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Bipolar Disorder



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  • 1. Bipolar Disorder By: Sabira Gannie
  • 2. What is Bipolar Disorder?
    • Bipolar disorder is a serious mental illness that is characterized by extreme mood swings from mania to depression. Mania is an abnormally elevated mood, while depression is an abnormally low mood.
  • 3. Psychoanalytic Approach
    • The psychoanalytic approach to bipolar disorder says that the cause of both manic/depressive episodes arise from a low self-concept. Depressive episodes represent this, while manic episodes represent a defense against the low self-concept.
  • 4. Trait Approach
    • Mania:
    • Excessive happiness, irritability, less need for sleep, racing thoughts, increased energy, etc.
    • Depression:
    • Sadness, loss of energy, increased need for sleep, change in appetite, thoughts of death/suicide, etc.
  • 5. Biological Approach
    • The biological approach to bipolar disorder suggests that high or low levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, serotonin, or norepinephrine is the cause.
  • 6. Humanistic Approach
    • The humanistic approach suggests that bipolar disorder occurs when circumstances stop or hinder a person and force them to loose there drive toward self-actualization, and the ultimate fulfillment of one’s dreams, desires, and potential.
  • 7. Behavioral and Social Learning Approach
    • The behavioral/social learning approach to bipolar disorder suggests that these behaviors are learned and therefore can be unlearned.
  • 8. Cognitive Approach
    • Individuals in a manic phase often have grandiose thoughts, such as one being capable of doing anything. Those in a depressive phase often have self-deprecating thoughts, such as “I am terrible at this, or why can’t I do anything right?”
  • 9. References: A Brief history of bipolar disorder . (1995). Retrieved from Bipolar disorder . (2008). Retrieved from disorder/complete-index.shtml Bowden, C.. (2010). Cognitive Dysfunction in Bipolar Disorder: A Guide for Clinicians. The American Journal of Psychiatry,   167 (2), 223.  Retrieved May 21, 2010, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 1954976121). Cavanagh, J., Schwannauer, M., Power, M., & Goodwin, G. (2009). A novel scale for measuring mixed states in bipolar disorder. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy , 16 (6), 497-509. doi:10.1002/cpp.633. Duffy, A. (2009). The Early Course of Bipolar Disorder in Youth at Familial Risk. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry , 18 (3), 200-205. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database. Friedman, S.. (2009). Postpartum Mood Disorders: Genetic Progress and Treatment Paradigms.  The American Journal of Psychiatry,   166 (11), 1201-4.  Retrieved May 21, 2010, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 1895160381).
  • 10. References:
    • Karen A Landwehr.  (2005). Psychological Treatment of Bipolar Disorder  Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal,   28 (4), 415-416.  Retrieved May 21, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 828688031).
    • Morris, C., Miklowitz, D., & Waxmonsky, J. (2007). Family-focused treatment for bipolar disorder in adults and youth. Journal of Clinical Psychology , 63 (5), 433-445. doi:10.1002/jclp.20359.
    • (2010). Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders. Current Medical Literature: Psychiatry , 21 (1), 31-43. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
    • Tseng, K., & Young, J.. (2010). Cognitive-Behavior Therapy for Severe Mental Illness: An Illustrated Guide. The American Journal of Psychiatry,   167 (1), 108.  Retrieved May 21, 2010, from Platinum Periodicals. (Document ID: 1935566231).
    • van Baalen, D. (2010). Gestalt Therapy and Bipolar Disorder. Gestalt Review , 14 (1), 71-88. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.
    • Young, B. (2010). The Role of Psychotherapy in the Bipolar Disorders. Annals of the American Psychotherapy Association , 13 (1), 42-49. Retrieved from Academic Search Complete database.