ORGANIZATIONA
L BEHAVIOUR
WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION?
They are groups of people who work independently towards some purpose.
They have structured pat...
WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR?
Concerned with the study of how people- individuals and groups act in
an organization.
...
WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR?
Organizational Behaviour is a field of study
that investigates the impact that
individua...
WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR?
The above definition has three main elements :
 Study of individuals and group
Impact ...
WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR?
It is a combination of different disciplines (psychology, sociology, social
psychology,...
WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR?
c. Social Psychology – It is a blend of Psychology and Sociology. It focuses
on influenc...
FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR?
Basic assumptions distinct to the discipline are:
1.Individual differences –
Eac...
FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR?
2. A whole person
When an individual is hired their social background, likes and...
FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR?
3. Caused behavior
There is a cause behind a persons behaviour. This behaviour i...
FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR?
4. Organizations are social systems
Behaviour of people in organizations are inf...
FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL
BEHAVIOUR?
5. Mutuality of interest
Organizations need people and people also need organiza...
CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
OB CHALLENGES
MANAGING
DIVERSITY
ETHICAL
BEHAVIOR
TECHNOLOGY
CHANGED
EMPLOYEE
EXPECTATIO...
GLOBALIZATION
1. Increased foreign assignments – manage workforce with
different needs, aspirations and attitudes.
2. Wor...
MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY – NO LONGER A CHOICE
TODAY
•heterogeneous mix of people (age, gender, race, national origin,...
IMPROVING QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY
1.Increased competition is forcing managers to improve their
organizations productivit...
IMPROVING CUSTOMER SERVICE
1. The companies leaders decide to make customer service as their priority. They
need to demon...
IMPROVING PEOPLE SKILLS
1.People skills are the ability to understand and communicate with others. They
are the most impo...
EMPOWERING PEOPLE
1.Traditional allurements such as job security and attractive remuneration are
not the only benefits th...
PROMOTING ETHICAL BEHAVIOR
•Members of organizations are increasingly finding themselves facing ethical
dilemmas- situati...
ETHICAL DILEMMA
SAM WORKS FOR YOU.. HE IS TECHNICALLY CAPABLE AND A GOOD
WORKER… BUT HE DOES NOT GET ALONG WELL WITH OTHER...
TIGER PRIDE
SHEEP LOVE
COW WORK
PIG MONEY
HORSE FAMILY
PERSONALITY
Its beauty that captures
your attention….
Personality that captures
PERSONALITY
Personality refers to the set of traits and behaviour that characterize an
individual.
It has both internal an...
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Personality
Heredity
Social
Family
Situational
Environment
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Heredity
•Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception.
•Physical attr...
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Social
•Socialization process begins with the intial contact between a mother and
her infant,...
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Environment
•Environment includes culture which influences norms, attitudes and
values that a...
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Family
•Family (parents and siblings )has considerable influence on personality
development o...
DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY
Situational Considerations
•It is the immediate situation which may finally dominate the pers...
PERSONALITY
THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY
A few personality experts tried to condense the many personality traits
desc...
PERSONALITY
THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY
EXTROVERSION
This dimension captures one’s comfort level with relationships...
PERSONALITY
THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY
AGREEABLENESS
This refers to a persons ability to get along with others.
Hi...
PERSONALITY
THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY
CONSCIENTIOUSNESS
This dimension refers to the number of goals that a perso...
PERSONALITY
THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY
EMOTIONAL STABILITY
This dimension focuses on an individual’s ability to co...
PERSONALITY
THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY
OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE
Extremely open people are fascinated by novelty and ...
PERSONALITY
MATCHING PERSONALITIES WITH
JOBS
Holland’s Typology of personality
•Realistic - Prefers physical activities th...
PERSONALITY
MATCHING PERSONALITIES WITH
JOBS
Holland’s Typology of personality
•Conventional – Prefers rule regulated, ord...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Certain personality attributes are more powerful in an organization.
Locus of Contr...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Introversion and Extroversion
They are the most common descriptions of personality ...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Characteristics of internal locus of control :
•More control on their behavior
•Acti...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Self- Esteem
Feeling of like or dislike of oneself.
It is crucial and is a cornerst...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Risk taking
People differ in their willingness to take chances.
Managers in larger ...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Self monitoring
•.Self monitoring refers to an individuals ability to adjust his or...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Proactive
Proactiveness is an individuals propensity to take actions / initiative t...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Type A personality
Are always walking, moving and eating rapidly.
Feel impatient wi...
PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB
Type B personality
Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying ...
EXERCISE
Below is a list of characteristics that are often used to indicate gender differences.
If u believe that a charac...
8. ___________ strong need for security
9. ___________ Indifferent to others approval
10. __________ Likes maths and scien...
SENSATION & PERCEPTION
People use sensory organs to sense – eyes to see, nose to smell, tongue to
taste, skin to feel and ...
PERCEPTION
Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their
sensory impressions in order to give ...
FACTORS INFLUENCING
PERCEPTION
PERCEIVER-
When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or
she se...
FACTORS INFLUENCING
PERCEPTION
TARGET-
Characteristics of the target being observed can affect what is perceived.
Because ...
FACTORS INFLUENCING
PERCEPTION
SITUATION-
The context in which we see events is also important.
Eg: A 22 year old in a eve...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
1.RECEIVING STIMULI –
We are constantly bombarded with various stimuli..
These stimuli enter our or...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
2. SELECTING STIMULI –
Not all the stimuli received by the human organism are accepted by it.
The p...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
External factors seeking attention:
a.Location
b.Colour
c.Size
d.Contrast
e.Motion
f.Repetition
g.F...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
Internal factors seeking attention:
a.Learning
b. Age difference
c. Interest
d. Ambivalence
e. Para...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
3. THE PROCESS OF INTERPRETING
After the data has been received and organized, the perceiver interp...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
Important factors contributing to the interpretation are:
a.PERCEPTUAL SET – Previously held belief...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
b. ATTRIBUTION – Process by which an individual assigns causes to the
behaviour he or she conceives...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
c. STEREOTYPING – Tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on
the basis of category of peopl...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
d. HALO EFFECT – When we consider a person good (or bad) in one
category we are likely to make simi...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
e. PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY – According to this principle, the
perception of elements like size, shape,...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
f. PROJECTION – Under certain conditions, people tend to see in
another person traits that they the...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
4. Checking-
After data has been received and interpreted the perceiver tends to check
whether his ...
THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS
4. Reacting-
The last phase in perception is reaction.
The perceiver will indulge in some action in...
MANAGING PERCEPTION
1.Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal
impressions of a decision si...
MANAGING PERCEPTION
5. Avoid inappropriate attributions
6. Diversity Management programs
7. Know yourself
INTUITION
Intuitive decision making is an unconscious process created out of
experience.
Intuition can be a powerful force...
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
VERY IMPORTANTNOT IMPORTANT SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT
1. __________ An enjoyable , satisfying jo...
7. __________Exercising, playing sports
8. __________ Intellectual development
9. __________ A career with challenging opp...
ASSESSMENT
Questions 1,2,3,4,5
A-1 F-2 O-3 N -4
Questions 6,7
A-4 F-3 O-2 N- 1
Questions 8,9 and 10
A-1 F-2 O-3 N -4
ASSESSMENT
32-40
Congrats! You have a winners attitude. Take pride in your approach to life
and you will enjoy success
23-...
ATTITUDES AND VALUES
ATTITUDES AND VALUES
Attitudes are tendencies to feel and behave in a particular way towards people,
objects, ideas or ev...
ATTITUDES AND VALUES
VALUES
Values represent stable, long lasting beliefs about what is important
Values are general belie...
ATTITUDES AND VALUES
VALUES
There are two types of values :
a.Terminal Values – They are desired states of existence that...
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
AFFECTIVE
BEHAVIOUR
A
T
T
I
T
U
D
E
COGNITIVE
ABC MODEL
The 3 components of attitude together form the ABC Model where
A = Affect
B = Behaviour
C = Cognition
Eg : Asses...
COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES
AFFECTIVE COMPONENT
The feelings, sentiments, moods and emotions about some idea, person, event or...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED
Direct experience with the object
Attitudes can develop fr...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED
Vicarious learning
This refers to formation of attitudes b...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED
Family and peer groups
A person may learn attitudes throug...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED
Neighborhood
The neighborhood we live in has a certain str...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED
Mass communications
All varieties of mass communication – ...
TYPES OF ATTITUDE
Job related attitudes at work can be discussed as :
1.JOB SATISFAC TION
Job satisfaction refers to an in...
TYPES OF ATTITUDE
The job satisfaction that an individual derives from is job depends on the
extent to which outcomes meet...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
JOB SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY
There is no strong relation between job satisfaction and productiv...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
JOB SATISFACTION AND TURNOVER
There exists a moderate relationship between satisfaction and turnover...
FORMATION OF ATTITUDE
JOB SATISFACTION AND ABSENTEEISM
Job satisfaction and absenteeism have an inverse relationship.
A hi...
ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT
Organizational commitment refers to an employees satisfaction with a
particular organization and...
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES
ATTITUDE
ADJUSTMENT
KNOWLEDGE
EGO DEFENSIVE
VALUE EXPRESSION
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES
ADJUSTMENT FUNCTION-
People modify their attitudes to adjust to their work environment.
When superi...
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES
EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION-
Attitudes help employees defend their self image and protect their ego.
Exa...
FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES
KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION-
Attitudes provide a standard of reference which allows people to
understand and...
SITUATION
SUPPOSE YOU HAVE AN EMPLOYEE WHOSE LACK OF
COMMITMENT IS AFFECTING OTHERS IN THE WORK GROUP
SUGGEST 3 BEST WAYS ...
MOTIVATION
Motivation can be defined
as :
“the inner force that
drives individuals to
accomplish personal and
organization...
MOTIVATION
I started my life as a brew
master looking to brew beer,
your journey can take you
anywhere, but your life shou...
MOTIVATION
Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that
cause people to behave in certain ways.
...
MOTIVATION
Drives– Drives or motives are two terms that can be used
interchangeably.
Drive is a condition which causes a p...
MOTIVATION
Incentives– Anything that can decrease the intensity of a drive is called an
incentive.
When a person obtains t...
MOTIVATION
Employee Motivation
Intrinsic
Motivation
Extrinsic
Motivation
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation is when an individual is motivated by internal factors.
It is a proce...
MOTIVATION
Intrinsic Motivation
It is a sense of achievement, commitment ,responsibility, job satisfaction,
purpose, invol...
MOTIVATION
Extrinsic Motivation
Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from external factors.
These rewards ...
MOTIVATION
The Over justification Effect
The over justification effect occurs when an external incentive such as
money dec...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
Unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Satisfied needs do not act...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
Physiological need -
The most basic, powerful and obvious of all hum...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
Safety need –
Once physiological needs are met, another set of motiv...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
Social need –
Social needs arise when physiological and safety needs...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
Self Esteem need –
Self Esteem need has been categorized into two su...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY
Self Actualization need –
Once all the 4 needs are met, the need for...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
EXPECTANCY THEORYEXPECTANCY THEORY
Expectancy theory suggests that a person's behaviour is based on...
THEORIES OF MOTIVATION
.
EXPECTANCY INSTRUMENTALITY VALENCEX X
MOTIVATION
LEADERSHIP
•Leadership refers to the ability of one individual to influence others.
•The influence is exercised to change ...
LEADERSHIP
3 TYPES OF INFLUENCE PATTERNS
Compliance – It occurs when people are influenced to do something
against their w...
LEADERSHIP
3 TYPES OF INFLUENCE PATTERNS
Identification –It relates to the situation when people perform what the
leader w...
LEADERSHIP
3 TYPES OF INFLUENCE PATTERNS
Internalization– It occurs when followers are convinced that acting as per
leader...
Interpersonal role
Informational role
Decisional role
Communication
Traditional Management
Human Resource Management...
.
LEADERSHIP STYLES
•Leadership style is the typical approach a particular person uses to lead
people.
•The behavior a lea...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
•Leaders who adopt this style retain all the authority and decision
making power...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
CONSULTATIVE or PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP
•Consultative leaders encourage employees to participate in d...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP
•In this style of leadership leaders set certain rigid rules and
regulations a...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
MUSHROOM MANAGEMENT
•In the mushroom management style you get to do all the work that the
leader does ...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
MICRO MANAGEMENT
•The manager in question acts as if the subordinate is incapable of
doing the job, gi...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
•SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP
•There is no one right way to lead and manage all situations.
•A good leader w...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
Transformational leadership is a leadership
when one or more persons engage with others
in such a way ...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
•Transformational leadership is the ability is to get people to
want to ch...
LEADERSHIP STYLES
.
•Transformational leaders do accept that they there will be failures
along the way.
•They are happy as...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
.
FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL
According to this model leadership requirements depend ...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
.
Degree of task structure – This refers to the degree to which the
task on hand can ...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
.
LPC score (64 and above) ------ Relationship motivated
LPC score ( 57 or lower) ---...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
.
HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL THEORY
According to the situational theory, the ...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
.
Since all employees do not have the same level of competency and
commitment leaders...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
.
Participating- When an employee is capable of performing but not
willing to perform...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY
The fact that leaders act very differently towards dif...
CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP
LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY
The out group people get less of the leaders time and ...
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
 Organizational structure indicates the organization’s hierarchy and authority
structure.
 It i...
ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
 Organization structure requires to respond to two basic issues:
 Division of labour among its ...
WHY ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE?
 Facilitates management
 Encourages growth and diversification
 Facilitates the optimum ...
DIVISION OF LABOUR
 Division of labour refers to the process of dividing the total task of an
organization into successiv...
DIVISION OF LABOUR
While analyzing the results of a division of labour, a distinction is
made between line and staff activ...
SPAN OF CONTROL
 Span of control is also termed as span of authority.
 It refers to the number of subordinates a manage...
SPAN OF CONTROL
 When the span becomes too large, subordinate performance suffers.
 Also when the span is small, it suf...
DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
 Delegation of authority answers questions for employees such as “ Who
do I go if I have a probl...
 It comprises of 3 elements:
 Entrustment of work to another for performance
 Grant of power ro be exercised to perform...
CENTRALIZATION
 The term centralization refers to the degree to which decision making is
concentrated at a single point i...
DECENTRALIZATION
 It is a systematic effort to delegate authority to the lower levels of
organization.
 The lower level ...
DEPARTMENTALIZATION
 The basis by which jobs are grouped together is called
departmentalization.
 The central issue rega...
 Territorial departmentalization – Territorial departmentalization takes
place when an enterprise is organized into a num...
LIFE CYCLE OF ORGANIZATION
 Quinn and Cameron have proposed 4 major stages to describe an
organization’s life cycle.
 En...
Collectivity Stage
 At this stage organization tends to take a formal shape.
 Departmentalization starts based on divis...
Formalization Stage
 At this stage policies, procedures and rules are finalized to formalize
the whole organization.
 W...
Elaboration Stage
 The elaboration stage is marked by extensive control systems, rules and
procedures.
 Individual empl...
Organizational+behavior
Organizational+behavior
Organizational+behavior
Organizational+behavior
Organizational+behavior
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Organizational+behavior

  1. 1. ORGANIZATIONA L BEHAVIOUR
  2. 2. WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? They are groups of people who work independently towards some purpose. They have structured patterns of interactions, meaning that they expect each other to complete certain tasks in an organized way. Eg : People who have lot of money may invest jointly to build a resort at Lonavala. A group of people with similar beliefs may build a place of workship.
  3. 3. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Concerned with the study of how people- individuals and groups act in an organization. It is a combination of different disciplines (psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science and economics. It attempts to understand human behavior in organizational settings (ability, biographical characteristics), the organization itself (work specialization, departmentalization)the individual –organization interface (conflict, leadership).
  4. 4. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Organizational Behaviour is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and organizational structure have on behaviour within an organization, for the purpose of applying such knowledge towards improving on organizational effectiveness
  5. 5. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? The above definition has three main elements :  Study of individuals and group Impact of organizational structure on human behaviour Application of knowledge to achieve organizational effectiveness
  6. 6. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? It is a combination of different disciplines (psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology, political science and economics. a.Psychology – It is the study of individual human behavior. Psychologists study the perceptions , personality, emotions of human behavior. a.Sociology – It is the study of individuals in relation to their fellow human beings. Some areas that sociologists study are conflicts, group dynamics, teamwork etc.
  7. 7. WHAT IS ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? c. Social Psychology – It is a blend of Psychology and Sociology. It focuses on influence of people on one another. Some of their areas of study are understanding and changing attitudes, building trust etc. d. Anthropology – It is the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. It focuses on understanding differences in fundamental values, attitudes and behaviors between people in different countries and organizations. e. Political Science – It studies the behavior of individuals and groups within a political environment. Topics such as structuring of conflict, how people manipulate power for individual interests.
  8. 8. FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? Basic assumptions distinct to the discipline are: 1.Individual differences – Each person in the world is individually different in several ways (intelligence, personality, etc) From the day of birth each person is unique and individual experiences after birth make people even more different. If there were no individual differences a standard way of dealing with employees could be adopted.
  9. 9. FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? 2. A whole person When an individual is hired their social background, likes and dislikes , pride are also hired. Hence managers must try to develop a better employee out of a worker and also a better person
  10. 10. FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? 3. Caused behavior There is a cause behind a persons behaviour. This behaviour is directed towards some one that the employee believes, (whether right or wrong). Egs: when a person throws a stone at a bus, comes late to work, creates conflicts with colleagues there is a cause behind it. Managers must realize this principle and tackle the issue accordingly.
  11. 11. FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? 4. Organizations are social systems Behaviour of people in organizations are influenced by their groups as well as their individual drives. Two types of social systems exist in an organization – formal and informal All parts of the system are interdependent and are subject to influence by any other part.
  12. 12. FOUNDATIONS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR? 5. Mutuality of interest Organizations need people and people also need organizations. People see organizations as a means to help them reach their goals, while at the same time organization need people to help attain organizational objectives.
  13. 13. CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST OB CHALLENGES MANAGING DIVERSITY ETHICAL BEHAVIOR TECHNOLOGY CHANGED EMPLOYEE EXPECTATIONS GLOBALISATION DEMOGRAPHICS OF WORKFORCE
  14. 14. GLOBALIZATION 1. Increased foreign assignments – manage workforce with different needs, aspirations and attitudes. 2. Working with people from different cultures – Even in our own country we get an opportunity to work with bosses, seniors who are raised in other countries. 3. Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low cost labour – Jobs tend to flow to places with relatively low labor costs. Eg: Samsung CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  15. 15. MANAGING WORKFORCE DIVERSITY – NO LONGER A CHOICE TODAY •heterogeneous mix of people (age, gender, race, national origin, disability ,educational, mindsets etc) . •It should be comprehensive process for managing differences in 2 dimensions, primary (age, disability, national origin, education, gender etc ) and secondary (mindsets, values systems, ethics etc) • Eg : Pepsico features job posting only for women on the site jobstreet.com , Titan, Mphasis CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  16. 16. IMPROVING QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY 1.Increased competition is forcing managers to improve their organizations productivity and the quality of products and services they offer. 2. Intense focus on customers 3. Concern for continuous improvement 4. Improvement in the quality of everything the organization does. 5. Accurate measurements Eg: Revival of TATA Engineering CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  17. 17. IMPROVING CUSTOMER SERVICE 1. The companies leaders decide to make customer service as their priority. They need to demonstrate the same in their actions and words. 2. An employees behavior and attitude significantly contribute in customer satisfaction. A lot of companies have failed because they failed to please their customers. 3. Management needs to create a customer- responsive culture. CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  18. 18. IMPROVING PEOPLE SKILLS 1.People skills are the ability to understand and communicate with others. They are the most important drivers of leadership success. 2.A lot changes with the way we interact personally with people. 3.Some of the people skills required by managers at work would be ways to motivating people, maintaining rapport with management and team members. CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  19. 19. EMPOWERING PEOPLE 1.Traditional allurements such as job security and attractive remuneration are not the only benefits that attract, retain or motivate employees 2. Employees today demand empowerment and expect quality of status with the management. 3. Managers must learn how to give up control and employees must learn to take up responsibility for their work. CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  20. 20. PROMOTING ETHICAL BEHAVIOR •Members of organizations are increasingly finding themselves facing ethical dilemmas- situation in which they are required to define right and wrong conduct. •What constitutes ethical behavior has never been clearly defined . It depends on certain factors such as person’s characteristics, cultural influences, and external factors . Eg: Wipro Ombuds, TATA CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  21. 21. ETHICAL DILEMMA SAM WORKS FOR YOU.. HE IS TECHNICALLY CAPABLE AND A GOOD WORKER… BUT HE DOES NOT GET ALONG WELL WITH OTHERS IN THE TEAM… WHEN SAM HAS AN OPPORTUNITY TO GET A TRANSFER, YOU ENCOURAGE HIM TO TAKE IT… WHAT WOULD YOU SAY TO SAM’S POTENTIAL SUPERVISOR WHEN HE ASKS ABOUT SAM?? CHALLENGES FACED BY OB SPECIALIST
  22. 22. TIGER PRIDE SHEEP LOVE COW WORK PIG MONEY HORSE FAMILY
  23. 23. PERSONALITY Its beauty that captures your attention…. Personality that captures
  24. 24. PERSONALITY Personality refers to the set of traits and behaviour that characterize an individual. It has both internal and external elements. The external traits are the observable behaviours that we notice in an individuals personality. Eg: Aggression, being an introvert, being an extrovert etc. Internal traits represent the thoughts, values and genetic characteristics that we infer from the behaviours. The characteristics that are exhibited in a large number of situations are called personality traits.
  25. 25. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Personality Heredity Social Family Situational Environment
  26. 26. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Heredity •Heredity refers to those factors that were determined at conception. •Physical attributes like height, weight, skin colour, facial attractiveness, temperament, energy level, intelligence etc are some of the characteristics that are generally considered to be imported either completely or partially from one’s parents.
  27. 27. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Social •Socialization process begins with the intial contact between a mother and her infant, thereafter other members of the family followed by the social groups (school, college, friends, colleagues etc) •They play a very important role in personality development of an individual.
  28. 28. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Environment •Environment includes culture which influences norms, attitudes and values that are passed along from one generation to the next. •While growing the child learns to behave in ways expected by the culture of the family in which he/she is born. •Qualities such as aggression, cleanliness, moral values etc are determined by culture.
  29. 29. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Family •Family (parents and siblings )has considerable influence on personality development of an individual particularly in the early stages. •Family is the first characteristic affecting an individuals personality after hereditary characteristics. •For Eg: Children may develop negative personalities if their parents don’t have a good relation.
  30. 30. DETERMINANTS OF PERSONALITY Situational Considerations •It is the immediate situation which may finally dominate the personality of an individual. •The different demands of different situations call forth different aspects of ones personality. •For eg: while at a job interview or a temple some behaviours may be constrained while at a party or picnic it may be constrained less.
  31. 31. PERSONALITY THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY A few personality experts tried to condense the many personality traits described over years into 5 abstract personality dimensions known as ‘THE BIG 5’ personality dimension. EXTROVERSION AGREEABLENESS CONSCIENTIOUSNESS EMOTIONAL STABILITY OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE
  32. 32. PERSONALITY THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY EXTROVERSION This dimension captures one’s comfort level with relationships. Characteristics of a person with an extrovert personality include outgoing, talkative, assertive etc. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid and quiet.
  33. 33. PERSONALITY THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY AGREEABLENESS This refers to a persons ability to get along with others. Highly agreeable persons value harmony more than they value having their say or their way. People who score more on agreeableness focus more on their own needs then the needs of others. Eg: Trusting, good natured, cooperative, softhearted
  34. 34. PERSONALITY THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY CONSCIENTIOUSNESS This dimension refers to the number of goals that a person focuses on. A highly conscientious person focuses on relatively few goals at one time. Since a person with low conscientious person nature tends to focus on too many goals at one time, the individual is more disorganized, careless and irresponsible. Eg: Dependable, responsible, persistent, achievement oriented
  35. 35. PERSONALITY THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY EMOTIONAL STABILITY This dimension focuses on an individual’s ability to cope with stress. Individual with positive emotional stability tends to be more calm, enthusiastic and secure. A person with low emotional stability tends to be nervous, depressed and insecure. Eg: relaxed, worried, calm, secure
  36. 36. PERSONALITY THE BIG FIVE MODEL OF PERSONALITY OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE Extremely open people are fascinated by novelty and innovation. They are willing to listen to new ideas and to change their own ideas, beliefs and attitudes in response to new information. People with low levels of openness tend to be less receptive to new ideas and less willing to change their minds. Eg: broadminded, imaginative, sensitive
  37. 37. PERSONALITY MATCHING PERSONALITIES WITH JOBS Holland’s Typology of personality •Realistic - Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength and coordination. Eg: farmer, mechanic •Investigative – Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing and understanding. Eg: economist, mathematician •Social – Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others. Eg : Counselor, social worker
  38. 38. PERSONALITY MATCHING PERSONALITIES WITH JOBS Holland’s Typology of personality •Conventional – Prefers rule regulated, orderly and unambiguous activities. Eg : accountant, file clerk •Enterprising – Prefers verbal activities where there are opportunities to influence others and attain power. Eg : Lawyer, real estate agent, sales person •Artistic – Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression . Eg: Painter, musician, interior decorator
  39. 39. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Certain personality attributes are more powerful in an organization. Locus of Control The belief that events are either within one’s control or not. i.e a persons perception of the source of their fate is termed as locus of control. Strong internal locus of control consists of people who believe that they control their destinies. Strong external locus of control consists of people who believe that their lives are being controlled by outside forces.
  40. 40. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Introversion and Extroversion They are the most common descriptions of personality traits. These terms are mostly associated with an individuals sociability and interpersonal orientation. Extroverts are gregarious and sociable while introverts are shy, quiet and retiring.
  41. 41. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Characteristics of internal locus of control : •More control on their behavior •Active in seeking information before taking decisions •Socially more active •More satisfied with their jobs •More reliant on own judgement •Prefer achievement in skill than chance
  42. 42. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Self- Esteem Feeling of like or dislike of oneself. It is crucial and is a cornerstone of positive attitude. Directly related to the desire for success Individuals with high self esteem are likely to choose unconventional jobs Low Self esteem individuals are more susceptible to external influence
  43. 43. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Risk taking People differ in their willingness to take chances. Managers in larger organizations tend to be risk averse , especially in contrast to growth oriented entrepreneurs It makes sense to align risk taking propensity with specific job demands.
  44. 44. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Self monitoring •.Self monitoring refers to an individuals ability to adjust his or her behaviour to external or situational factors. •Individuals high in self monitoring can show considerable adaptability in adjusting their behaviour. •People with low self monitoring tend to display their true dispositions and attitudes in every situation
  45. 45. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Proactive Proactiveness is an individuals propensity to take actions / initiative to improve their current circumstances or create new ones They identify opportunities, show initiative, take action and persevere until meaningful change occurs. They are more likely to be seen as leaders and more likely to act as a change agent. Actions of pro-actives can be positive or negative.
  46. 46. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Type A personality Are always walking, moving and eating rapidly. Feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place Strive to think or do many things at once Cannot cope with leisure time Are obsessed with measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
  47. 47. PERSONALITY ATTRIBUTES INFLUENCING OB Type B personality Never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience Feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments unless such exposure is demanded by the situation. Play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost. Can relax without guilt
  48. 48. EXERCISE Below is a list of characteristics that are often used to indicate gender differences. If u believe that a characteristic is more like a male mark an M. Mark an F if you believe a characteristic is more like a typical female…. Mark N if you believe there is no difference 1. _____________ Aggressive 2. _____________ Dominant 3. _____________ Excitable in a major crisis 4. _____________ home oriented 5. _____________ high mechanical aptitude 6._____________ feelings easily hurt 7._____________ never cries
  49. 49. 8. ___________ strong need for security 9. ___________ Indifferent to others approval 10. __________ Likes maths and science 11. __________ Emotional 12. ___________ Has difficulty making decisions.
  50. 50. SENSATION & PERCEPTION People use sensory organs to sense – eyes to see, nose to smell, tongue to taste, skin to feel and ears to hear. Thus sensation deals with the basic behaviour of an individual caused by his physiological functions. Perception is when an individual takes in the raw data through his senses and then refines, modifies or completely alters it by his thought process. Eg : Bad smell , taste of the food, seeing 60 students in a class
  51. 51. PERCEPTION Perception is a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. In simple terms perception is the ability to see and hear things through the senses. It is our interpretation of reality. People’s behaviour is influenced by their perception of reality rather than the actual reality.
  52. 52. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION PERCEIVER- When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she sees . This interpretation is heavily influenced by the personal characteristics of an individual perceiver.
  53. 53. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION TARGET- Characteristics of the target being observed can affect what is perceived. Because targets are not looked at in isolation, the relationship of a target to its background influences perception.
  54. 54. FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION SITUATION- The context in which we see events is also important. Eg: A 22 year old in a evening party vis-a –vis a lecture on Monday morning. Eg: The boss may perceive young people to be lazy in office Eg: I lose a match. I thought ‘we have been a bad team’
  55. 55. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS 1.RECEIVING STIMULI – We are constantly bombarded with various stimuli.. These stimuli enter our organism through the sensory organs- vision, touch, smell, hearing, taste Stimuli can be internal and external .
  56. 56. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS 2. SELECTING STIMULI – Not all the stimuli received by the human organism are accepted by it. The process of filtering information received by our senses is called selecting stimuli or selective attention. Several internal and external factors influence selecting stimuli
  57. 57. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS External factors seeking attention: a.Location b.Colour c.Size d.Contrast e.Motion f.Repetition g.Familiarity
  58. 58. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS Internal factors seeking attention: a.Learning b. Age difference c. Interest d. Ambivalence e. Paranoid perception
  59. 59. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS 3. THE PROCESS OF INTERPRETING After the data has been received and organized, the perceiver interprets or assigns meaning to the information. In fact perception is said to have taken place only after the data has been interpreted. There are some factors that contribute towards interpretation of data.
  60. 60. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS Important factors contributing to the interpretation are: a.PERCEPTUAL SET – Previously held beliefs about objects/ situations Eg: A manager may have developed a general belief that workers are lazy
  61. 61. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS b. ATTRIBUTION – Process by which an individual assigns causes to the behaviour he or she conceives. Eg: A nurse drops a tray of medicines will be excused if the incident is perceived as cause of slippery floor. A manager decides an employee who performs a task poorly is a bad worker. I failed the CET twice, may be I was not lucky.
  62. 62. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS c. STEREOTYPING – Tendency to assign attributes to someone solely on the basis of category of people to which that person belongs. Eg: Men cannot be good HR Managers Men are dominant Women are emotional Japanese are hard working.
  63. 63. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS d. HALO EFFECT – When we consider a person good (or bad) in one category we are likely to make similar evaluations in other categories too. Eg: If the manager of a restaurant is good at customer service, it doesn’t mean the food is tasty, the ambience is good.
  64. 64. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS e. PERCEPTUAL CONSTANCY – According to this principle, the perception of elements like size, shape, colour, brightness of an object remains constant and does not change from one individual to another. Eg: if a photograph of a person is printed in a newspaper and although the photograph measures only 2-3 inches in length, we still perceive the individual to be between 5 to 6 feet in height We tend to identify an apple just by the sight of it. It doesn’t matter whether we see a picture of a fruit or the fruit itself.
  65. 65. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS f. PROJECTION – Under certain conditions, people tend to see in another person traits that they themselves possess. Eg: An individual who is himself not very energetic may see others as lazy. One who is dishonest may be suspicious of others may perceive dishonest intentions in others.
  66. 66. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS 4. Checking- After data has been received and interpreted the perceiver tends to check whether his interpretations are right or wrong. It is checked either by putting a series of questions to himself or checking with others.
  67. 67. THE PERCEPTUAL PROCESS 4. Reacting- The last phase in perception is reaction. The perceiver will indulge in some action in relation to his /her perception The action is positive when the perception is favourable and negative when the perception is unfavourable. Eg: A worker responds to a manager positively provided his or her understanding about the boss is favourable.
  68. 68. MANAGING PERCEPTION 1.Seek information from various sources to confirm or disconfirm personal impressions of a decision situation. 2.Be empathetic- be able to view the situation as it is perceived by other people. 3.Influence perceptions of other people when they are drawing incorrect or incomplete impressions of events. 4.Avoid common perceptual distortions
  69. 69. MANAGING PERCEPTION 5. Avoid inappropriate attributions 6. Diversity Management programs 7. Know yourself
  70. 70. INTUITION Intuitive decision making is an unconscious process created out of experience. Intuition can be a powerful force in decision making. People most likely use the intuition process when: • a high level of uncertainty exists. • when variables are less scientifically predictable • when facts are limited • when time is limited and there is pressure to come up with the right decision
  71. 71. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 VERY IMPORTANTNOT IMPORTANT SOMEWHAT IMPORTANT 1. __________ An enjoyable , satisfying job 2. ___________ A high paying job 3. ___________ A good marriage 4. ___________ meeting new people, social events 5. __________ involvement in community activities. 6. __________ my relationship with GOD
  72. 72. 7. __________Exercising, playing sports 8. __________ Intellectual development 9. __________ A career with challenging opportunities 10.___________ Nice cars, clothes, home etc 11. ___________ Spending time with family. 12. _____________having several close friends. 13. __________volunteer work for non profit organ izations. 14. __________Meditation, quite time to think, pray etc 15. __________A healthy balanced diet 16. __________ Educational reading, TV, self improvement programs
  73. 73. ASSESSMENT Questions 1,2,3,4,5 A-1 F-2 O-3 N -4 Questions 6,7 A-4 F-3 O-2 N- 1 Questions 8,9 and 10 A-1 F-2 O-3 N -4
  74. 74. ASSESSMENT 32-40 Congrats! You have a winners attitude. Take pride in your approach to life and you will enjoy success 23-31 You have a tendency to feel dissatisfied with your achievements. Put in a little conscious effort and you will emerge as a winner 10-22 There is a need for a change in attitude. Gradually try to change your mindset. You should make a conscious effort to remain optimistic if you want a successful life
  75. 75. ATTITUDES AND VALUES
  76. 76. ATTITUDES AND VALUES Attitudes are tendencies to feel and behave in a particular way towards people, objects, ideas or events. Attitudes endure, unless something happens. Attitudes are evaluative statements that can either be favourable or unfavorable. All people, irrespective of their status or intelligence, hold attitudes An attitude may involve a prejudice- in which we prejudge an issue without giving unbiased considerations to all the evidence.
  77. 77. ATTITUDES AND VALUES VALUES Values represent stable, long lasting beliefs about what is important Values are general beliefs about about life whereas attitudes are directed towards specific events or people. Values are judgemental in nature since they convey an individuals ideas regarding what is right, good or desirable.
  78. 78. ATTITUDES AND VALUES VALUES There are two types of values : a.Terminal Values – They are desired states of existence that we think are worth striving. Egs : A world of comfortable life, no bribe b. Instrumental Values – They are desirable modes of behaviour that help us reach the objectives of terminal values. Eg: Polite
  79. 79. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES AFFECTIVE BEHAVIOUR A T T I T U D E COGNITIVE
  80. 80. ABC MODEL The 3 components of attitude together form the ABC Model where A = Affect B = Behaviour C = Cognition Eg : Assess one employees attitudes towards flexitime at work. We would determine : •How they feel about flexitime ? (affect) •Whether they would use flexitime ? (behaviour) •What they think about the policy ? (cognitive)
  81. 81. COMPONENTS OF ATTITUDES AFFECTIVE COMPONENT The feelings, sentiments, moods and emotions about some idea, person, event or object. COGNITIVE COMPONENT The beliefs, opinion, knowledge or information held by the individual. BEHAVIOURAL COMPONENT The dispositions to get on a favorable or unfavorable actions.
  82. 82. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED Direct experience with the object Attitudes can develop from a personally rewarding or punishing experience with an object. Employees form attitudes about jobs on their previous experiences. Attitudes based on experience are difficult to change.
  83. 83. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED Vicarious learning This refers to formation of attitudes by observing behaviour of others and consequences of that behaviour. We could also learn vicariously through television, films and other media.
  84. 84. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED Family and peer groups A person may learn attitudes through imitation of parents. If parents have a positive attitude towards an object, the child is likely to adopt a similar attitude. Egs: Attitudes regarding occupations, tolerance, education etc
  85. 85. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED Neighborhood The neighborhood we live in has a certain structure in terms of its having cultural facilities, religious grouping etc. The neighbors tolerate or deny certain attitudes and behavior and as a result we may either northerners or southerners. The conformity or rebel in some respects is the evidence of the attitudes we hold.
  86. 86. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE ATTITUDES ARE ACQUIRED BUT NOT INHERITED Mass communications All varieties of mass communication – television, radio, newspapers feed their audiences large quantities of information. The presentation of news or information is constructed so as to cater to the attitude of the audience.
  87. 87. TYPES OF ATTITUDE Job related attitudes at work can be discussed as : 1.JOB SATISFAC TION Job satisfaction refers to an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job. It results when an individual perceives that his job provides him with what is important to him. It is an emotional response to a job. This response can be seen.
  88. 88. TYPES OF ATTITUDE The job satisfaction that an individual derives from is job depends on the extent to which outcomes meet his expectations. There are 6 important characteristics of a job that elicit favorable or unfavorable responses from employees: a.The work itself b.Pay c.Promotion opportunities d.Supervision e.Coworkers f.Working conditions
  89. 89. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE JOB SATISFACTION AND PRODUCTIVITY There is no strong relation between job satisfaction and productivity. There are other mediating relationships like rewards that lead to an increase in productivity. Job satisfaction does contribute in an overall improvement in organizational performance.
  90. 90. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE JOB SATISFACTION AND TURNOVER There exists a moderate relationship between satisfaction and turnover. High job satisfaction will not eliminate employee turnover but will only help to reduce the rate of turnover. Job dissatisfaction will encourage employees to switch organizations at the slightest opportunity for better prospects. A country’s economy and the employment scenario also influences turnover.
  91. 91. FORMATION OF ATTITUDE JOB SATISFACTION AND ABSENTEEISM Job satisfaction and absenteeism have an inverse relationship. A high level of job satisfaction leads to low absenteeism and a low level of job satisfaction results in high absenteeism. The extent to which people consider their jobs important, also have an impact on absenteeism.
  92. 92. ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT Organizational commitment refers to an employees satisfaction with a particular organization and its goals. A person with a high level of organizational commitment is a strong supporter of the values of the organization. Personal variables include - his tenure in the organization, his attitude towards the job Organizational variables include – leadership style of the supervisor. Non organizational factors include – state of job market.
  93. 93. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES ATTITUDE ADJUSTMENT KNOWLEDGE EGO DEFENSIVE VALUE EXPRESSION
  94. 94. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES ADJUSTMENT FUNCTION- People modify their attitudes to adjust to their work environment. When superiors treat employees fairly, the employees tend to develop positive attitude but if management fails to treat them well they develop a negative attitude.
  95. 95. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION- Attitudes help employees defend their self image and protect their ego. Example: A manager who is poor at decision making process. VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION – People may express their values through their attitudes.
  96. 96. FUNCTIONS OF ATTITUDES KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION- Attitudes provide a standard of reference which allows people to understand and explain their environment. Eg: Union leader
  97. 97. SITUATION SUPPOSE YOU HAVE AN EMPLOYEE WHOSE LACK OF COMMITMENT IS AFFECTING OTHERS IN THE WORK GROUP SUGGEST 3 BEST WAYS YOU WOULD CHOOSE TO CHANGE HIS ATTITUDE?
  98. 98. MOTIVATION Motivation can be defined as : “the inner force that drives individuals to accomplish personal and organizational Goals”.
  99. 99. MOTIVATION I started my life as a brew master looking to brew beer, your journey can take you anywhere, but your life should be an inspiring hope
  100. 100. MOTIVATION Motivation in simple terms may be understood as the set of forces that cause people to behave in certain ways. Every individual has different motivational drives but the situation also plays an important role in determining a persons motivational level. Motivation consists of 3 interacting and interdependent elements – needs, drives and incentives Needs – An imbalance leads to the creation of a need. For Eg : The need for water arises when a person is thirsty.
  101. 101. MOTIVATION Drives– Drives or motives are two terms that can be used interchangeably. Drive is a condition which causes a person to work in a particular direction. These motives push an individual towards achieving a certain goal or accomplishing a certain task. Drives constitute the core element in motivation.
  102. 102. MOTIVATION Incentives– Anything that can decrease the intensity of a drive is called an incentive. When a person obtains the incentive, the strength of that drive is reduced. For eg: drinking water helps in achieving balance.
  103. 103. MOTIVATION Employee Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation
  104. 104. MOTIVATION Intrinsic Motivation Intrinsic motivation is when an individual is motivated by internal factors. It is a process of satisfaction in which the rewards come from carrying out an activity than a result of an activity. It holds no promise of rewards. Intrinsic motivation however does not mean that a person will not seek rewards.
  105. 105. MOTIVATION Intrinsic Motivation It is a sense of achievement, commitment ,responsibility, job satisfaction, purpose, involvement, empowerment and ownership - all the things that make an employee feel that what they’re doing makes a big difference in their lives and in the organisation itself. Those who are intrinsically motivated derive satisfaction from the value of their work. Praise, training programs, creation of informal leadership roles helps an employee to be intrinsically motivated.
  106. 106. MOTIVATION Extrinsic Motivation Extrinsic motivation refers to motivation that comes from external factors. These rewards may provide satisfaction and pleasure that the task itself may not provide. An extrinsically motivated person will work on the task even if they have little interest in it because of the anticipated satisfaction they will get from the reward. Eg: A student not interested in OB… however could be motivated due to grades.
  107. 107. MOTIVATION The Over justification Effect The over justification effect occurs when an external incentive such as money decreases a persons intrinsic motivation to perform a task. In an over justified effect I contribute my behavior to an extrinsic factor than to intrinsic reasons.
  108. 108. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Unsatisfied needs can influence behavior. Satisfied needs do not act as motivators. Since needs are many, they are arranged in an order of importance.- hence need- hierarchy theory of motivation. The person advances to the next level of hierarchy , or from basic to complex only when the lower level need is satisfied. As the person moves up the hierarchy the more humanness he will display.
  109. 109. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Physiological need - The most basic, powerful and obvious of all human needs is the need for physical survival. Need for food, water, oxygen, sleep are included in this group. In an organization, physiological needs are represented by employees concern for salary and basic working conditions.
  110. 110. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Safety need – Once physiological needs are met, another set of motives called safety or security needs become motivators. These needs are most readily observed in young children because of their dependence on adults. The acquisition of insurance, medical policies, owning of a house are included in this group. In an organization, safety needs are represented by the preference for secured income, safe working conditions, job security, provident funds etc.
  111. 111. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Social need – Social needs arise when physiological and safety needs are satisfied. An individual motivated on this level longs for affectionate relationship with others, crave to acquire a place in the family. In an organization context, social needs represent the need for a compatible work group, peer acceptance and friendly supervision.
  112. 112. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Self Esteem need – Self Esteem need has been categorized into two subsidiary sets : self respect and self esteem from others- self respect and esteem from others. Self respect includes things as desire for competence, independence, confidence and freedom. (self efficacy) Esteem from others include prestige, attention, status, reputation and appreciation In the workplace self esteem needs correspond to job title, recognition from supervisor and publicity in company publications.
  113. 113. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION MASLOW’S NEED HIERARCHY THEORY Self Actualization need – Once all the 4 needs are met, the need for self actualization comes in the forefront. Self actualization is the desire to become everything that one is capable of becoming. It is to become the total kind of person that one wants to become to reach the peak of ones potential. In an organization self actualization needs to correlate to desire for excelling oneself in ones job. .
  114. 114. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION EXPECTANCY THEORYEXPECTANCY THEORY Expectancy theory suggests that a person's behaviour is based on 3factors –Expectancy theory suggests that a person's behaviour is based on 3factors – Expectancy, Instrumentality and ValenceExpectancy, Instrumentality and Valence Expectancy is similar to self efficacy. Beliefs about the link between trying toExpectancy is similar to self efficacy. Beliefs about the link between trying to perform a behavior and actually performing well are called expectancies.perform a behavior and actually performing well are called expectancies. A belief that performing a given behavior is associated with a particular outcome isA belief that performing a given behavior is associated with a particular outcome is called instrumentality.called instrumentality. Valence is the value that a person places on an outcome.Valence is the value that a person places on an outcome. .
  115. 115. THEORIES OF MOTIVATION . EXPECTANCY INSTRUMENTALITY VALENCEX X MOTIVATION
  116. 116. LEADERSHIP •Leadership refers to the ability of one individual to influence others. •The influence is exercised to change the behavior of others. •The person influencing others possesses a set of qualities which he/she uses to influence others. •It is a group phenomenon. It involves interaction between two or more people. .
  117. 117. LEADERSHIP 3 TYPES OF INFLUENCE PATTERNS Compliance – It occurs when people are influenced to do something against their will because they are forced into doing that. People may obey because the repercussions of failure to do so may have serious consequences. Compliant behaviors get easily extinguished when the leader is out of sight. .
  118. 118. LEADERSHIP 3 TYPES OF INFLUENCE PATTERNS Identification –It relates to the situation when people perform what the leader wants them to because they like him / her. People want to put forth the effort to please the person. This liking may be either because the leader is attractive, likeable, acts a role model. Such a leader has charisma and people voluntarily obey him. .
  119. 119. LEADERSHIP 3 TYPES OF INFLUENCE PATTERNS Internalization– It occurs when followers are convinced that acting as per leaders directions serves their interests best. In such cases the followers pay heed to the managers wishes, trusting her judgement and advice. .
  120. 120. Interpersonal role Informational role Decisional role Communication Traditional Management Human Resource Management Networking .
  121. 121. . LEADERSHIP STYLES •Leadership style is the typical approach a particular person uses to lead people. •The behavior a leader exhibits during supervision of subordinates is known as leadership style. •This study focuses in what the leader actually does in getting work accomplished through people. •A leader should change his style to suit the situation.
  122. 122. LEADERSHIP STYLES . AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP •Leaders who adopt this style retain all the authority and decision making power. •They do not consider employees’ suggestions, opinions or views. •They instruct the subordinates on ‘what to do’ as well as ‘how to do’ a job •It is useful only when decision has to be made immediately and the time and situation does not permit consultation and discussion. •Eg : Adolph Hitler , Saddam Hussain
  123. 123. LEADERSHIP STYLES . CONSULTATIVE or PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP •Consultative leaders encourage employees to participate in decision making. •The leader listens to subordinates ideas and opinions, but takes the final decision himself. •They allow both upward and downward communication. •He encourages his subordinates to express their suggestions, ideas and feelings
  124. 124. LEADERSHIP STYLES . BUREAUCRATIC LEADERSHIP •In this style of leadership leaders set certain rigid rules and regulations and procedures. Both leaders and their subordinates follow these rules. •They carry out their tasks in a mechanical way, without a sense of commitment towards the organization. •Leaders are empowered on the basis of the position they hold. •Followers are promoted based on their ability to conform to the rules.
  125. 125. LEADERSHIP STYLES . MUSHROOM MANAGEMENT •In the mushroom management style you get to do all the work that the leader does not want to do. •They do not communicate so you are not aware of their plans or anything that might be going on in an organization. •Mushroom managers are often too concerned about their own career and image. •Anyone appearing as a threat to them will be easily held back.
  126. 126. LEADERSHIP STYLES . MICRO MANAGEMENT •The manager in question acts as if the subordinate is incapable of doing the job, giving close instructions and checking everything the person does. •They seldom praise and often criticize. •A minor error is normally taken as an evidence of the persons total incompetence.
  127. 127. LEADERSHIP STYLES . •SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP •There is no one right way to lead and manage all situations. •A good leader will find themselves switching between styles according to the people and work they are dealing with. •To choose the most effective leadership style, one must consider: •The skill levels and experience of the members of your team •The work involved , Organizational environment.
  128. 128. LEADERSHIP STYLES . Transformational leadership is a leadership when one or more persons engage with others in such a way that leaders and followers raise one another to higher levels of motivation and morality. - Narayan Murthy
  129. 129. LEADERSHIP STYLES . TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP •Transformational leadership is the ability is to get people to want to change, to improve and be led. •While this leader seeks to transform the organization , there is a promise to the followers too. •They inspire the team with a shared vision of the future. •They are highly visible and spend a lot of time communicating.
  130. 130. LEADERSHIP STYLES . •Transformational leaders do accept that they there will be failures along the way. •They are happy as long as progress is made. •They are very careful on building trust and their personal integrity is a part of the package. •They are good at expressing complicated goals and objectives in simple terms. •They appreciate and encourage careful problem solving among their followers.
  131. 131. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP . FIEDLER’S CONTINGENCY MODEL According to this model leadership requirements depend on the situation facing the leader. The choice of the most appropriate style of leadership depends on whether the overall situation is favorable or unfavorable to the leader. The favorability is analyzed based on the following parameters: Leader- Member relationships – This parameter depends on the extent to which a leader is accepted by his subordinates.
  132. 132. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP . Degree of task structure – This refers to the degree to which the task on hand can be performed efficiently. The leaders position - This refers to the power that the leader is bestowed within the organization. A situation is considered to be favorable to the leader if the scores on all the three dimensions are high.
  133. 133. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP . LPC score (64 and above) ------ Relationship motivated LPC score ( 57 or lower) ------------ Task oriented
  134. 134. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP . HERSEY AND BLANCHARD’S SITUATIONAL THEORY According to the situational theory, the maturity level of the subordinates plays a major role in influencing the leadership style of the superior. The ability of an employee to carry out a particular task and the extent to which he is motivated to perform the task constitutes the maturity of an individual. If the manager gives appropriate guidance to an employee, he is likely to develop the necessary job related abilities in a short time.
  135. 135. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP . Since all employees do not have the same level of competency and commitment leaders have to adopt different leadership styles. According to this model, leadership styles can be categorized into four types – telling, selling, participating, delegating Telling- When an employee is low in his ability to perform as well as willingness to perform, the manager needs to adopt the telling style i.e he must constantly give directions to the employee. (low ability-low willingness) Selling - When an employee is low in ability but high in willingness to perform. (low ability- high willingness)
  136. 136. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP . Participating- When an employee is capable of performing but not willing to perform the task. (High ability – low willingness) Delegate –If an employee is capable, and is also willing to carry out the task then the manager can simply delegate. (High ability – high willingness)
  137. 137. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY The fact that leaders act very differently towards different subordinates has given rise to the LMX theory of leadership. According to George Green and associates, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of subordinates. This small group of subordinates is referred to as the in-group while the rest are referred to as out group. The leaders trust the subordinates, who belong to in groups, give them more attention, interact with them frequently and offer them special privileges. .
  138. 138. CONTINGENCY APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP LEADER- MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY The out group people get less of the leaders time and attention. Also their interactions are less frequent. Research has indicated that generally leaders favor the people who have attitudes and personality characteristics that are similar to their own. This theory suggests that the in group people receive high performance ratings and thus obtain rewards and promotions quickly. Research has supported the theory by proving that leaders do differentiate among subordinates not randomly but on the basis of their performance. .
  139. 139. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE  Organizational structure indicates the organization’s hierarchy and authority structure.  It is a formal allocation of work roles and administrative mechanisms to control and integrate work activities.  It defines how job tasks are formally divided, grouped and coordinated.  It is an established pattern of relationships among various components or parts of the organization.
  140. 140. ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE  Organization structure requires to respond to two basic issues:  Division of labour among its members  Coordination of what has been divided  Organizational structure needs five elements to be addressed:  Division of labour  Span of control  Delegation of authority  Departmentalization  Centralization  Decentralization
  141. 141. WHY ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE?  Facilitates management  Encourages growth and diversification  Facilitates the optimum use of technological improvement  Encourages proper use of human resources  Stimulates creativity
  142. 142. DIVISION OF LABOUR  Division of labour refers to the process of dividing the total task of an organization into successively smaller jobs.  Job Specialization is an0ther term for division of labor.  Rather than doing the entire job by one individual it is broken down into steps, each step being completed by a separate individual.  Individuals tend to perform better and specialize in doing part of an activity than the entire activity.
  143. 143. DIVISION OF LABOUR While analyzing the results of a division of labour, a distinction is made between line and staff activities. Examples of line activities : painting, engineering, etc Examples of staff activities : Legal, Accounting, HR etc
  144. 144. SPAN OF CONTROL  Span of control is also termed as span of authority.  It refers to the number of subordinates a manager can effectively supervise.  Knowing span of control is necessary because managers / executives have limited time and ability.  HOW MANY SUBORDINATES CAN A MANAGER EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY SUPERVISE?
  145. 145. SPAN OF CONTROL  When the span becomes too large, subordinate performance suffers.  Also when the span is small, it suffers from problems like increased levels of management, complexity in the vertical communication, and discouraging subordinate / employee autonomy.  Experts vary on the ideal size of span of control.  According to Hamilton’s thesis, “ An average human brain finds it effective scope in handling from three to six other brains”
  146. 146. DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY  Delegation of authority answers questions for employees such as “ Who do I go if I have a problem” or “ Who is my reporting manager”  Technically it refers to the sharing of power with another for the performance of certain tasks.  A manager- superior delegates authority to his subordinates. However the superior at the same time still retains authority.  An unbroken line of authority that extends from the top of the organization to the lowest is called the ‘chain of command’
  147. 147.  It comprises of 3 elements:  Entrustment of work to another for performance  Grant of power ro be exercised to perform the work.  Creation of an obligation on the part of the person accepting delegation.
  148. 148. CENTRALIZATION  The term centralization refers to the degree to which decision making is concentrated at a single point in the organization.  Top management makes the organization’s key decisions with little or no input from lower level personnel.  In other words centralization is the reservation of authority by individual managers with themselves.  Absolute centralization is impossible in any organization.
  149. 149. DECENTRALIZATION  It is a systematic effort to delegate authority to the lower levels of organization.  The lower level personnel provide input or are actually given the discretion to make decision.  Thus the essence of decentralization is the transference of authority from a higher level to a lower level.  Decentralization respects individual employees for their worth.  Absolute decentralization is impossible.
  150. 150. DEPARTMENTALIZATION  The basis by which jobs are grouped together is called departmentalization.  The central issue regarding departmentalization is the degree of similarity among the jobs within the department.  Functional departmentalization – This is the most popular way to group activities.  Product departmentalization – Here the departments are created on basis of products produced by the organization.  Process departmentalization – In this method various manufacturing processes are taken as basis for dividing the activities.
  151. 151.  Territorial departmentalization – Territorial departmentalization takes place when an enterprise is organized into a number of divisions located in different areas.  Customer departmentalization – A final type of departmentalization is to on the basis of particular type of customer the organization seeks to cater.
  152. 152. LIFE CYCLE OF ORGANIZATION  Quinn and Cameron have proposed 4 major stages to describe an organization’s life cycle.  Entrepreneurial stage  Every organization starts with the entrepreneurial stage.  The entrepreneur devotes his/her energy in producing and marketing the product.  At this stage size of the organization is too small.  This stage is also called as ‘One man show’ stage
  153. 153. Collectivity Stage  At this stage organization tends to take a formal shape.  Departmentalization starts based on division of labour following a hierarchy of authority.  A strong leadership motivates employees to contribute their maximum for accomplishing organizational goals.
  154. 154. Formalization Stage  At this stage policies, procedures and rules are finalized to formalize the whole organization.  Who will report to whom will be clarified at this stage.  These help managers exercise control over system and coordinate the organizational activities effectively.
  155. 155. Elaboration Stage  The elaboration stage is marked by extensive control systems, rules and procedures.  Individual employees often focus on maintaining the organizational activities.  In order not to allow organization to decline or die this stage needs to be periodically revitalized.  The organization that fails to revitalize itself treads to decline and ultimately dies.

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