilities is Rs.10,000 Hence Current Assets would be 4a = 4 x 10,000 = Rs.40,000/- Exercise 9. The amount of Term Loan installment is Rs.10000/ per month, monthly average interest on TL is Rs.5000/-. If the amount of Depreciation is Rs.30,000/- p.a. and PAT is Rs.2,70,000/-. What would be the DSCR ? DSCR = (PAT + Depr + Annual Intt.) / Annual Intt + Annual Installment = (270000 + 30000 + 60000 ) / 60000 + 120000 = 360000 / 180000 = 2
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Exercise 10 : Total Liabilities of a firm is Rs.100 Lac and Current Ratio is 1.5 : 1. If Fixed Assets and Other Non Current Assets are to the tune of Rs. 70 Lac and Debt Equity Ratio being 3 : 1. What would be the Long Term Liabilities? Ans : We can easily arrive at the amount of Current Asset being Rs. 30 Lac i.e. ( Rs. 100 L - Rs. 70 L ). If the Current Ratio is 1.5 : 1, then Current Liabilities works out to be Rs. 20 Lac. That means the aggregate of Net Worth and Long Term Liabilities would be Rs. 80 Lacs. If the Debt Equity Ratio is 3 : 1 then Debt works out to be Rs. 60 Lacs and equity Rs. 20 Lacs. Therefore the Long Term Liabilities would be Rs.60 Lac. Exercise 11 : Current Ratio is say 1.2 : 1 . Total of balance sheet being Rs.22 Lac. The amount of Fixed Assets + Non Current Assets is Rs. 10 Lac. What would be the Current Liabilities? Ans : When Total Assets is Rs.22 Lac then Current Assets would be 22 – 10 i.e Rs. 12 Lac. Thus we can easily arrive at the Current Liabilities figure which should be Rs. 10 Lac
Exercise 18. From the following financial statement calculate (i) Current Ratio (ii) Acid test Ratio (iii) Inventory Turnover (iv) Average Debt Collection Period (v) Average Creditors’ payment period.
C.Assets
Sales 1500 Inventories 125
Cost of sales 1000 Debtors 250
Gross profit 500 Cash 225
C. Liabilities
Trade Creditors 200
(i) Current Ratio : 600/200 = 3 : 1
Acid Test Ratio : Debtors+Cash /Trade creditors = 475/200 = 2.4 : 1
Inventory Turnover Ratio : Cost of sales / Inventories = 1000/125 = 8 times
Average Debt collection period : (Debtors/sales) x 365 = (250/1500)x365 = 61 days
Average Creditors’ payment period : (Trade Creditors/Cost of sales) x 365