CCTV SystemClosed-circuit television (CCTV) System is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific, limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point wireless links. CCTV is often used for surveillance in areas which need security, such as banks, casinos, and airports or military installations.
CCTV CamerasA security camera is used in surveillance to monitor public or private areas that need to be monitored for security reasons. Modern security cameras use closed-circuit television (CCTV) technology, which employs video cameras that transmit signals to a specific limited set of monitors.
CCTV Cameras History• 1942 – First CCTV security camera surveillance system installed. German engineer Walter Bruch was responsible for the design and installation of the CCTV security camera surveillance system.• 1956 – First VCR produced by Ampex Corporation team led by Charles Ginsburg. 19 year old engineer Ray Dolby was also part of the team. Built for commercial business use.• 1960’s – First digital camera signals used in cameras over analog by NASA.• 1972 – First VCR for home use produced by Philips.• 1996 – The first IP camera was released in 1996 by Axis Communications.• 1998 – First consumer digital video recorders (DVR) released to the public.
How Do CCTV Cameras Work? • CCTV camera systems includes one or more cameras which are used to send video images and audio data to a monitor. Essentially, these camera systems use cameras to transmit the signals to a main hub which then records that data for later viewing or live viewing if you have full time security personnel on your premises.
Types Of CCTV CamerasCCTV cameras are being installed everywhere for purpose of security and crime prevention and detection. There are many types of CCTV cameras are available for this purpose. These are:• Indoor Camera• Outdoor Camera• IR Day/Night Camera• Dome Camera• Bullet Camera• Hidden Camera• Pan Tilt Zoom Camera
Indoor Camera Indoor Camera as its name suggests used for indoor security mechanism. These are suitable for security in homes, schools, offices, hotels, etc.
Outdoor CameraOutdoor camera is used for outdoor places. They are mostly used for entry and exit points with limited night lighting. These Cameras have hard shell vandal-proof casings.
IR Day/Night CameraIR Day/Night cameras are used for high alert security areas where surveillance needs to happen day and night. These cameras are used by military personals, in parking lots and high security zones.
Dome Camera Dome cameras are installed inside a dark dome and are designed in a way that they go unnoticed by visitors. These cameras can be rotated and tilted manually. Dome cameras are used in public places like railway stations, bus terminals, and other areas where there is a huge gathering of people.
BulletCamera Bullet cameras are placed inside Bullet shaped housing, and they are used in residential places as well as commercial places. they are small in size, have an integrated design and water-proof also.
Vandal Proof Camera Vandal Proof cameras are used as outdoor security cameras. These cameras are sheltered within solid material and covered by a “hub” of break-proof glass which doesn’t affect the quality of the video. It is difficult to break these cameras and this makes them perfect for high security.
Hidden Camera Hidden cameras are compact in size and are used for secret monitoring. They are usually installed in public places like department stores, theatres, clubs, etc. Hidden cameras have a built-in recorder that records and broadcasts simultaneously.
Pan Tilt Zoom Camera Pan-tilt-zoom camera offers the ability to view and zoom in all directions. We can even set the camera to automatically rotate to different fields of vision.
Types Of CCTV SystemsCCTV Systems are broadly divided into two types. These are:• Wired CCTV System• Wireless CCTV System
Wired CCTV SystemWired CCTV systems connect the camera to the recordingdevice and monitor with the help of standard coaxial cablesor Unshielded Twisted Pair(UTP) cables or fiber optic cables.The image data is usually transmitted over a coaxial cable.The signal transmitted over these cables is then fed into amonitor or set of monitors if the image needs to be visible indifferent locations.
Wireless CCTV SystemBasically, Wireless CCTV systems are similar to wired CCTVsystems. The difference is that a radio transmitter is attachedto the camera. A radio receiver then attached to the inputon the monitor system or computer. Wireless systems areuseful when the distance between the camera and themonitor is too far to be practical for a cable run.
Uses Of CCTVCCTV is commonly used for a variety of purposes, including:• Maintaining perimeter security in medium-to-high-secure areas and installations.• Observing behavior of incarcerated inmates and potentially dangerous patients in medical facilities.• Traffic Monitoring• Building and ground security.• Overseeing locations that would be hazardous to a human. for example, highly radioactive environment.• Obtaining a visual record of activities where it is necessary to maintain proper security. for example, in banks, casinos, or airports.
Advantages Of CCTV Camera System• Deters Crime: The presence of CCTV camera system for surveillance will reduce petty thefts and vandalism in shops, malls and other public places.• Helps Maintain Records: The images and videos captured by a CCTV camera system are often recorded and stored into a database.• Protects Employees: This is particularly helpful in customer service centers. The employees providing customer service may sometimes be subjected to verbal abuse or physical attacks. CCTV camera system helps to identify such instances and act immediately. It is also helpful to keep a tab on the activities of the employees.• For Evidence in Lawsuits: In legal cases of thefts and other forms of crime, videos and images provided by the CCTV camera system can serve as a valid proof and evidence against the defaulter.
Disadvantages of CCTV Camera System• Do Not Work Always: CCTV camera system cannot monitor every area of your office or home at all times. Hence it cannot be considered as a foolproof method for crime prevention.• Privacy Concerns: Invasion of privacy is the major issue when it comes to any security system device like the CCTV camera system. It lowers the employee morale and hampers productivity at times. Constant monitoring of every activity might put the workers ill at ease.• Initial Costs: The initial costs incurred per camera are high. The installation may also increase the initial expenditure. It depends upon the complexity of the CCTV camera system as well.
The Future Of CCTV CamerasThe future of CCTV is – IP CCTV. IP CCTV stands forInternet Protocol – Close Circuit Television. With IP CCTVthe video management has become so simple. You canstore and retrieve both analog and digitally recorded videofootage and access it via an internet connection anywherein the world. Especially with the growth of CloudComputing, the IP CCTV has seen a massive boom.
ConclusionTo conclude the use of CCTV cameras has clear benefits. Whenused in moderation, under the correct guidance, Surveillancecameras can be invaluable in aiding the police in theirinvestigations. CCTV can also act as a twenty-four hour policepresence, helping to make the public feel safer. If used excessivelyhowever, the proliferation can lead to an invasion of privacy and aviolation of human rights. The cost of the cameras has also been anissue that has caused many debates as to whether the cost is worththe results. There needs to be reform into how the authorities use theexisting surveillance cameras to enhance their effectiveness to theirimpact on crime.