Respiration, etc

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Respiration, etc

  1. 1. Energy is needed for: Animals Plants, (take up Every Organism(Movement & minerals, open & (Growth and celltransportation of close stomata). division).things in body).Energy is released by RESPIRIATION; this is the chemicalprocess that takes place in every cell, to keep it alive. Respiration 1. Aerobic: - Respiration with the use of oxygen. 2. Anaerobic: - Respiration without the use of oxygen. What Happens In? 1. Aerobic: -glucose is oxidised to give carbon dioxide and water. Chemical Formula of reaction: C6H12O6 + 6O2 6O2 + 6CO2 + 6H2O + energy 1
  2. 2. Glucose + oxygenoxygen + carbon dioxide + energy 2. Anaerobic: -In anaerobic respiration, sugar is broken down (with/o oxygen) into either ethanol or lactic acid is released. A lot less energy is released in anaerobic breakdown than in aerobic. Chemical Formula of reaction: C6H12O6 - 2C2H5OH + 20C2 + Energy Glucose  ethanol + carbon dioxide + EnergyHow to measure the Rate of respiration:You can use a respirometer, which measures the rate at which oxygen is absorbed by organisms (i.e. their metabolic rate). 1) Compare the rate of respiration of different organisms; 2)Find the effect of varying the temperature has on the rate of respiration. 2
  3. 3. How temp affects the rate of respirationA rise of 10 degree’s approximately doubles the rate of respiration.If it rises above 40 degree’s the rate of respiration quicklydecreases and stops.This is because respiration is catalysed by enzymes. Summary of Respiration: Is the breakdown of food to release energy. 1) Yeast 2) Tapeworm These organisms perform anaerobic respiration (they need no oxygen however the oxygen speeds up the process). C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H20 + Energy Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + energy ^ is the simplest formula of the breakdown of food. This process occurs in an organelle called the mitochondria which is in the cells of every organism; without this organelle cells would die. --------- Next topic ---------- next topic ----------- next topic -------- Breathing 3
  4. 4. Is the exchange of gases: Air + 02  in Extra air + CO2  outWhen air goes in through the nose, cilia (the nose hairs) catch smallparticles such as dust, smoke and other small, harmful particles stoppingthem from getting into your lungs, thus making the air you breathe in safer.Furthermore when you breathe in through your mouth does not have theseprotections. After inspiration (when air is drawn in through the mouth or nose) the adenoids in the back of the nose and the tonsils at the back of the mouth, work together to kill harmful micro-organisms. Other benefits of breathing through your nose are the secretions from the membranes in the nose which moisten the air so that it will not dry out the air passages further down. All together when breathing in through the nose you moisten, heat and clean the air you are breathing in, therefore making it safer than breathing in through the mouth. Main Structures in the Breathing System: 4
  5. 5. Structure: Description and Function: Nasal Cavity It is divided by shelves (turbinates) which warms, moistens, cleans and tests the air breathed in. Pharynx (throat) Point where the breathing and alimentary pathways cross. Glottis Small hole through which air enters the larynx. Epiglottis Flap which closes over the glottis during swallowing thereby preventing food from going down it Larynx Contains vocal cords which, when vibrated, make sounds. Trachea Tube by which air passes to and from the lungs. Incomplete Rings of cartilage to keep it open. Bronchi Similar to Trachea, carry air to and from left and right lungs. Bronchioles Narrow, tree like branches of bronchi through which gasses diffuse to and from alveoli. Alveoli Tiny air sacs across whose thin, moist walls gas exchange takes place. Very close association with capillaries. The vast number of alveoli provides a large surface area for gas exchange. Gaseous Exchange across the Alveoli. 5
  6. 6. Alveoli.wmvGaseous exchange refers to the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxidebetween the air and the blood vessels surrounding an alveolus. The walls of the alveoli are composed of a single layer of flattenedepithelial cells, as are the walls of the capillaries, so gases need to diffusethrough just two thin cells.The alveoli walls are kept moist by water diffusing from the surroundingcells. Oxygen dissolves in this water before diffusing through the cells intothe plasma, where it is taken up by haemoglobin in the red blood cells.The water also contains a soapy surfactant which reduces its surfacetension and stops the alveoli collapsing.Oxygen can diffuse down its concentration gradient from the air to theblood, while at the same time carbon dioxide can diffuse down itsconcentration gradient from the blood to the air. 6
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