physiological stress and response

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  • 1. PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS AND RESPONSE
  • 2. STRESS What is stress?  Pressures, demands (stressors), exert force on the body, stress is the body’s response to this.  A stress response is an innate, defensive and adaptive reaction  Stress levels also depend on whether the person feels that they can cope with demands placed on them or not
  • 3. Stressors A stressor is a___ physical chemical biological agent environmental condition event causes stress to an organism or disturbances the homeostatsis
  • 4. Homeostasis The process of maintaining a reasonable constant internal environment in the body • Temperature maintanance of body • 37ºC or 98.6 F
  • 5. Acute vs. Chronic Stress • Acute stress • Sudden, typically short-lived, threatening event (e.g., robbery, giving a speech) • Chronic stress • Ongoing environmental demand (e.g., marital conflict, work stress, personality)
  • 6. PHYSIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS INVOLVED IN THE STRESS RESPONSE  The nervous system  The endocrine system  The immune system
  • 7. Nervous system Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  Consists of all neural pathways to the extremities  Triggered through the stimulation of sensory nerves  Triggers a series of involuntary chemical response throughout the body Central nervous system (CNS)  Brain and spinal cord
  • 8. The Endocrine System The endocrine system is a network of four components: Glands Hormones Circulation Target organs Immune system T-cells found in the form of T-helper and T-suppressor
  • 9. A decade of brain research •Repeated exposure to cortisol increases aging process of brain •Repeated exposure to cortisol damages/ shrinks brain tissue •Damage due to repeated exposure to cortisol appears to be irreversible •We are “wired for stress” for physical threats yet all threats set the alarm
  • 10. How does stress cause physical illness? DIRECTLY SUPPRESSING THE IMMUNE SYSTEM INDIRECTLY Changes in health practices that will increase risk of illness Leucocytes (white blood cells)  Smoking Lymphocytes (B Cells or T Cells)  Drinking Anti bodies  Drugs Natural killer cells  Sleeplessness Endorphins  Exercise less CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS Hypertension Strokes
  • 11. Biopsychosocial Aspect of Stress • How stress affects health • Via behavior • Via physiology
  • 12. Physiological Aspects • Cardiovascular reactivity – increased blood pressure, platelets, lipids (cholesterol) • Endocrine reactivity – increased catecholamines and corticosteroids • Immune reactivity – increased hormones impairs immune function
  • 13. Behavioural Aspects • Increased alcohol • Smoking • Increased caffeine • Poor diet • Inattention leading to carelessness
  • 14. Psychophysiological Disorders • Digestive system – e.g., ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome • Respiratory system – e.g., asthma • Cardiovascular system – e.g., hypertension, lipid disorders, heart attack, angina
  • 15. How to survive? 1) Remove the STRESSOR! 2) EFFECTIVELY Cope with the STRESSOR!
  • 16. Thanks