Introduction Allama Muhammad Iqbal! A great poet, thinker, philosopher, scholar and politician. When Iqbal was born, it was the time of troubles for Indian Muslims. 300 Years before the birth of Iqbal, his family embraced Islam. Iqbal’s grand father Shaikh Rafique used to sell Shawls.
Introduction (Cont.) Shaikh Rafique had a son known as Shaikh Noor Muhammad Noor Muhammad was married . He has six children.
Noor Muhammad Taleh Zainab Karima FatimaAta Muhammad Muhammad Iqbal
Initial Life Friday, November 9, 1877, Iqbal was born at Sialkot. Iqbal got his early education from Mission School and did his F.A. from Murry College, Sialkot and B.A. from Islamia College, Lahore. Then he did his M.A. Philosophy from Islamia College, Lahore.
Life and Career From 1899 – 1905, Iqbal served as Lecturer (Philosophy) in Oriental College, Lahore. In 1905, Iqbal went to Germany, where he did his Ph.D. in Philosophy.
Political Career In 1926, Iqbal started his political career when he was elected as member of Punjab Imperial Legislative Council (PILC).
Two Nation Theory Allama Iqbal was also a strong believer of Hindu- Muslim unity but Congress extremism force him to change his attitude. In 1930, Iqbal clearly discussed Two Nation Theory as: – Islam: as code of conduct and way of life. – Muslims are separate nation. – Demand of separate state.
Islam: as Code of Conduct and Way of Life“Islam is complete code of life; so IndianMuslims should get assistance from Islam. It will support them fully.
Muslims are Separate NationAllama Iqbal openly negated the concept of one nation and said:“Nations are based with religion; not with territories. So we are separate nation because we have our own ideology.”
Demand of Separate State “If British Government is interested toresolve Hindu-Muslim conflicts then India should be divided into states.NWFP, Sindh, Baluchistan, Punjab, Aasam and Bengal should be converted into one unit and authority should be given to Indian Muslims.”
MUHAMMAD ALI JINNAH andTwo Nation Theory /Ideology of Pakistan
Jinnah Bai Poonja Muhammad Ali Banda AliSunday, December 25, 1876 Rehmat Ali Fazal Ali Ahmed Ali Maryam Shereen Fatima
Initial Life Muhammad Ali Jinnah got his early education from Sindh Madrassa-tul-Islam. In 1891, Jinnah was married to Sakeena bai. Then Jinnah went to England. He remained in England from 1891 to 1899. After his arrival, he left Karachi and settled in Bombay.
Political Career In 1906, Jinnah started his political career when he joined All India National Congress. In 1913, Jinnah joined All India Muslim League on the request of Mollana Muhammad Ali Johar. In 1919, he became the President of All India Muslim League.
Two Nation Theory Upto the 1928, Jinnah was also true believer of Hindu Muslim unity. But Nehru report of 1928, dishearted Jinnah. So after Nehru report, Jinnah also talk on Two Nation Theory.“Pakistan was created the day the 1st Indian National entered the fold of Islam”
SUGGESTIONS OF NEHRU REPORT 1 . Ending of Separate Electorate. 2 . Ending of more Muslim Seats than Population . 3 . Ending of more Seats than Population . 4 . Refusal to give 1/3 Representation to Muslim in the center . 5 . Hindi should be introduced as an official language 6-separation of Sind From bombay (Mumbai) 7. Suggestions of Reforms in N.W.F.P province and Aviodness from Balouchistan . 8 . Demand of Strong Central government .
1 Round Table Conference st“Now we on position, from where, if IndianMuslims are not consulted about the future of India; then the proposals of British Govt. would not be run-able more than weeks.”
Annual Session of Muslim League In 1938, Jinnah presided at Pattna:“British Govt. wanted to rule India; whileCongress wanted to rule Indian Muslims. It would not be possible during our life.”
Annual Session of Muslim League In 1940, Jinnah presided at Lahore: “The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs and literature. They neither intermarry nor inter dine together and indeed they belong to two differentcivilizations. So they are separate nation.”
Open Speech 1944 “We did not demand Pakistan simply to have a piece of land but we wanted alaboratory where we could experiment on Islamic principles.”
General Election 1945-46“Now Pakistan is our aim and we will reach there on every cost and every condition.”
Aims and objectives of the Establishment of Pakistan• Following factors can be said to be the objective of the establishment of Pakistan Enforcement of the sovereignty of God Almighty Established of Islamic Democracy Revival of Muslim image and identity Protection of Muslim Culture and Civilization liberation from the harmful Hindo majority Establishment of Balance Economic System Two Nation Theory
1-Enforcement of the sovereignty of God Almighty Quaid Azam Said:“ We did not demand Pakistan to acquire a piece of land, but we wanted a homeland where we could introduce Islamic principles”
2-Established of Islamic Democracy Every thing is equal in Islamic democratic system The Khalifa is Naib of God on the earth. “The Almighty thought us that our decision in the state affairs shell be guided by mutual consultation” (Quiad –e-Azam)
3-Revival of Muslim image and identity The Hindo had adopted a harmful attitude which blocked all channels to wealth and progress to Muslims The National Identity of Muslim was in great danger under the extremes Hindo after British ruler
4-Protection of Muslim Culture and Civilization The Hindo always tried to crush Muslims as Nation and Ultimately merge them in Hindo Society. They Started several Movement for this purpose, Hindi-Urdu controversy was result of this movement. Protection from Hondu was the main motivating point for Pakistan movement
5-liberation from the harmful Hindo majority The British and the Hindus adopted a unkind policy of mass elimination against Muslims in order to erase them as a nation and merge them in Hindu Society. The demand of Pakistan was based on this feeling that Muslim should be liberate from the hold of the eternal Hindus domination
6-Establishment of Balance Economic System Muslim was not in position to entre in business and trade because of biased policy of Government. After the war of the independence 1857, British Government had banned Muslims entre into Government services. All high level jobs were reserved for Hindu The agricultural land mostly owned by Hindus who fully exploited Muslims cultivator. The Government policy provided no shelter to Muslims for earning
7-Two Nation Theory Two Nation Theory based on religion, Economic & political system, cultural & social value, civilization & literature The religion of Islam is based on the concept of Toheed