physiological stress and response

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physiological stress and response

  1. 1. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS AND RESPONSE
  2. 2. STRESS What is stress?  Pressures, demands (stressors), exert force on the body, stress is the body’s response to this.  A stress response is an innate, defensive and adaptive reaction  Stress levels also depend on whether the person feels that they can cope with demands placed on them or not
  3. 3. Stressors A stressor is a___ physical chemical biological agent environmental condition event causes stress to an organism or disturbances the homeostatsis
  4. 4. Homeostasis The process of maintaining a reasonable constant internal environment in the body • Temperature maintanance of body • 37ºC or 98.6 F
  5. 5. Acute vs. Chronic Stress • Acute stress • Sudden, typically short-lived, threatening event (e.g., robbery, giving a speech) • Chronic stress • Ongoing environmental demand (e.g., marital conflict, work stress, personality)
  6. 6. PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS INVOLVED IN THE STRESS RESPONSE  The nervous system  The endocrine system  The immune system
  7. 7. Nervous system Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  Consists of all neural pathways to the extremities  Triggered through the stimulation of sensory nerves  Triggers a series of involuntary chemical response throughout the body Central nervous system (CNS)  Brain and spinal cord
  8. 8. The Endocrine System The endocrine system is a network of four components: Glands Hormones Circulation Target organs Immune system T-cells found in the form of T-helper and T-suppressor
  9. 9. A decade of brain research •Repeated exposure to cortisol increases aging process of brain •Repeated exposure to cortisol damages/ shrinks brain tissue •Damage due to repeated exposure to cortisol appears to be irreversible •We are “wired for stress” for physical threats yet all threats set the alarm
  10. 10. How does stress cause physical illness? DIRECTLY SUPPRESSING THE IMMUNE SYSTEM INDIRECTLY Changes in health practices that will increase risk of illness Leucocytes (white blood cells)  Smoking Lymphocytes (B Cells or T Cells)  Drinking Anti bodies  Drugs Natural killer cells  Sleeplessness Endorphins  Exercise less CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Hypertension Strokes
  11. 11. Biopsychosocial Aspect of Stress • How stress affects health • Via behavior • Via physiology
  12. 12. Physiological Aspects • Cardiovascular reactivity – increased blood pressure, platelets, lipids (cholesterol) • Endocrine reactivity – increased catecholamines and corticosteroids • Immune reactivity – increased hormones impairs immune function
  13. 13. Behavioural Aspects • Increased alcohol • Smoking • Increased caffeine • Poor diet • Inattention leading to carelessness
  14. 14. Psychophysiological Disorders • Digestive system – e.g., ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome • Respiratory system – e.g., asthma • Cardiovascular system – e.g., hypertension, lipid disorders, heart attack, angina
  15. 15. How to survive? 1) Remove the STRESSOR! 2) EFFECTIVELY Cope with the STRESSOR!
  16. 16. Thanks

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