Offshore Response Systems In Reference Of Bioremediation Tech During Oil Spillages & Refinery Sludge Treatment
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Offshore Response Systems In Reference Of Bioremediation Tech During Oil Spillages & Refinery Sludge Treatment

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Feasible Technologies to Combat Hydrocarbon Pollution

Feasible Technologies to Combat Hydrocarbon Pollution

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    Offshore Response Systems In Reference Of Bioremediation Tech During Oil Spillages & Refinery Sludge Treatment Offshore Response Systems In Reference Of Bioremediation Tech During Oil Spillages & Refinery Sludge Treatment Presentation Transcript

    • Offshore Response Systems in reference of bioremediation Tech.
    • Introduction: An oil spill is a release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment due to human activity or any accident, and is a form of pollution. Oil spills include releases of crude oil from tankers, offshore platforms , drilling rigs and wells, as well as spills of refined petroleum products(such as gasoline, diesel) and their by-products, and heavier fuels used by large ships such as bunker fuel, or the spill of any oily refuse or waste oil.
    • So, Oil spills are a major menace to the environment which they severely damage the surrounding ecosystems. In case of oil spillage, it is required to have an effective oil management systems, oil spillage emergency response team and national contingency plan for prompt action against this pollution during oil spillage accident
    • Offshore Response Systems The prime focus of oil spill countermeasures activities is in prevention and planning. This is achieved through well-designed equipment, good maintenance and operating procedures, sound training techniques, and a high degree of awareness and concern at all levels by employees and management. Prevention and mitigation measures should plan for any accidents include: 24-hour manned automated monitoring for any kind of oil spillage, leak detection systems in pipelines & tank farm areas, visual monitoring, and emergency shut down systems for storage and transportation systems.
    •  During accident all concerned agencies should take positive measures to deal with the oil spills within their area and stringent preventive & controlled actions, viz; vessel control with modern equipments with proper port inspection. Agencies should have an effective oil spill response systems.  There should be mandatory audit of Tier-1,tier-2 & Tier-3 facilities supported by legal rules surveillance systems by ports against illegal discharge area of responsibility for oil spill response, standarization of inventory for all tiers capabilities, promulgation of optimum response time for responding to oil spills by offshore installation operator and formation of committee to address oil spill response
    • Offshore Response option decision process: Offshore response options include:  Surveillance and tracking  Mechanical containment and recovery  Chemical dispersion  In-situ burning  Modern tools & equipments  Bioremediation
    • 1-Surveillance and tracking  A systems of surveillance for oil spill should be developed to stop it at the early stage, before it pollutes the coastline beaches.  An accurate assessment and evaluation of oil spill incident is essential prior to any appropriate spill control and clean up procedure and response can be activated. The basic issues need to be addressed towards a realistic assessment of the nature and size of the possible threat and of the resources most at risk bearing in mind the probable movement and expected trajectory of the spill as controlled by the forces of nature.
    •  OSC/OCA should to expeditiously deploy an aircraft from the nearest Coast Guard in case of accident. The aerial surveillance report should amplify such information as extent of spill blanket, spill profile, type of oil spill, identify source of spill, assess geographical features of land, identify potential ecological sensitive areas adjoining the area of spill and marine weather parameters to verify predictions. The surveillance may utilize IR/UV coverage to record ground realities of spill for analysis
    • 2-Mechanical containment and recovery  Mechanical recovery, or the physical removal of oil from the environment, is the method that is usually perceived as the least harmful to the environment. However, mechanical recovery usually is able to recover only a small fraction of the spilled oil. Experience has indicated that recovery of more than 20% of the original spill volume is seldom achieved in marine spills. In fact, in open water under strong current and wind conditions, recovery of only to 10% is not uncommon. Therefore, mechanical recovery is normally used in conjunction with other methods. In its simplest form, mechanical recovery relies on a skimmer capable of removing oil from the surface of the water and pumping it to a storage vessel for subsequent treatment and disposal.
    •  There are two types of oil, persistent and non-persistent. Oil spill response techniques are based on the type of oil. Mechanical recovery is the best option, but needs to be applied quickly, preferably within six hours, before spilled oil can spread and emulsify through the action of the waves. Application of dispersant and type of dispersant needs to follow the guidelines issued by the EPA & MOEF. Dispersant chemicals should have a toxicity test and be certified by a recognized laboratory as approved by the proposed Entity.
    • 3-Chemical dispersion Chemical dispersants are used to break oil slicks into fine droplets that then disperse into the water column. This prevents oil from being driven by wind and currents toward shore and promotes its biodegradation at sea. Key aspects of dispersant use are listed below-  Dispersants should be considered for use with other potential spill response methods and equipment, and not as a last resort.  For maximum effectiveness, dispersants should be applied as soon as possible after a spill. During the early stages of a spill, the oil is unweathered and less spread out, making it easier to disperse.
    • 4-Insitu Burning  In-situ burning (burning oil in place) can quickly eliminate large quantities of spilled oil. Spill response planners now recognize that there are various situations where controlled in-situ burning can be conducted quickly, safely and efficiently. Significant advances in techniques and equipment for in-situ burning have been made in recent years.  The in-situ burning of spilled oil offers the following advantages:  Burning removes large quantities of oil rapidly and efficiently.  Burning can prevent or minimize the amount of oil that reaches shorelines
    •  Burning can often be used in situations where skimming is physically or logistically impossible.  Burning greatly reduces the need for storage and disposal facilities near the slick area.  In-situ burning by containing the spilled oil with a fire resistant boom is an accepted technology but rarely applied due to difficulty in application and safety reasons
    • 5-Modern offshore response system  (a) Some of the tools used to control oil in a spill include ‘booms’, which are floating barriers used to clean oil from the surface of water and to prevent slicks from spreading. A boom can be placed around the tanker that is spilling oil. Booms collect the oil off the water. A boom may be placed somewhere before an oil spill. They can also be placed around an entrance to the ocean, like a stream. They also can be placed around a habitat with many animals living there. These booms absorb any oil that flows around it.  The workers can also use skimmers. Skimmers are boats that can remove the oil off the water. Skimmers which use pumps or vacuums to remove oil as it float on water.
    •  Smart sponge booms & Skimmer-It is an unique Oeliophylic Polymer which is chemically selective to absorb Oil & other hydrocarbons.  It encapsulates Oil & hydrocarbon, resulting in substantially more effective response that prevent absorbed oil from leaching. Once the oil is absorbed, the Smart sponge transform the pollutants into a stable solid for easy recycling, providing a close loop solution to water pollution in a sea or effected area.  Physical methods are used to clean up shorelines. Natural processes such as evaporation, oxidation, and biodegradation can start the cleanup process, but are generally too slow to provide adequate environmental recovery. Physical methods, such as wiping with sorbent materials, pressure washing, and raking and bulldozing can be used to assist these natural processes.
    •  Gelling Agents-Gelling agents, also known as solidifiers, are chemicals that react with oil to form rubber-like solids. With small spills, these chemicals can be applied by hand and left to mix on their own. For treating larger spills, the chemicals are applied to the oil, then mixed in by the force of high-pressure water streams. The gelled oil is removed from the water using nets, suction equipment, or skimmers, and is sometimes reused after being mixed with fuel oil.  Scare tactics are used to protect birds and animals by keeping them away from oil spill areas. Devices such as propane scare-cans, floating dummies, and helium-filled balloons are often used, particularly to keep away birds.
    • Oil spill response equipment:  The maintenance and service of oil spill response equipment are important functions to ensure their readiness for immediate response. Most equipment is manufactured and supplied by the overseas parties. It is, therefore, difficult to get any assistance from the indigenous source for their repair or maintenance during the emergency.
    • The below are the following facilities, equipments, and technologies which could be the reasons of better response system in case of oil spill 1-Bioremediation 2-Insitu burning with fire proof booms 3-Oil skimmers 4-sorbents 5-Oil booms 6-Oil recovery vessels 7-debris recovery 8-oil spill kits 9-Bildge waste collection 10-crocodile drenger 11-power packs 12-incinerator 13-pumps 14-vacuum systems 15-ancillary equipments 16-oil/water separator 17-hyper absorbent peat moss could clean up oil spills
    • 6-Bioremediation  Bioremediation consists of using living organisms like bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, cynobacteria and to a lesser extent plants, to clean toxic pollutants. These organisms may be naturally occurring or genetically modified in a laboratory. These microorganisms eat up the pollutant or assimilate. Bioremediation harnesses this natural process by promoting the growth or rapid multiplication of these organisms that can either effectively degrade or eat specific contaminants and convert them to non hazardous bi-products. Bioremediation is an ecofriendly approach and state of the art technique that employs natural biological process for complete elimination of hazardous pollutants.
    •  ANALYSIS: Each year approximately 1 million tonnes of oil enters the environment through natural petroleum leaks .At these volumes and concentrations, ocean bacteria breaks down all oil because the rate of release from natural oil seeps is low. However, during man-made spills, the amount of oil can overwhelm the natural microbial community, allowing it to spread and wash ashore, causing substantial environmental and ecological problems
    • Types of bioremediation:  Biostimulation provides nutrients and suitable physiological conditions for the growth of the cultivated microbial populations. This promotes increased metabolic activity, which then degrades the pollutants.  Bioaugmentation means introduction of specific blends of laboratory–cultivated microorganism into a contaminated environment or into a bioremediation pit to initiate the process.
    • Why Use Bioremediation:  Bioremediation is environment safe, enhanced natural process that consumes hydrocarbons and converts them to non- hazardous residues.  There are no other pollution generation as it is a clean technology and it reduces the disposal costs.  Treated contaminants can be used as a bio fertilizer in agriculture or as a substitute to farm yard manure and as a soil amendment to improve soil texture.  It is the most economically feasible method for the safe disposal of the oily sludge as compared to the other options including incineration and an engineered landfill site.
    •  This technique is not only cost-effective but resource-productive as well; by producing saleable manure as an end product  The technique of bioremediation also helps in avoiding the harmful emissions of the dioxins from the incinerator.  Instead of transforming contaminants from one medium to another. It totally eliminates the target chemical without any adverse effects.  Can be done either on-site of off-site.
    • Ramsorb: Cleans oil pollutants  Oil spills into the terrestrial & aquatic environments are common now, as we have seen 2-3 oil spills accident, caused due to collision of Msc Chitra & khalijia and MV Rak recently, ONGC pipe line leakage, tar ball occurrences at Goa beaches. However ,oil spill occur in our harbours, inside or outside refinery premises, due to leakage from pipelines, due to accidents of oil carrying tankers etc.  Both the problems of devastating oil spill and oily sludge from refineries can be dealt with using Ramsorb. It is effective, low cost, leaves behind no side effects residues. RAMSORB is a hydrocarbon absorbent product that contains indigenous petroleum-digesting bacteria within its cellulose structure. The unique encapsulation properties of RamSorb augment wicking of hydrocarbons from surrounding soil when mixed by tilling. The hydrocarbons remain encapsulated until degradation is complete while preventing leaching to surrounding soils.
    •  Ramsorb is a modified cellulosic fibre containing oil eating bacteria with all necessary ingredients ,viz.; nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorous etc. It is activated by the addition of moisture, these bacteria have an ideal conditions within which to reproduce and rapidly accumulate to the available hydrocarbon food source.  In bioremediation, no two situations are identical, making it very difficult to formulate recipe-type instructions for all cases; however a few standardized steps should be taken that will assure better than average success. if this procedure is followed, a minimal degradation of 40% should be achieved every 30 days. In optimal conditions, we‘ve achieved as much as 80-90% reduction in 30 days.
    • Conclusion:  Though the results from monitoring bioremediation applications were not unequivocally positive, they provided some very important pieces of information about bioremediation and its performance at oil spills.  Data collected at the Mumbai oil Spill, due to an accident between Msc- chitra & khalijia, clearly showed that, bioremediation could not be measured in minutes or even hours, but only over a period of weeks to months. The difficulty in comparing oil concentrations in sediments between bioremediated and control sites & oil sticked on the vegetative surface of mangroves was a confounding factor in measuring effectiveness.  Positive information gained about bioremediation was that background microbial degradation occurred at faster rates than many had expected, especially in the relatively normal or at cold temperatures. This fact was encouraging for those who support an approach of minimal intervention after oil spills as a viable option under certain circumstances
    •  Although bioremediation holds great promise for dealing with intractable environmental problems, it is important to recognize that much of this promise has yet to be realized. Specifically, much needs to be learned about how microorganisms interact with different hydrologic environments. As this under-standing increases, the efficiency and applicability of bioremediation will grow rapidly. Because of its unique interdisciplinary expertise in microbiology, hydrogeology, and geochemistry.  So, It’s a most preferred and most viable technology to combat Oil or hydrocarbon pollution, only suitable and best response systems to SAVE THE ENVIRONMENT IN ECO-FRIENDLY MANNER without giving any adverse effects on flora fauna & overall environment & this is a way to adopt the sustainable developments in country.
    • Presented by: Safar Mohammad Khan Green Apple Environmental Technologies-Delhi Mail: skhan@greenappletech.in Website: www.greenappletech.in Mob:+91-9326067912  Ph:+91-11-43095349, Telefax:+91-11-43103005  Presented at :OSI-2011-Goa